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Full text of "Cities of Northern and Central Italy"

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http://www.archive.org/details/citiesofnorthern01hareuoft 



CITIES OF NORTHERN AND 
CENTRAL ITALY 



ON THE RIVIERAS, AND IN PIEDMONT 
AND LOMBARDV 






CITIES OF 

NORTHERN AND CENTRAL 

ITALY 



By AUGUSTUS J. C. HARE 

AUTHOR OF "walks IN ROME," "DAYS NEAR ROME," ETC 



IN THREE VOLUMES 
I . 

ON THE RIVIERAS, AND IN PIEDMONT 
AND LOMBARDY 



LONDON 

DALDY, ISBISTER & CO 

56, LUDGATE HILL 

1876 
The Right 0/ Translation is ReservedA 




JOHN CHILDS AND SON, PRINTERS. 




PREFACE. 



TN 1875 almost all the places described in these 
volumes were carefully revisited, in order to make 
the information they contain, especially the accounts of 
the Italian picture-galleries, as correct as possible up 
to the present time. But in giving to others what 
has been at once the companion and employment of 
many years, I am only too conscious of the imperfec- 
tions of my work — of how much better descriptions 
might be given, of the endless amount which remains 
unsaid. Bearing Italy ever in my heart, I can only 
hope that others, better fitted, will be led to drink at 
the great fountain which it is impossible to exhaust, 
though those who have once been refreshed by it, 
will always long to return. 

The book is called " Cities of Northern and Central 
Italy" because almost all the interest of these dis- 
tricts is confined to the towns, but it also treats of 



vi PREFACE. 

the whole country lying between the Alps and that 
which is described in " Days near Rome." 

The Illustrations, with very few exceptions, are 
from my own sketches taken on the spot, and trans- 
ferred to wood by the kindness and skill of Mr. T. 
Sulman. 

Augustus J. C. Hare. 

Holmhurst, Jan., 1876. 






CONTENTS. 



FAGB 
INTRODUCTORY ix 

CHAPTER I. 

THE RIVIERA DI PONENTE I 

CHAPTER II. 

GENOA 29 

CHAPTER III. 

THE RIVIERA DI LEVANTE — CARRARA AND MASSA ... 58 

CHAPTER IV. 

TURIN 74 

CHAPTER V. 

THE WALDENSES 96 

CHAPTER VI. 

THE VAL d'AOSTA I08 

CHAPTER VII. 

VERCELLI AND NOVARA IH 

CHAPTER VIII. 

MILAN 121 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

PAGB 
PAVIA 166 

CHAPTER X. 

MONZA AND COMO I79 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE ITALIAN LAKES I9I 

CHAPTER XII. 

BKRGAMO AND THE LAGO D'ISEO 2l6 

CHAPTER XIII. 

CREMONA 230 

CHAPTER XIV. 

»RESCIA 241 

CHAPTER XV. 

THE LAGO DI GARDA 255 

CHAPTER XVI. 

VERONA 262 

CHAPTER XVII. 

MANTUA 302 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

VICENZA . . . 221 

CHAPTER XIX. 

PADUA AND THE EUGANEAN HILLS 335 

CHAPTER XX. 

BASSANO AND THE FRIULIAN ALPS 367 



INTRODUCTORY. 

•^ I ''HE old days of Italian travel are already beginning to 

ERRATA, VOL. I. 

Page 370, line S from bottom, read S. MarHno di Castrozza 

Page 373, line 20, for Tai read Pieve 

Page 374, below the woodcut, for Tai Cadore read Pieve Cadore 



associations of a quiet life which was gilded by' 'aT 
Italian loveliness alone can bestow of its own tender beauty. 
The arrangements of vetturino travel warded off the little 
rubs and collisions and discomforts which are inevitable 
now, and the mind was left perfectly free to drink in the sur- 
rounding enjoyment. The slow approach to each long- 
heard of but unseen city, gradually leading up, as the sur- 
roundings of all cities do, to its own peculiar characteristics, 
gave a very different feeling towards it to that which is 
produced by rushing into a railway station — with an im. 
pending struggle for luggage and places in an omnibus — • 
which, in fact, is probably no feeling at all. While, in the 
VOL. I. a 



8 CONTENTS. 

CHAPTER IX. 

PAGB 
PAVIA 166 

CHAPTER X. 

MONZA AND COMO I79 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE ITALIAN LAKES I9I 

CHAPTER XII. 
BmtGAMO AND THE LAGO D'ISEO 2l6 

VERONA-^^ : 262 

CHAPTER XVII. 

MANTUA ,02 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

VICENZA . . , 221 

CHAPTER XIX. 

PADUA AND THE EUGANEAN HILLS 335 

CHAPTER XX. 

BASSANO AND THE FRIULIAN ALPS 367 



INTRODUCTORY. 



THE old days of Italian travel are already beginning to 
pass out of recollection — the happy old days, when with 
slow-trotting horses and jangling bells, we lived for weeks 
in our vetturino carriage as in a house, and made ourselves 
thoroughly comfortable there, halting at midday for luncheon, 
with pleasant hours for wandering over unknown towns, and 
gathering flowers, and making discoveries in the churches 
and convents near our resting-place. All that we saw then 
remains impressed upon our recollection as a series of 
beautiful pictures set in a frame-work of the home-like 
associations of a quiet life which was gilded by all that 
Italian loveliness alone can bestow of its own tender beauty. 
The arrangements of vetturino travel warded off the little 
rubs and collisions and discomforts which are inevitable 
now, and the mind was left perfectly free to drink in the sur- 
rounding enjoyment. The slow approach to each long- 
heard of but unseen city, gradually leading up, as the sur- 
roundings of all cities do, to its OA\'n peculiar characteristics, 
gave a very different feeling towards it to that which is 
produced by rushing into a railway station — with an im. 
pending struggle for luggage and places in an omnibus — 
which, in fact, is probably no feeling at all. While, in the 
VOL. I. a 



X ITALIAN CITIES. 

many hours spent in plodding over the weary surface of a 
Ifeatureless country, we had time for so studying the marvel- 
lous story of the place we were about to visit, that when we 
saw it, it was engraved for ever on the brain, with its past 
associations and its present beauties combined. 

Still, there is much to be grateful for in the convenience of 
modem travel, and indeed many who could not otherwise 
explore Italy at all, are now, by its network of railways, en- 
abled to do so. Almost every Italian to\vn is now connected 
by rail with its neighbours, and therefore, in these volumes, 
the traveller will be supposed to follow the principal rail- 
ways from one city to another, and to make excursions 
from each. The interest of Northern and Central Italy is 
almost entirely confined to its towns. The only parts of the 
country which are beautiful, are just those lake and moun- 
tain districts near the Alps and Apennines where railways 
cannot easily penetrate, and so, in point of scenery, nothing 
need be lost, though the chief disadvantage of Italian rail- 
ways for foreigners lies in the temptation they offer for 
hurrying straight through from one of the larger towns to 
another, and for passing over the smaller cities, and, still 
more, places like Spezia and Massa-Ducale, while the re- 
splendent loveliness of that especial neighbourhood should 
call for a halt. 

The journey to Italy is now absolutely without difficulties, 
and, if travellers take that way, which is the nearest, they 
will find the redoubted tunnel of the Mont Cenis so like 
other tunnels, that all descriptions of '* sensations " in going 
through it must be purely imaginary. But the most desir- 
able approach is that by the Cornice road along the Riviera 
di Ponente. Then, after the dreary wind-stricken plains of 



INTRODUCTORY. xi 

Central France, and the stony arid hills of Provence, one 
enters Italy at Mentone by a portal like the gates of Paradise, 
and is plunged at once into the land of the citron and 
myrtle, of palms and aloes and cyclamen. Of course one 
must not expect that all Italy will be like these Riviera 
roads, and one is, as far as scenery goes, receiving the best 
first, but then it is charming to feel the whole of one's ideal 
realised at the very outset. Except in the country near the 
Italian lakes, in the Alps of Friuli, at Spezia and Massa, and 
in the great valleys of Tuscany and Umbria, there is not 
much beauty of scenery to be found afterwards. It is 
through the above-mentioned valleys however, that the 
principal railway from Florence to Rome passes, and if one 
were to select a single day's journey as the most interesting 
in the world, this must be chosen. There is scarcely a 
minute in the day in which one can afford to leave the 
window of the railway carriage, scarcely a place one passes 
through in which one does not long to linger, and which 
would not amply repay a careful examination. First, we 
have the rich Arno valley, with its visions of old convents, 
and castles with serrated towers, standing on the crests of 
hillsides covered with a wealth of olives and peach-trees, and 
themselves shut in by ravines of hoary snow-tipped moun- 
tains ; — of villages and towns of quaint houses, all arches 
and balconies, with projecting tiled roofs stained golden 
with lichen, and with masses of still more golden Indian 
com hanging from the railings of their outside staircases. 
Then, we have a strange volcanic district of umber-coloured 
uplands, tossed and rent into every possible contortion by 
some forgotten eruption. Then Arezzo and Cortona rise on 
their embattled heights, and Thrasymene stretches out its 



xn ITALIAN CITIES. 

waste of reedy apple-green waters, melting into the softest of 
blue distances : Perugia watches the valley from its hillside ; 
the convent of Assisi on its mighty tiers of arches strides for- 
ward towards the plain ; Trevi clambers up a hill so steep, 
that every house rises just above the roof of its neighbour, 
with a clear view towards the sky ; the tiny temple of the 
Clitumnus looks down upon its limpid rivulet ; the huge 
castle and cathedral of beautiful Spoleto are backed by the 
ilex-clothed mountain of San Luca ; a fissure in the brown 
hill behind Terni marks the site of the famous waterfall \ 
and all this beauty comes to a climax at Nami, where the 
river Nar forces itself through a cleft in the huge rocks be- 
neath the mediaeval city, and is spanned by the mighty 
arches of the bridge of Augustus. Beyond this we enter 
the Campagna, grim and desolate, with buffaloes feeding 
amid its withered vegetation, and, as the malaria-bearing 
vapours of evening rise, and daylight dies out in a red streak 
behind an awful solemn dome, the very sight of which must 
send a thrill through the hearts of all who recognise it, the 
train passes through a rift in a gigantic wall, hisses under 
the shadow of a dim temple which we are told is Minerva- 
Medica, and, on the platform of an immense modem station, 
the porters call out Rome. 

This is, perhaps, the most interesting day, but it is a type 
of many days of Italian travel, and all these places should 
be, not passed through, but sojourned in, and after being 
introduced to the places themselves, one should make 
acquaintance with their surroundings which are almost as 
important. 

Not to be disappointed in Italy as in every thing else, it 
is necessary not to expect too much, and hurried travellers 



INTRODUCTORY. xiii 

generally will be disappointed, for it is in the beauty of her 
details that Italy surpasses all other countries, and details 
take time to find out and appreciate. Compare most of 
her buildings in their entirety with similar buildings in Eng- 
land, much more in France and Germany, and they will be 
found very inferior. There is no castle in Italy of the im- 
portance of Raby or Alnwick ; and, with the sole exception 
of Caprarola, there is no private palace so fine as Hatfield, 
Burleigh, or Longleat. There is no ruin half so beautiful as 
Tintern or Rievaux. There is no cathedral so stately as 
Durham, Lincoln, or Salisbury ; for Milan, with its contemp- 
tible exterior, cannot enter the lists at all ; S. Mark's is 
more a mosque than a church ; Siena is but a glorious 
fragment; and Orvieto, with all its celestial external beauty, 
is only redeemed by its frescoes from mediocrity within. 
But when we once leave general forms to consider details, 
what a labyrinth of glory is opened to us, where, instead of the 
rugged outlines and expressionless features of our mediaeval 
architects and painters, we have the delicate workmanship of 
a Nino or Giovanni Pisano, or the inspiration of a Fra 
Angelico or an Orcagna. In almost every alley of every 
quiet country town, the past lives still in some lovely 
statuette, some exquisite wreath of sculptured foliage, or 
some slight but delicate fresco, a variety of beauty which 
no English architect or sculptor has ever dreamed of, and 
which to English art in all ages would have been simply 
unattainable. Most beautiful of all, perhaps, are the tombs, 
for the Italians of the Middle Ages never failed to enshrine 
their dead in all that was loveliest and best. There are no 
monuments in the world more touching than those of 
Gaston de Foix at Milan, Medea Colleoni at Bergamo, 



sb ITALIAN CITIES. 

Barbara Ordelaffi at Forli, and Guidarello Guidarelli at 
Ravenna. 

Those who would carry away the pleasantest recollections 
of Italy should also certainly not sight-see aiery day. The 
motto of Clough — 

' Each day has got its sight to see, 
Each day should put to profit be.' 

— is very moral and edifying, but most unpleasant to carry 
out At least certainly the sight-seeing days will become all 
the more profitable from having interludes, when it is not 
necessary to give oneself a stiff neck over staring at frescoed 
ceilings, and to addle one's brain by walking through miles 
of pictures and hundreds of churches, without giving oneself 
time to enjoy them. Oh no, by all means digest what you 
have seen ; take a fresh breath, think a little what it has all 
been about, and then begin again. 

Another thing which is necessary — most necessary — to 
the pleasure of Italian travel, is not to go forth in a spirit 
of antagonism to the inhabitants, and with the impression 
that life in Italy is to be a prolonged struggle against extor- 
tion and incivility. Except in the old kingdom of Naples 
(where the characteristics are entirely different) there is no 
country where it is so little necessary even to look forward 
to such things as possible. A traveller will be cheated ^ 
oftener in a week's tour in England than in a year's residence 
in Italy. During six whole winters spent at Rome, and 
years of travel in all the other parts of Italy, the author 
cannot recall a single act or word of an Italian — not 
Neapolitan — of which he can justly complain ; but, on the 
contrary, has an overflowing recollection of the disinterested 
courtesy, and the unselfish and often most undeserved kind- 



INTRODUCTORY. . xt 

ness with which he has universally been treated. There is 
scarcely an Italian nobleman, whose house, with all it 
contains, would not be placed at the disposition of a 
wayfarer who found himself in an out-of-the-way place where 
there was no inn or where the inn was unbearable ; there 
is scarcely a shopkeeper, who would not send his boy to show 
you the way to a church, one, two, or even three streets 
distant : there is scarcely a carriage which would not be 
stopped to offer you a lift, if they saw you looked tired by 
the wayside : scarcely a woman who would not give you a 
chair (expecting nothing) if you were standing drawing near 
her house : not a beggar who would not receive " Cara mia, 
scusatemi " as an all-sufficient negative, and who, if a kindly 
smile were added, would not send you away with a 
benediction in her heart as well as on her lips. Nothing 
can be obtained from an Italian by compulsion. A friendly 
look and cheery word will win almost anything, but Italians 
will not be driven, and the browbeating manner, which is so 
Gommon with English and Americans, even the commonest 
facchino regards and speaks of as mere vulgar insolence, 
and treats accordingly. Travellers, however, are beginning, 
though only beginning, to learn that difference of caste in 
Italy does not give an opening for the discourtesies in which 
they are wont to indulge to those they consider their inferiors 
in the north, and they are beginning to see that Italian 
dukes and marquises are quite as courteous and thoughtful 
for their vigneroli, or their pecorai^ as for their equals ; and 
that the Italian character is so constituted that a certain 
amount of friendly familiarity on the part of the superior 
never leads to disrespect in the inferior. Unfortunately 
they do not always stay long enough to find this 



xvi ITALIAN CITIES. 

out, and the bad impression one set of travellers leaves, 
another pays the penalty of. The horrible ill-breeding of 
our countrymen never struck me more than one day at 
Porlezza. A clean, pleasing Italian woman had arranged 
a pretty little caffe' near the landing-place. The Venetian 
blinds kept out the burning sun ; the deal tables were laid 
with snowy linen ; the brick floor was scoured till not a speck 
of dust remained. The diligences arrived, and a crowd of 
English and American women rushed in while waiting for 
the boat, thought they would have some lemonade, then 
thought they would not, shook out the dust from their 
clothes, brushed themselves with the padrona's brushes, 
laid down their dirty travelling bags on all the clean table- 
cloths, chattered and scolded for half an hour, declaimed 
upon the miseries of Italian travel, ordered nothing, and 
■paid for nothing; and, when the steamer arrived, flounced 
out without even a syllable of thanks or recognition. No 
wonder that the woman said her own pigs would have 
behaved better. It was quite true. Yet it was by no 
means a singular incident. 

With every year which an Englishman passes in Italy, a 
new veil of the suspicion with which he entered it will be 
swept away, only it is a pity that his enjoyment should be 
marred at the beginning. Foreigners will find that (though 
the Sardinians and Milanese have, it must be allowed, very 
dirty habits), Italian men are generally as courteous, brave, 
and high-minded, as they are almost universally handsome ; 
that the women are as kind and modest as they are utterly 
without affectation; and that, though the bugbears of 
Protestant story books have certainly existed, the parish 
priests, and even the monks, as a general rule, are most 



INTRO D UCTOR K xvii 

devoted single-minded Christians, living amongst and for 
the people under their care. Cases of ecclesiastical im- 
morality are exceedingly rare, quite as rare, if we may judge 
by our newspapers, as in Protestant countries ; and, if care- 
fully inquired into, it will be found that most of the 
sensational stories told are taken out of — Boccaccio ! Of 
course, much must naturally remain which one of a different 
faith may deeply regret ; but Englishmen are apt, and chiefly 
on religious subjects, to accept old prejudices as facts, and 
to judge without knowledge. Especially is it impossible for 
*' Protestants " to assert, as they so often do, the point where 
simple reverence for a Cross and Him who hung upon it 
becomes '* Idolatry," while there are i^^fi indeed who inherit 
the spirit with which Sir Thomas Brown wrote, " I can 
dispense with my hat at the sight of a cross, but not with 
a thought of my Redeemer." 

" Brigands," which north of Rome is only a fine name for 
robbers, are much rarer in Italy than in England, so rare 
indeed, that any case of a foreigner being attacked never 
fails to make a sensation which would be highly gratifying to 
the feelings of any injured foreigner if it were accorded to him 
in London. The few cases of murder in Italy are almost 
always the result of jealousy in love, and it has often been 
comical to see how, at Leghorn, where the galley slaves 
bear the cause of their condemnation inscribed upon their 
vest, the assassino per amore is tolerably sure of a good deal 
of interest and sympathy, which is often very substantially 
shewn — indeed, such crimes never inspire much horror, and 
the place where "questo poveretto ha ammazzato quella 
poveretta " is very touchingly pointed out to strangers. 

In regard to hotel life, it cannot be too much urged, for 



xvia ITALIAN CITIES, 

the real comfort of travellers as well as for their credit with 
the natives, that the vulgar habits of bargaining, inculcated 
by Murray and other hand-books, are greatly to be depre- 
cated, and only lead to suspicion and resentment Italians 
are not a nation of cheats, and cases of overcharge at inns 
are most unusual, except at great Anglicised hotels, where 
they have been gradually brought about through the perqui- 
site-money demanded by couriers. When a large party are 
travelling together, an arrangement may be asked for on 
entering a large hotel, by which a considerable reduction 
may be obtained upon the rooms. Three francs for a 
good room in a good hotel is a fair price ; in the northern 
towns, Verona, Vicenza, Padua, &c, it is seldom more 
than two francs or two francs and a half. But in the 
smaller hotels, or for a single person, it is wiser never 
to bargain, but, if a charge appears too high on seeing the 
bill, civilly to mention it, when, if there is no especial 
reason for it, it is almost certain to be cheerfully with- 
drawn. But the difference of prices in bills cannot always 
fairly be laid to the charge of the hotel keepers ; they 
are rather owing to the different prices in the towns, or to 
the local taxes on comestibles, which would be equally 
felt if the traveller was residing in the place in his own 
house. For instance, at Piacenza, where everything is 
most cheap and abundant, prices are absurdly low, whereas 
as at Genoa (only a few hours distant by rail) they are 
naturally much higher, as the local taxes are very high, and 
milk, butter, &c., have to be brought from Milan, and other 
things from a great distance. 

Travellers, who are at all particular, may fancy themselves 
cut off from much of interest in the smaller places by want 



INTRODUCrORY. xix 

of comfortable accommodation. Such persons will do 
well, where there are many excursions to be made, to select 
centres like the Grand Hotel at Turin; the Universo at 
Lucca ; or the Hotel Brufani at Perugia, and to make them 
from thence. In the very small towns, however, such as 
Volterra, Borgo S. Sepolcro, and Assisi, the accommoda- 
tion is often far better than in many of the large cities, for 
instance, than in Siena, where a good hotel is greatly 
needed. In the Lombard towns, Verona, Vicenza, Padua, 
&c., the best inns are good and very equal, and those who 
stay at any of these places as much as four days will do well 
to conform to the universal Italian custom, and -^diy pensione 
(all included) of six francs a day. 

Those who have travelled in Italy many years ago will ob- 
serve how greatly the character of the country has changed 
since its small courts have been swept away. With the differ 
ences of costume and of feeling, the old proverbs and stories 
and customs are gradually dying out. Travellers will view 
these changes with different eyes. That Venice and Milan 
should have thrown off the hated yoke of Austria and united 
themselves to the country to which they always wished to 
belong, no one can fail to rejoice, and the cursory observer 
may be induced by the English press, or by the statements 
of the native mezzo ceto, who are almost entirely in its favour, to 
believe that the wish for a united Italy was universal. Those 
who stay longer, and who make a real acquaintance with the 
people, will find that in most of the central states the feeling 
of the aristocracy and of the contadini is almost universally 
against the present state of things. Not only are they 
ground down by taxes, which in some of the states, especially 
in Tuscany, were almost unknown before, but the so-called 



XX ITALIAN CITIES. 

liberal rule is really one of tyranny and force. The people 
of Ravenna were forced to the polling-booth at the point of 
the bayonet When it was suspected (falsely suspected) 
that Count Saffi and various other illustrious Italians would 
influence the elections at Forli, they were arrested and im- 
prisoned, with all the hardships and privations of malefac- 
tors, first in the castle of Spoleto, and thennn that of Perugia, 
for several months, and eventually were released without 
any compensation except the avowal that it had been all a 
mistake, after the elections had taken place. Pisa and Lucca, 
which were perhaps especially favoured under the grand- 
ducal rule, are probably the cities which are most discon- 
tented under the present state of things. Houses there 
which were taxed 50 francs under the old government are 
now taxed 560 francs. 

The abolition of the religious institutions has also been 
grievously felt throughout the country, and there are few 
even of the friends of Italian unity who have not had 
personal reason to experience its injustice. When " Days 
near Rome" appeared, one of the Reviews regretted that 
its author should not rejoice that Italians were no longer 
called upon " to support swarms of idlers in vestments, and 
hordes of sturdy beggars in rags." This is exactly what 
Italians, with regard to the old ecclesiastical institutions, were 
not called upon to do. The convents and monasteries were 
richly endowed ; they had no need of being supported. It 
was, on the contrary, rather they who supported the needy, 
the sick, the helpless, and the blind amongst the people, 
who received their daily dole of bread and soup from the 
convent charities. When the marriage portions of the nuns 
were stolen by the Government, there was scarcely any family 



INTRODUCTORY. xxi 

of the upper classes throughout Central Italy which did not 
suffer ; for almost all had a sister, aunt, or cousin " in reli- 
gion," upon whom a portion of i,ooo/., 5,000/., or 10,000/., 
had been bestowed, and who was thrown back helpless upon 
their hands, her fortune confiscated, and with an irregularly 
paid pension of a few pence a day, quite insufficient for the 
most miserable subsistence. The English press is slow to 
see the injustice of these things when it affects other 
nations ; it is strange that it should not see it as affecting 
Englishmen, as in the case of the large tract of land which 
was purchased by the Rev. E. Douglass upon the Esquiline, 
and which was confiscated by the Government on the plea 
that it had been used for religious purposes. 

Those who declaim so loudly upon the advantages of 
Italian unity are often unaware of the extreme difference 
which exists between the people and the language in the 
North and South of Italy — that a Venetian would not in the 
least be able to understand a Neapolitan and vice versa. 
This difference often comes out when the absurd red-tapeism 
of the Government is put into action. For instance, when 
the heat makes it impossible for the troops in Naples and 
Palermo to support their winter clothing, the soldiers shiver- 
ing in the icy streets of Parma and Piacenza are put into 
brown hoUand, because throughout " United Italy " the 
same order must take effect ! 

Where the natives have suffered, foreigners have reaped 
many advantages from the union in the absence of weari- 
some custom-houses and requests for passports, and, even 
more in the ease afforded by the universal coinage, though 
it has made things more expensive, as a franc (lod.) is now 
received as an equivalent in all questions of fees to a paul 



xxa ITALIAN CITIES. 

(5/f.). Travellers now find their chief money-difficulty in 
the notes of the local banks — " Banca del Popolo " — for a 
small amount, and, in all cases where it is possible, should 
refuse to receive them, as they never circulate beyond 
their own districts, and the banks to which they belong will 
probably break before long ; indeed, the Bank of Genoa, 
the Banca di S. Giorgio, and others, having been allowed 
to circulate notes to six times the amount of the money they 
held, have naturally broken long ago, and their notes are 
now absolutely valueless. Specimens of the ancient coinage 
(described by Murray as still in circulation) are now scarcely 
even to be obtained as curiosities. Only one town in Italy 
retains its especial coinage — the Republic of San Marino. 

The characteristics of the great Italian cities are well 
summed up in the proverb : " Milano la grande, Venegia 
la ricca, Genova la superba, Bologna la grassa, Firenze la 
bella, Padova la dotta, Ravenna I'antica, Roma la santa." 
They are wonderfully different, these great cities, quite as if 
they belonged to different countries, and so indeed they 
have, for there has been no national history common to all, 
but each has its own individual sovereignty ; its own chro- 
nicle ; its own politics, domestic and foreign ; its own saints, 
peculiarly to be revered — patrons in peace, and protectors 
in war ; its own phase of architecture ; its own passion in 
architectural material, brick or stone, marble or terra-cotta ; 
often its own language ; always its own proverbs, its own 
superstitions, and its own ballads. 

The smaller towns repeat in extreme miniature the larger 
cities to which they have been annexed by rule or alliance. 
Thus the characteristics of Udine and Vicenza repeat Venice, 
and Pistoia and Prate repeat Florence. 



INTRODUCTORY. 



The history of Italy, owing to the complete individuality 
of its different states, which never have been nominally 
united till a few years ago, and never have been sympatheti- 
cally united at all, is chiefly interesting when it treats of 
internal questions. The different invasions of foreign nations 
serve only as great historic landmarks amid all that has to 
be told and learnt of the dealings of the various Italian 
States and their rulers with each other. Of these, in the 
fifteenth century, there were twenty petty states, most of 
them with tyrants of their own, in Romagna and Le Marche 
alone, viz. : — 

Ferrara, held as a marquisate by the Este. 

. Bentivogli. 

. Polentani. 



Bologna, seigneury 

Ravenna 

Imola 

Faenza . 

Forli . 

Rimini and Cesena . 

Sinigaglia . 

Pesaro . 

Camerino . 

S. Angelo, &c. 

Citta di Castello . 

Perugia . . . 

Fermo 

Urbino, dukedom . 

Spoleto, Id. 

Ancona . 

Assisi 

Foligno . . 

Mercatello, countship 



Alidosi and Sforza. 

Manfredi. 

Ordelaffi and Riarii. 

Malatesta. 

Delia Revere. 

Malatesta and Sforza, 

Varana. 

Brancaleoni. 

Vitelli. 

Baglioni. 

Fogliani. 

Montefeltro. 

not hereditary. 

Republic. 

Id. 

Id. 

Brancaleoni. 



and all these fought with each other — as Giovanni Sanzio 

says in his chronicle : — 

" Cum qual costum che Italia devora 
Dal sempre stare in gran confusione, 
Disjuncta e separata, e disiare, 
L'un state al altre sua destructione." 



xxiv ITALIAN CITIES. 

All the life of the nineteenth century seems to be confined 
to the greater cities. The smaller cities live upon their past 
As Forsyth says : "In their present decline they have the 
air of sullen, negligent stateliness, which often succeeds to 
departed power ; a ceremonious gravity in the men, a 
sympathetic gloominess in the houses, and the worst symp- 
tom that any town can have — silence." Every house which 
boasts of a portico is called a palace, though it is often as 
comfortless as the hovel by its side. Yet in these old cities 
where the grass often grows in the streets, as at Ferrara, 
and where half the space inclosed by the walls is now laid 
out in gardens, as at Forli, the past is tenderly cherished. 
Each house where a great man lived, each famous event 
which occurred there, is marked by an inscription, so that 
the chronicle of the city is written on its own stones ; and 
in the buildings, and the habits and feelings of the people, 
one seems to be living still in the fifteenth century, lighted 
by the sunshine of to-day. 

The pictures and buildings of these otherwise forgotten 
places will always keep them in the recollection of the world, 
and it is only these which attract strangers to them now ; but 
the traveller who will throw himself into the subject will 
find unfailing interest and pleasure in seeing how the natural 
features and opportunities of the place are always repeated 
in the works of all its eminent artists. 

" It is a fact more universally acknowledged than enforced or acted 
upon, that all great painters, of whatever school, have been g[reat only 
in their rendering of what they had seen or felt from early childhood ; 
and that the greatest among them have been the most frank in acknow- 
ledging this their inability to treat anything successfully but that with 
which they had been familiar. The Madonna of Raffaelle was bom 
on the Urbino mountains, Ghirlandajo's is a Florentine, Bellini's a 



INTRODUCTORY. xxy 

Venetian ; tnere is not the slightest effort on the part of any one of these 
great men to paint her as a Jewess." — Ruskin, " Modern Painters." 

" In quiet places, such as Arezzo and Volterra, and Modena and 
Urbino, and Cortona and Perugia, there would grow up a gentle lad who 
from infancy most loved to stand and gaze at the missal paintings in his 
mother's house, and the cena in the monk's refectory, and when he had 
fulfilled some twelve or fifteen years, his parents would give in to his 
wish and send him to some bottega to learn the management of 
colours. 

" Then he would grow to be a man ; and his town would be proud of 
him, and find him the choicest of all work in its churches and its con- 
vents, so that all his days were filled without his ever wandering out of 
reach of his native vesper bells. 

" He would make his dwelling in the heart of his birth-place, close 
under its cathedral, with the tender sadness of the olive hills stretching 
above and around ; his daily labour would lie in the basilicas or monas- 
teries ; he would have a docile band of hopeful pupils with innocent 
eyes of wonder for all he said or did ; he would paint his wife's face for 
the Madonna's, and his little son as a child angel ; he would go out into 
the fields and gather the olive bough, and the com, and the fruits, and 
paint them tenderly on grounds of gold or blue. 

" It must have been a good life — good to its close in the cathedral 
crypt — and so common too ; there were scores such lived out in these 
little towns of Italy, half monastery and half fortress, that were 
scattered over hill and plain, by sea and river, on marsh and mountain, 
from the day-dawn of Cimabue to the afterglow of the Carracci. And 
their work lives after them ; the little towns are all .grey and still and 
half-peopled now ; the iris grows on the ramparts, the canes wave in the 
moats, the shadows sleep in the silent market-place, the great convents 
shelter half-a-dozen monks, the dim nmjestic churches are damp and 
desolate, and have the scent of the sepulchre. 

" But there, above the altars, the wife lives in the Madonna, and the 
child smiles in the angel, and the olive and the wheat are fadeless on 
their ground of gold and blue ; and by the tomb in the crypt the 
sacristan will shade his lantern, and murmurs with a sacred tenderness, 
' Here he sleeps ? ' " — Pascarel. 

The quantity of pictures in the ItaUan churches and gal- 
leries is so enormous that as a rule only the best works are 
mentioned in these volumes, except when they especially 
illustrate some period of local art, or represent a contem- 

VOL. I. b 



xxvi ITALIAN CITIES. 

porary event in any of the places where they occur. There 
are scarcely any good modem works of art in Italy (the 
pictures of Benvenuti in the cathedral of Arezzo are an ex- 
ception), but the way in which art is followed up in Italy is 
at least continuous and regular, and recalls the remark of 
Scipione MafTei,* that " if men paint ill in Italy, at least 
they paint always." 

Those who cannot admire any architecture which is not 
gothic will be disappointed with what they find in Italy, and, 
regardless of style, the exterior of most Italian churches is 
really very ugly. The purest large gothic churches are those 
of Verona. In Siena and Orvieto there is a great admix- 
ture of other styles. Gothic architecture was introduced into 
Italy from Germany, and Tedesco is the name it bore and 
bears. But it was soon "adapted" to the Italian taste, 
Arnolfo (1294) being the first great operator, and after the 
dome, which is to be found in no real gothic cathedral (and of 
which the Pantheon is the only pagan example in Italy) 
was added, with Syrian minarets, such as one sees in S. 
Antonio of Padua, all the rude severity of the northern 
minster began to disappear under a delicate display of 
sculpture, and the vagaries of fantastic art, which seemed 
more suited to the soft skies and pellucid atmosphere. 

The traveller will do well to remember that almost every 
parish church (parrocchia) is closed from 1 2 to 2 or 3 p.m., 
while the other churches, which belong to individuals or 
religious bodies (confraternity) are seldom open after the 
early hours of the morning. 

The real glory of the Italian towns consists not in their 
churches but in their palaces, in which they are tmrivalled 

• " Verona Illustrata." 



INTRODUCTORY. xrvu 

by any other country. The most magnificent of these are 
to be found in Florence, Venice, and Genoa. The greatest 
palace-architects, amongst many, have perhaps been Vig- 
nola, Baldassare Peruzzi, Bramante, Leon-Battista Alberti, 
Sanmichele, and Palladio. 

Turning from towns to the country districts, the vine- 
growing valleys of Tuscany are perhaps the richest and the 
happiest, as well as the most beautiful : — 

" No northern landscape can ever have such interchange of colour as 
these fields and hills in summer. Here the fresh vine foliage, hanging, 
curling, climbing, in all intricacies and graces that ever entered the 
fancies of green leaves. There the tall millet, towering like the plumes 
of warriors, whilst amongst their stalks the golden lizard glitters. Here 
broad swathes of new-mown hay, strewed over with butterflies of every 
hue. There a thread of water runs thick with waving canes. Here the 
shadovry amber of ripe wheat, rustled by wind and darkened by passing 
clouds. There the gnarled olives silver in the sun, and everywhere 
along the edges of the corn and underneath the maples, little grassy 
paths running, and wild rose growing, and acacia thickets tossing, and 
white convolvulus glistening like snow, and across all this confusion of 
foliage and herbage, always the tender dreamy swell of the far moun- 
tains." — Pascarel. 

The Contadini of Tuscany are a most independent and 
prosperous race, who have their own laws for home govern- 
ment, which answer perfectly. The land is all let out by 
the padrone to the contadino, who is hereditary on the 
estate, upon the Mezzaria system (from meta, mezzo) by 
which half the produce of all kinds is given to the padrone, 
the contadino meanwhile paying no rent, being liable to no 
taxes, and the padrone supplying everything except the 
labour. The contadino receives no wages from his 
padrone, but, according to the rules of the different faitorie, 
is in addition compelled to supply so many days' labour 
for him personally, either with oxen or without. From 

b 2 



xxviu ITALIAN CITIES. 

every contadino when a pig is killed, one ham is given 
to the padrone. Every contadino also pays a tribute 
of three or four fat capons at Easter; and, on large 
fattorie, the number of these capons which are sold 
is so large as to produce 300 francs. Sometimes also a 
tribute of eggs is demanded. The " Droit de Seigneur," 
which actually existed in Tuscany till late years, is now 
abandoned, but no contadino can marry without the 
consent of his padrone, and a padrone can insist and often 
does so, upon his contadino marrying — " there is another 
woman wanted," but he occasionally finds himself in diffi- 
culties in this respect, as, after he has ordered his contadino 
to marry, it sometimes happens that no woman can be found 
to accept him. The usual way " far I'amore," however, is 
that the contadino goes, even for four or five years, to sit 
by the fire of his love during the winter, and to walk with 
her in the summer, though never alone, and that then the 
consent of the padrone is asked. In the valleys around 
Signa no girl can be married except in black. A widow is 
always married after dusk (i.e., after the venti quattro), and 
any girl who has previously made a false step is compelled 
to the same seclusion. 

The "families " of the contadini are by no means neces- 
sarily related to one another, though they live in the same 
house, and dwell perfectly harmoniously together. Each 
house has a male and female head who are absolutely 
despotic, and from whose judgment and decision there is no 
appeal. All that the men earn is at once carried to the 
Cappocao ; all that the women earn to the Massaja. If a man 
wants two of the soldi, which he has earned himself, to buy 
some tobacco with, he invariably has to go and ask the 



INTRODUCTORY. xxix 

cappoccio for it. In the morning the cappoccio and mas- 
saja issue their orders : " You, Tonino, Maso, and Pietro 
will do this to-day, and you Teresa, Nina, and Maria will 
do that," and the orders are obeyed implicitly. Neither 
idleness or disobedience are ever allowed for a moment. 
That this despotic rule is felt perfectly to answer is proved 
by the fact that when a new cappoccio or massaja is re- 
quired, the most severe and inflexible peasant is invariably 
chosen. I have known a massaja who was stone blind, and 
who yet ruled with absolute sovereignty. Six or seven 
families often live together under the same heads with the 
most perfect unanimity. If one of the number is ill, he is 
always looked after by the rest before they go out to work, 
and if one becomes maimed or helpless, he is never deserted 
by his " family " even if they are in no way really related. 
Besides the consent of the padrone, the consent of the cap- 
poccio and massaja must also be obtained to a marriage, 
and if a contadino marries without their consent, he is turned 
out of the nest and forced to become a manuak, i.e., a day- 
labourer from 8oc. to ifr. 20c. a-day, which is very different 
to the exalted and honourable position of a contadino. The 
women are chiefly occupied about their home duties, but 
they also have far Perba, i.e., to cut the grass for the beasts. 
In a vintage, also, everyone works ; in the olives only the 
men. The household linen, which is a great subject of 
pride, is purchased by the massaja out of the money brought 
in by the poultry or the bachi. These bachi, or silk-worms, 
are a subject of the most vital importance. The eggs are 
never preserved from a past year, as it does not answer, but 
are always purchased from a distance. Many things date 
from the time when ** / bachi son nati^ As the tiny worms 



XXX ITALIAN CITIES. 

grow bigger, every hand, from that of an Italian country- 
loving marchesa to that of the smallest contadino, is employed 
in their behalf The men are busied on ladders in gathering 
into great sacks the leaves of the gelsi, or white mulberries, 
which, with the exception of the sweet chestnuts, are the 
only trees Italians care to cultivate. The whole time of the 
women is taken up in feeding the creatures, and the amount 
they eat is simply stupendous. The upper story of a con- 
tadino's house, or of one wing of a palazzo, is usually given 
up to them. To those who stay long enough in Italy to 
care for the life of its people, it will be interesting to know 
the following bachicultori rules : — 

" According to the most accredited system, the eggs should be placed 
in a room whose temperature stands at 12° (Reaumur) and covered with a 
blanket for four days : then the temperature should be increased one 
degree per day for other six days. On the tenth day the eggs are 
hatched, and again an extra degree of heat should be secured. The 
tenderest leaves, cut fine, are then given fresh every two hours. For an 
ounce of eggs, ten pounds of leaves suffice for the first stage. On the 
sixth day the worms sleep their first sleep. On their awakening, sheets 
of perforated paper or gauze are laid over them, covered with leaves, 
whose freshness entices them through the holes, and thus the necessity 
of touching them with the hands is avoided; and, moreover, the 
laggards are left on their beds, to be changed separately and kept apart, 
as tardiness in awakening is one of the symptoms of disease, or at least 
of delicacy. The perforated paper, with the leaves and worms, is then 
placed on matting made of coarse reeds, and tiers of these mats are 
placed on frames, and supported by poles and pegs. For the next six 
days about 30 lbs. of leaves suffice. On the sixth day the worms sleep 
their second sleep, then eat 100 lbs. of leaves ; and on the seventh day 
sleep for the third time. After eating 300 lbs. of leaves they sleep once 
more ; then great care must be taken to change their beds, and increase 
the number of mats, so that sufficient space be allotted to each worm. 
After devouring 800 lbs. of leaves, they are supposed to be ready to 
spin, or, as the phrase runs, ' to go to the wood.' The methods of pre- 
paring the wood are various. The old-fashioned system is to prepare 
separate frames of mats, the tiers about two feet apart, and on these to 



INTROD UCTOR Y rxA 

place small bundles of straw or faggots, with shavings plentifully strewn, 
and as each worm is mature, to place it separately in the wood. This 
method is tedious in the extreme, necessitates a number of assistants, 
and exposes the delicate little creatures to be hurt by rough handling. 
The popular system just now is that of sheds, resembling the double 
tent carried by the French soldiers. These sheds are erected in the 
Centre of the room, and covered with matting. When the worms 
awaken from their last sleep, long branches of mulberry leaves are 
placed over them, instead of the stripped leaves ; as they crawl up, the 
branches are removed, placed on the ground, leaning against the tents, 
fresh branches are supplied throughout the week ; then, when they 
begin to spin, branches of dry oppio are placed outside, and the >vorms 
are left to their own devices. Probably neither system of preparing the 
wood has much influence on the result. The absolute indispensables 
are, regular temperature, yet plenty of air, perfect cleanliness in the 
attendants, the absence of all smells or scents, save that of rose-leaves, 
which may be strewn daily on the beds, and that the mulberry leaves be 
always fresh and dry. Better leave the worms without food for ten or 
twenty hours, than give them leaves wet with dew or rain." — The Silk- 
worm Campaign, Corn. Mag. 1869. 

When the bachi are done with, it is time to think 
about the vintage, and then come the olives. It is no 
wonder that Italian contadini have no time to care for 
the cultivation of flowers such as one sees in English 
cottage gardens — a bush of roses and another of rosemary 
generally suffices them, indeed, for all flowers which have 
no scent, they have the utmost contempt — " fiore di cam- 
pagna." Every spare moment is given by a Tuscan woman 
to straw plaiting, and the girls are allowed to put by the 
money earned in this way for their dowries ; indeed they are 
entirely made thus. In the winter the men are employed in 
pruning the gelsi and in cutting the vines down to the 
ground, in accordance with the Tuscan proverb — " Fammi 
povero, e ti faro ricco." 

Among the curious customs universally observed in the 
aristocratic Tuscan families, is that of sending live capons 



zzdi ITALIAN CITIES, 

to their doctors and lawyers at the two Pasqua's — Christ- 
mas and Easter. At Easter, too, a lamb is given to the 
Maestro di Casa, the surgeon, and doctor. Every country 
house has its appointed days for the distribution of its 
charities. On those days (Mondays and Thursdays, gene- 
rally) everyone who comes to the house has a right to a cup 
of wine, a hunch of bread, and two centimes. Fifty or sixty 
persons frequently avail themselves of it At Christmas 
everyone has a flask of mezzo-vino and a pound of meat. 

Attached to all the principal villas is a church or chapel 
with the priest's house adjoining it. The contadini almost 
always go to pray before beginning their work. When the 
crops are beginning to mature, the priest followed by the 
fattore and the whole body of the contadini, male and 
female, walk for several days at 6 a.m. round all the boun- 
daries of the parrbcchia, singing a litany. It is the same 
litany which is represented in the eleventh canto of Tasso 
as being sung before the walls of Jerusalem. 

There are very few good books of general Italian travel 
Valery in French, and Forsyth in English, continue to be 
the best. The latter, which struck Napoleon so much by 
its perfection of style, that its author obtained his release 
from captivity, is incomparable as far as it goes, but it is 
terribly short Little, except classical quotations, can be 
gained from the ponderous volumes and stilted language of 
Eustace. Goethe wrote a volume of travels in Italy; 
but then, as Niebuhr says, "he beheld without love."* 
Lately Taine, Gautier, and others have given to the 
world some pleasant • Italian gleanings : many delightful 

• Letter to Savigny, Feb. 16, 1817. 



INTRODUCTORY. xxxiii 

descriptive passages may be found in the novels of " George 
Sand," and no traveller should leave unread Mr. J. A. 
Symond's enchanting " Sketches in Italy and Greece." But 
for Italy in general there is wonderfully little to read. 

It is not so with the separate places. Maffei's " Verona 
lUustrata," and Mariano Guardabassi's " Monumenti nella 
Provincia delF Umbria," may be cited as two admirable 
specimens of the local art-histories which abound for almost 
all Italian towns and districts, published as a mere labour 
of love, generally without hope or chance of sale, and which 
are invaluable for reference or research. In English, too, 
especial places in Italy have been well attended to ; Dennis 
has given us his " Cities and Cemeteries of Etruria," Lord 
L-indsa/s delightful volumes are perhaps especially full on the 
art of Pisa and Siena, and Ruskin has positively illuminated 
Venice for us, and has taught us to observe there a thousand 
things unobserved before, and to feel very differently about 
many things we had observed. Florentine travellers will have 
found their " walks " somewhat elucidated by the volumes of 
Miss Homer, and may have been able to pick something out 
of TroUope's " History of the Commonwealth of Florence," 
even if they are unable to read the Marchese Gino Capponi's 
two most useful and intensely interesting volumes on '* La 
Storia della Repubblica de Firenze." The incomparable 
novel of " Romola," and the vividly picturesque though very 
verbose " Pascarel " should be read at Florence. Dumas' 
"Annee a Florence" will also be found very amusing. 
Other pleasant books to be read in Italy are ** L'ltaUe " and 
" Les Monastbres Benedictins " of Alphonse Dantier. The 
" Corinne " of Madame de Stael should not be forgotten, or 
" I Promessi Sposi " of Manzoni, while " I Miei Ricordi " 



xxjdT ITALIAN CITIES. 

of Massimo Azeglio, not only contains many charming pic- 
tures of Italian existence, but are interesting as being the 
first work of any importance written in Italian, not stilted 
and heroic, but as it is spoken in daily life. 

Far the best guide books are those of Dr. Th. Gsell-fels, 
both as regards their style, their information, and, above all, 
their accuracy. Murray's Hand Books, to which travellers 
once owed so much, have been little corrected of late years. 
They continue to describe, through edition after edition, im- 
portant frescoes and even a whole cathedral destroyed many 
years ago, as if they were still in existence,* and to pass almost 
unnoticed such important points as Bobbio and S. Leo. 
They neglect altogether such noble new picture-galleries as 
that of Forli, and continue to give the old numbers and 
places to the pictures at Bologna, Milan, &c., which have 
been frequently re-hung. The small Guide books of Baede- 
ker are however excellent, full of practical knowledge, and 
most useful for the hurried traveller. 

For the sculpture of Italy, the admirable works of C. C. 
Perkins, "Italian Sculptors" and "Tuscan Sculptors," 
should be carefully studied, and are most interesting. The 
"History of Sculpture" and the "History of Art," by 
Wilhelm LUbke, translated by F. E. Bunnett, are also useful, 
though perhaps more so from their many engravings than 
fi-om their letter-press. The art-student will read " Kugler's 
Handbook of Painting," edited by Sir Charles Eastlake, and 
will, of course, be familiar with Vasari's "Lives of the 
Painters," — indispensable, though often incorrect — and with 
Lanzi's " History of Painting." He will also find the pon- 

• For instance, the Bagracavallo at Bologna, destroyed forty years ago, and the 
ca th e d ral of Novara. 



INTRODUCTORY. xxxv 

derous " Histories of Painting," by Crowe and Cavalcaselle, 
very useful for reference, and will refresh himself with M. F. 
A. Rio's " Poetry of Christian Art." 

It is unnecessary to give any " Tours " here. Those 
which are best worth making are sufficiently indicated after- 
wards. The author would only again advise those who are 
hurried not to seek to see too much : and if they have not 
time for more, to see rather those places which are related 
to one another, and illustrate one course of history and one 
school of art, than to seek to see many great towns in scat- 
tered directions, with a confused recollection of many his- 
tories and many schools. Thus the traveller, whose great 
point is Venice, should also study Verona, Vicenza, Bassano, 
Padua, Udine, and Aquileja ; the traveller who wishes to 
make Florence his centre should see at least Prato, Pistoia, 
Lucca, Pisa, Volterra, S. Gimignano, and Siena, and, if he 
is healthy and strong, should endeavour to visit the monas- 
teries of the Casentino, especially La Vernia. But perhaps 
the most delightful tour of all, because there the country also 
is so beautiful, is that of the Umbrian towns, taking Perugia 
as a centre. 

Artists, however, have such different feelings and desires 
to other travellers, that they may be glad to be directed to 
a few of the subjects which may especially interest them. 
Such are : — 

Riviera di Ponente. Albenga, Finale, Loiano, Port at Savona. 

Genoa. Ramparts. Ruined church at Albaro. 

Riviera di Levante. Sestri. Porto Venere. Lerici, 

Massa Ducale and Pietra Santa. 

Turin. Sagro di S. Michele. 

The Val d'Aosta. 

Italian lakes. Bellaggio, Baveno, Orta, Varallo. 

Bergamo. The old city. 



xxxvi ITALIAN CITIES. 

The Lago cTIseo. Lovere. 

Lago di Garda. Sermione. Riva. Malcesine. 

Verona. The River Banks. Tomb of Count of Castelbarco. S. 

Fermo (porch and pulpit). S. Zeno. Giusti Gardens. 
Manilla. Views beyond the bridges looking back. 
Piacenza. Passeggiate, and View from Monte Berico. 
Padua. S. Antonio (interior and cloisters). 
Venice. Endless canals and courts. View of Grand Canal from 

platform near the Accademia. Island of S. Elena. 

Views near S. Pietro in Castello, &c. 
Ferrara. The Castle. 

Piacenza. The Piazza., and bits upon the walls. 
Bologna. Piazzas of S. Petronio and S. Domenico. 
Ravenna. The Pineta. 
Rimini. S. Marino. S. Leo. 
Ancona. General views on shore. 
Gubbio. General view. 

Pisa. The flat reaches of the Amo and the pine wood. 
Lucca. Ponte alia Maddalena. 
Prato. The outside Pulpit. 
Florence. View from the Amphitheatre in the Boboli Gardens, from 

S. Miniato, from Careggi. Many street bits. 
Siena. The Gorges. Many architectural subjects. 
Cortona. Views near S. Margherita and on the shores of 

Thrasymene. 
Perugia and Assisi. An inexhaustible mine for artists. 

The following scheme, occupying about three months and ■ 
a half, arranges the Italian towns so as to indicate to the * 
traveller how he may pass over the same ground twice as 
little as possible. It also mentions the least possible time 
in which it is possible to see the places. 

Days. 

Riviera 3 

Genoa 2 

Spezia, for Lerici ....... I 

for Porto Venere I 

Carrara i 

Massa Ducale i 

Fietra Santa is 



INTRODUCTORY. 



Lucca . . . . . • • . . 

Excursion to Bagni di Lucca 

Pisa 

Leghorn 

Volterra 

S. Gimignano 

Siena ......... 

Excursion to Monte Oliveto 

Excursion to Monte Pulciano and Pienza . . . 

Chiusi • \ 

Florence 7 

Excursion to Prato and Pistoia i 

The Casentino ' . .3 

Arezzo \ 

Borgo S. Sepolcro 4 

Citta di Castello I 

Perugia 2 

Excursion to Cortona ...... 

Assisi ......... 14 

Foligno \ 

Gubbio , 

Pass of Furlo ....... 

Urbino 

Pesaro , . 

Ancoua 

Loreto ........ 

Fano . 

Rimini 

Excursion to S. Marino and S. Leo . 

Forli 

Faenza ......... ^ 

Ravenna 2 

Bologna ......... 2 

Modena , , . \ 

Parma 

Excursion to Canossa ....*. 
Return by Bologna to Ferrara .... 

Este and Arqua 

Padua 14 

Venice . . . 8 

Excursion to Udine and Aquileija .... 2 



xxxviu , ITALIAN CITIES. 

Days. 

Tour in the Alps of Friuli 4 

Bassano . I 

Vicenza I 

Verona 2 

Mantua 1 

Lago di Garda 2 

Brescia I 

Bergamo ^ I 

Cremona I 

Piacenza I 

Excursion to Bobbio . I 

Pavia and Certosa . I 

Milan 2 

Monza and Como I 

Tour of the Italian Lakes 3 

Orta and Varallo 2 

Novara and Vercelli I 

Turin I 

Excursion to the Waldenses ..... 2 

Excursion to the Sagro I 

Susa and Monte Cenis 2 

If the traveller sets out in the Spring, this order of travel 
is the best ; if he sets out in the Autumn, it should be re- 
versed. But the time here given merely allows of a glance 
at things. The Author would again urge that it is always 
better to omit than condense — to see something thoroughly. 



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CHAPTER I. 
THE RIVIERA DI PONENTE. 

THE Railway now takes travellers from Nice to Genoa 
in eight hours, and even when seen in this way, the 
Riviera forms the most beautiful of the many approaches to 
Italy. But those who are not hurried will do well to keep to 
the old coast road, and either to engage a vetturino carriage 
at Nice or Mentone for the journey to Genoa, or, if they are 
content to travel in a far more humble and inexpensive, but 
much pleasanter fashion, to send on their luggage by rail 
from S. Remo (when it will have passed the custom-house) 
and travel thence — artist-fashion — from place to place, pick- 
ing up one of the carriages which may always be found in 
the streets of the country towns, and which may be engaged 
for eight or ten francs, to hold three people for the half-day's 
journey, after which it should be exchanged for another, to 
prevent any final question of return fare. 

Where time is not an object, such an excursion as this 
will prove truly delightful. It is not in rattling through the 
narrow streets of the little fishing towns that a true idea of 
this characteristic coast can be obtained ; one must be able 
to wander in the secluded valleys, in the deep orange groves, 
along the banks of the torrents, or amidst the heights of 
the wild mountains which form their background. The 
geological and botanical resources offer an inexhaustible 



2 ITALIAN CITIES. 

field for research, while the 'artist will find endless employ- 
ment, whether he prefer the pines and palms and orange 
groves of the sunny shore, the dark sculptured streets and 
marble balconies of the old Riviera towns, or the wild posi- 
tion of the ruined strongholds, in the heart of the neighbour- 
ing mountains 

Those who are not very particular will not find much to 
complain of in the inns at S. Remo, Oneglia, Loano, Finale, 
or Savona, which are perhaps the best halting-places, though 
in the smaller towns, the entrance to the inn might often be 
mistaken for that of a stable, and the staircase, which is fre- 
quently of marble, looks as if it had not been swept for cen- 
turies. The ground-floor is generally occupied by the stable 
and coach-house, the first-floor by the host and his family, 
while the second-floor is destined for strangers. But when 
you reach it, the rooms are usually clean, airy, and well- 
furnished, and the food and attendance are very tolerable. 

Twice a day, at least during the first part of his journey, 
a fairy vision salutes the traveller : first, when, in the sunrise, 
Corsica reveals itself across the sapphire water, appearing so 
distinctly that you can count every ravine and indentation of 
its jagged mountains, and feel as if a srnall boat would easily 
carry you over to it in an hour ; and again, in the evening, 
when as a white ghost, scarcely distinguishable from the 
clouds around it, and looking inconceivably distant, it looms 
forth dimly in the yellow sunset. 

The different varieties of Patois spoken along the coast 
will bewilder even one who is perfectly conversant with 
French and Italian, for in the language of many of the villages 
there is still a great admixture of Spanish words remaining 
from the time of the Spanish protection at Monaco, and 



\ 



PEASANT-LIFE ON THE RIVIERA. 3 

in the more remote villages — even in the names of moun- 
tains, as " Al Rasel " — Arabic words still linger from the 
Saracenic invasions and intermarriages. 

Compared with the state of the English poor, there is 
very little real poverty here. In the coast villages the men 
gain a good subsistence as fishermen or boat-builders, the 
women by making lace or plaiting straw. In the country 
almost every one has a little olive ground or orange garden 
which they can call their own. A young couple seldom 
marry till they have hoarded up 400 or 500 francs, for which 
sum a house may be bought in one of the sea-board towns or 
villages, and they then save till they can purchase a piece of 
rock, which by perseverance and hard labour may, in this 
climate, soon be transformed into a fruitful garden. Here 
they often labour all night long, and lights are to be seen 
glimmering and songs heard from the orange gardens of the 
poor all through the dark hours. The first year they carry 
up earth, prepare the ground, and plant wild orange and 
lemon trees ; the second year they graft them, and the third 
year they begin to reap the fruits. The oranges and lemons 
require watering all through the summer, but the olives re- 
quire more than this. They have to be constantly trenched 
round to give air to the roots, without which they do not 
flourish, and once a year (in March and April) they require 
to be manured with rags, which are very expensive. During 
the rag season the smell from the olive groves is most un 
pleasant, and the effluvia from the ships, which convey the 
rags to the ports, is so offensive, that unloading them be 
comes a service of the greatest danger. 

The oranges and lemons are the wealth of the Riviera. 
At certain seasons the whole air is fragrant with their bios- 



f ITALIAN CITIES. 

soms, which are more valuable than the fruit itself, from the 
price they fetch at the perfume manufactories. The oranges 
are much hardier than the lemons, which are said to perish 
with four degrees of frost. Local tradition says, that as Eve 
was turned out of Paradise she snatched a single lemon from 
a tree which grew near the gate, and hid it in her apron in 
her flight. Afterwards, when she was wandering about on the 
earth, she threw it down at Mentone, where it grew and 
multiplied, and " so it is that on the Riviera there is the one 
thing which really came out of Paradise." 

To many travellers, especially those to whom custom 
has not made it familiar, the very fact that the whole jour- 
ney is along the edge — the Cornice — of the Mediterranean, 
will give it a charm — 

'* There shrinks no ebb in that tideless sea, 
Which changeless rolls eternally ; 
So that wildest of waves, in their angriest mood, 
Scarce break on the bounds of the land for a rood ; 
And the powerless moon beholds them flow, 
Heedless if she come or go ; 
Calm or high, in main or bay. 
On their course she hath no sway. 
The rock unworn its base doth bare, 
And looks o'er the surf, but it comes not there 
And the fringe of the foam may be seen below, 
On the line that it left long ages ago : 
A smooth short space of yellow sand 
Between it and the greener land." — Byron. 

" This shore would stand for Shelley's ' Island of Epipsychidion,' or the 
golden age which Empedocles describes, when the mild nations wor- 
shipped Aphrodite with incense and the images of bea^'ts and yellow 
honey, and no blood was spilt upon her altars— when 'the trees flour- 
ished with perennial leaves and fruit, and ample crops adorned their 
boughs through all the year.' This even now is literally true of the lemon- 
groves, which do not cease to flower and ripen. Everything fits in to 
complete the reproduction of Greek pastoral life. The goats eat cytisus 



PAGAN AND CHRISTIAN REMINDERS. 5 

and myrtle on the shore : a whole flock gatho-ed round me as I sate 
beneath a tuft of golden green euphorbia the other day, and nibbled 
bread from my hands. The frog still croaks by tank and fountain, 
' whom the Muses have ordained to sing for aye, ' in spite of Bion's death. 
The narcissus, anemone, and hyacinth still tell their tales of love and 
death. Hesper still gazes on the shepherd from the mountain-head. 
The slender cypresses still vibrate, the pines murmur. Pan sleeps in 
noontide heat, and goats and wayfaring men lie down to slumber by the 
road-side, under olive-boughs in which cicadas sing. The little villages 
high up are just as white, the mountains just as grey and shadowy when 
evening falls. Nothing is changed — except ourselves. I expect to find 
a statue of Priapus or pastoral Pan, hung with wreaths of flowers — the 
meal-cake, honey, and spilt wine upon his altar, and young boys and 
maidens dancing round. Surely, in some far-off glade, by the side of 
lemon grove or garden, near the village, there must be some such a 
pagan remnant of glad Nature-worship. Surely I shall chance upon 
some Thyrsis piping in the pine-tree shade, or Daphne flying from the 
arms of Phoebus. So I dream until I come upon the Calvary set on a 
solitary hillock, with its prayer-steps lending a wide prospect across the 
olives and the orange-trees, and the broad valleys, to immeasurable skies 
and purple seas. There is the iron cross, the wounded heart, the spear, 
the reed, the nails, the crown of thorns, the cup of sacrificial blood, the 
title, with its superscription royal and divine. The other day we crossed 
a brook and entered a lemon field, rich with blossom and carpeted with 
red anemones. Everything basked in sunlight and glittered with ex- 
ceeding bnlliancy of hue. A tiny white chapel stood in a comer of the 
enclosure. Two iron-grated windows let me see inside : it was a bare 
place, containing nothing but a wooden praying-desk, black and worm- 
eaten, an altar with its candles and no flowers, and above the altar a 
square picture brown with age. On the floor were scattered several 
pence, and in a vase above the holy-water vessel stood some withered 
hyacinths. As my sight became accustomed to the gloom, I could see 
from the darkness of the picture a pale Christ nailed to the cross, with 
agonizing upward eyes and ashy aureole above the bleeding thorns. 
Thus I stepped suddenly away from the outward pomp and bravery of 
nature to the inward aspirations, agonies, and martyrdoms of man — from 
Greek legends of the past to the real Christian present — and I remem- 
bered that an illimitable prospect has been opened to the world, that in 
spite of ourselves we must turn our eyes heavenward, inward, to the in- 
finite unseen beyond us and within our souls. Nothing can take us 
back to Priapus or Pan. Nothing can again identify us with the simple 
natural earth. ' Une immatse esferance a traversi la terre,' and these 



, 



6 ITALIAN CITIES. 

chapels, with their deep significances, lurk in the fair landscape like the 
cares of real life amid our dreams of art. . . Even the olives here tell 
more to us of Olivet and the Garden than of the oil-press and the 
wrestling ground. The lilies carry us to the Sermon on the Mount and 
teach humility, instead of summoning up some legend of a god's love for a 
mortal. The hill -side tanks and waving streams and water-brooks 
swollen by sudden rain, speak of Palestine. We call the white flowers 
stars of Bethlehem. The large sceptre-reed; the fig-tree, lingering in 
barrenness when other trees are full of fruit ; the locust -beans of the 
Carouba : — for one suggestion of Greek idylls there is yet another of far 
deeper, dearer power." — y. A. Symonds. 

About three miles from Mentone, the Italian custom- 
house stops the way at Mortola beneath the village of S. 
Mauro. Looking back from the heights above, we have just 
had the most glorious view of Mentone, with the white walls 
of Monaco gleaming beyond upon their isolated rock, while 
above it is Turbia with its Trophaea Augusti, throned high 
amongst the mountains, and the great purple promontory' 
known as the Testa del Can. Just below, nearer the shore, 
is the old Palazzo Orenga (lately restored) on a rocky slope, 
perfumed in January by thickets of wild lavender. 

A little beyond S. Mauro is the tiny gaily-painted Church 
of S. Agostino in a wooded glen, where sno\\y mountains are 
seen gleaming through the trees. The village near this is 
called Latte (the Land of Milk) from the richness of its 
soil. The largest of the houses in the orange groves is the 
summer palace of the Bishop of Ventimiglia. 

From Latte we ascend to Ventimiglia — once Albium In- 
termehum, the capital of the Intermelii, and still the chief 
fortress between Nice and Genoa — which crowns the steep 
brown precipice with its white walls. It is entered by gates 
and a drawbridge, closing the narrow pass of the rock. 
Within, the town runs along a ledge in a picturesque outline 



VENTIMIGLIA: 7 

of brightly-coloured towers, old houses, and deserted con- 
vents, while deep below lies a little port with fishing vessels 
and some curious isolated rocks. 

La Strada Grande is narrow and quaint, lined with 
old houses, some of which are painted on the outside with 
figures of animals, while others retain in marble balconies 
relics of their former grandeur. Here the traveller coming 
from France will first hear all the people talking Italian, 
and women shouting, as at Naples, before stalls of maccaroni 
and polenta, in the dark arch-ways. The Cathedral, of 
which S. Barnabas is said to have been the first bishop, 
stands on a terrace with a grand background of snowy 
mountains, and beside it is the palace of the Lascari — who 
ruled Ventimiglia in the Middle Ages — with an open loggia 
and staircase. On a further crest of the hill is the yellow- 
brown Romanesque Church of S. Michele, occupying the 
site of a temple of Castor and Pollux. The interior is 
unaltered, the crypt a very fine one, and the view most 
striking. On the mountain beyond the town is a ruined 
castle of Roman origin. 

From S. Michele, a narrow path along the walls over- 
hangs the orange gardens at a great height. No one should 
try it who is not tolerably steady of head and sure of foot. 
It leads to a postern gate close to the long bridge over the 
half-dry bed of the Roya, the Rituba of Pliny and Lucan, 
appropriately termed by the latter " cavus " from the deep 
bed which it has frequently hollowed out for itself, between 
precipitous banks. 

From the dry bed of the river, the town is seen rising 
grandly in tier above tier of old houses, churches, and 
convents, with purple mountains and snow peaks beyond, 



•8 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



while in the foreground of the long bridge of irregular 
arches (alas, lately restored !) are groups of gaily-dressed 
washerwomen, at work upon the little pools between the 




Ventimiglia. 



sand-banks. The church tower and village which rise in 
the olive groves beyond the bridge, belong to the Borgo di 
Ventimiglia, where there is a humble little inn — Albergo della 
Scatola. Here luncheon may be obtained, and eaten on the 
flat roof, whence there is a lovely view of the town, with 
its old houses, and its castle cresting the opposite hill. 

(An excursion should be made without fail to Dolceacqua — 
easily managed by those who sleep at Bordighera — perhaps 
the most beautiful place in the whole district. 

It is about 3 1 miles from the bridge over the Nervia, 
half-way between Ventimiglia and Bordighera. The road 
ascends the bank of the Nervia to Campo Rosso, which 
nestles in the valley, with a chain of snow peaks behind it. 



DOLCEACQUA. 9 

At the entrance of the town is a brown conventual church, 
with a painted campanile relieved against the purple dis- 
tance ; and then you enter a piazza, Hned with the quaintest 
old houses, with open painted loggias, and ending in a 
church, whose staircase of white marble is flanked by 
marble mermaids, throwing water into the small fountains. 
A little further, backed by the Chapel of Santa Croce on its 
hill, is a very curious Romanesque church, with an old burial- 
ground, over-grown with periwinkles, on the banks of the 
Nervia. An inscription entreats " eleraosina" for the " Anime 
Purganti," and the former possessors of the " Anime " are 
represented by a pile of skulls and skeletons mouldering 
in an open charnel-house. 



4^- - 




Dolceacqua. 



After two miles more, winding through woods of olives, 
carpeted in spring by young corn and bright green flax, 
Dolceacqua suddenly bursts upon the view, stretching across 



,lo ITALIAN CITIES. 

a valley, whose sides are covered with forests of olives and 

chestnuts, and which is backed by fine snow mountains. 
Through the town winds the deep-blue stream of the 
Nervia, flowing under a tall bridge of one wide arch, and 
above frowns the huge palatial castle, perched upon a per- 
pendicular cliff, with sun-light streaming through its long 
lines of glassless windows. The streets are almost closed in 
with arch-ways, which give them the look of gloomy crypts, 
only opening here and there to let in a ray of sun-light and 
a strip of blue sky. They lead up the steep ascent to the 
castle where the Dorias once reigned as sovereign princes, 
as the Grimaldis at Monaco.) 




Bordignera. 



Ventimiglia is separated from Bordighera by three miles of 
flat and dusty level. Groups of palms (Phoenix Dactylifera) 



BORDIGHERA. \x 

gradually appear by the road-side and increase on approaching 
Bordighera {Inn. Hotel d' Angleterre — very good). This 
place, which has been surnamed " the Jericho of Italy," was 
almost unknown in England a few years ago, but is now 
familiar through Signor Ruffini's beautiful story of Doctor 
Antonio, of which the principal scene is laid here. The 
town contains nothing worth visiting, so that it is best to 
leave the carriage in the street, and wander up the hill, first 
to the garden of the French consul, where are some of the 
finest palm trees ; then up some of the narrow alleys, where 
artists will find charming subjects of the older palms 
feathering over little' shrines or bridges; and then to the 
common on the hill-top, with its grand view to Mentone, 
Roccabruna, and Monaco, and, in the vaporous distance, to 
Antibes and the faint blue mountains of Provence. 

"The palm-glory of Bordighera is not to be seen without going up 
into the town, and beyond the town. These noble trees almost gird 
it round on the western and northern sides, and grow in profusion — in 
coppices and woods — of all sizes, from gnarled giants of looo years' 
reputed age, to little suckers which may be pulled up by hand, and 
carried to England. And there is no end to the picturesque groupings 
of these lovely trees, and their graceful effects in the sun-light. 

" In the sun-light. For of all trees the palm is the child of the sun, 
and the best purveyor of flecked and dancing shade. Under the palm- 
thickets every darkest spot of shadow is a grand medley of exquisitely- 
traced lines ; and on the verge of the bare sun-light outside, leap and 
twinkle a thousand sharply-marked parallel bars of graceful leafage. 
And there is s-omething peculiarly of the sun, and of the east, in the 
many depths of the moon-lighted palm wood — the yellow, and the pale 
green, and the rich burnt sienna of the various foliage ; the rough deep 
markings of the rich brown stems ; and now and then the burning 
chrome of the fruit-stalks hanging in profuse clusters out from the 
depths of central shade. 

"Nor is the least charm of the palm the silvery whisper of reeded 
fi-onds which dwells everywhere about and under it. With the palm 
romance reaches its highest. That soft sound soothed the old-world 



'*2 ITALIAN CITIES. 

griefs of patriarchs, and murmured over the bivouacs of Eastern armies. 
When the longers for Zion sate down and wept by the waters of Babylon, 
was it not the rough burr of the palm on which they hung their harps, 
rather than the commonly but gratuitously imagined branch of the 
willow ? And when Judaea was again captive, it was vmder the palm that 
the conqueror, on his triumphant medals, placed the daughter of Zion. 

" I have been told that there are probably now more palms at Bordi- 
ghera alone, than in the whole of the Holy Land. " — Dean Alford. 

A winding path descends from the heights to the shore at 
the point of the rocky bay, which is the scene of one of 
Ruffini's word-pictures. 

" It is indeed a beauteous scene. In front lies the immensity of sea, 
smooth as glass, and rich with all the hues of a dove's neck, the bright 
green, the dark purple, the soft ultra-marine, the deep blue of a blade of 
burnished steel, — there glancing in the sun like diamonds, and rippling 
into a lace-like net of snowy foam. In strong relief against this bright 
background, stands a group of red-capped, red -belted fishermen, draw- 
ing their nets to the shore, and accompanying each pull with a plaintive 
burthen, that the echo of the mountains sends softened back. On the 
right, to the westward, the silvery track of the road undulating amid 
thinly-scattered houses, or clusters of orange and palm-trees, leads the 
eye to the promontory of Bordighera, a huge emerald mount which shuts 
out the horizon, much in the shape of a leviathan couchant, his broad 
muzzle buried in the waters. Here you have in a small compass, re- 
freshing to behold, every shade of green that can gladden the eye, from 
the pale-grey olive to the dark-foliaged cypress, of which one, ever and 
anon, an isolated sentinel, shoots forth high above the rest. Tufts of 
feathery palms, their heads tipped by the sun, the lower part in shade, 
spread their broad branches, like warriors' crests on the top, where the 
slender silhouette of the towering church spire cuts sharply against the 
spotless sky. 

"The coast to the east recedes inland with a graceful curve, then, with 
a gentle bend to the south, is lost by degrees in the far, far sea. Three 
headlands arise from this crescent, which so lovingly receives to its 
embrace a wide expanse of the weary waters ; three headlands of differ- 
ing aspect and colour, lying one behind the other. The nearest is a bare 
red rock, so fiery in the sun the eye dares scarcely fix on it ; the second, 
richly wooded, wears on its loftiest ridge a long hamlet, like to a mural 
crown ; the third looks a mere blue mist in the distance, save one white 
speck Two bright sails are rounding this last cape. The whole, flood- 



r 



S. REMO. 13 

ed as it is with light, except where some projecting crag casts its trans- 
parent grey shadow, is seen again reversed, and in more faint loveliness, 
in the watery mirror below. Earth, sea, and sky mingle with their 
diflferent tones, and from their varieties, as from the notes of a rich, full 
chord, rises one g[reat harmony. Golden atoms are floating in the trans- 
lucent air, and a halo of mother-of-pearl colour hangs over the sharp 
outlines of the mountains. 

"The small village at the foot of the craggy mountain is called Speda- 
letti, and gives its name to the gulf. It means little hospitals, and is 
supposed to have originated in a ship belonging to the knights of Rhodes, 
having landed some men sick of the plague here, where barracks were 
erected for their reception ; and these same buildings served as the 
nucleus of the present village, which has naturally retained the name of 
their first destination. At a little distance are the ruins of a chapel 
called the 'Ruota,' which may or may not be a corruption of Rodi 
(Rhodes). Spedalatti in the present day is exclusively inhabited by the 
wealthy families of very industrious fishermen, who never need be in 
want of occupation. Nature, which made this bay so lovely, made it 
equally safe and trustworthy. Sheltered on the west by the Cape of 
Bordighera, and on the east by those three headlands, let the sea be ever 
so high without, within it is comparatively calm, and the fishermen of 
Spedalatti are out in all weathers." — Doctor Antonio. 

Beyond Bordighera, the great rifted brown mountains are 
monotonous in their outUne as compared with those near 
Mentone, but still are beautiful as they stand round about 
S. Remo, which rises from the sea in tiers of white houses, 
with a fine church croAvning the hill against which they are 
built. There are palm trees here as at Bordighera, but not 
such fine ones, although this is the place whence, in 1588, 
came Bresca, the trading sea-captain, who gave instructions 
to throw water upon the ropes which held up the famous 
obelisk in front of S. Peter's, in defiance of the order of 
Pope Sixtus v., that any one who spoke should pay the 
penalty with his life, and who thus saved the obelisk, and 
obtained as reward that his native-place of S. Remo should 
furnish the Easter palms to S. Peter for ever. Early every 
spring, the palm branches are tied up to their stems, in order 



U ITALIAN CITIES. 

to bleach them for this purpose, and from that time till the 
autumn their chief beauty is lost ; but here and there a 
graceful stem, crowned with umbrella-like foliage, rears itself 
still untouched in the little square gardens, among the tall 
houses. 

S. Remo {Inns. Hotel de Londres ; Hotel Royal, pension 
8 to lo frs. ; Grande Bretagne. On the eastern side, Hotel 
d! Angleterre ; Victoria — Pension Anglaise, 8 to 9 frs.) is greatly 
changed within the last few years, and from a quiet fishing 
port has become one of the great southern centres for sun- 
seeking invalids ; but in beauty it is greatly inferior to Men- 
tone, and there are very few drives and walks. 

" To the charms of quiet and sunshine S. Remo adds that of a pecu- 
liar beauty. The Apennines rise like a screen behind the amphitheatre 
of soft hills that enclose it — hills soft with olive woods, and dipping 
down with gardens of lemon and orange, and vineyards, dotted with 
palms. An isolated space juts out from the centre of the semi-circle, 
and from summit to base of it tumbles the oddest of Italian towns, a 
strange mass of arches and churches and steep lanes, rushing down like 
a stone cataract to the sea. On either side of the town lie deep ravines, 
with lemon gardens along their bottoms, and olives thick along their 
sides. The olive is the characteristic tree of San Remo." — Saturday 
Review, Jan. 187 1. 

Facing the high-road through the town is the splendid old 
palace of the Boria family, which has a court-yard and stair- 
case that would do honour to the abode of a sovereign. 
Some way behind it, in a piazza, are the two principal 
churches of the lower town, and an audacious statue, not 
often met with even in Italy, of God the Father. Hence, 
steep, narrow, and filthy httle streets, constantly arched 
overhead to strengthen the houses in case of earthquakes, 
and crowded below with children, cats, dogs, and chickens, 
lead to the top of the hill, where there is a fine open terrace 



S. REMO. 



15' 



lined with cypresses, and commanding a lovely view of the 
mountains and sea. 

At a very early period S. Remo was ruined by the Sara- 




At S. Remo. 



cens, who desecrated its principal church of S. Siro, and 
burnt the town. On the desolated site which they aban- 
doned, and which was the property of his see, a little agri- 
cultural colony was settled by Theodulf, bishop of Genoa. 
Never losing sight of its connection with Genoa throughout 
its whole existence, S. Remo continued, as it increased in 



tfi ITALIAN CITIES. 

importance, to follow the lead of the greater city, and the 
civil authority of the bishop was transferred to the com- 
munal parliament, whose assembly met in the church of S. 
Stefano. The Crusader's Palm upon the arms of the town, 
is a mark left by this revolution, itself produced by the 
Crusades. But in its alliance with Genoa, S. Remo always 
remained a perfectly free State. It was bound to contribute 
ships and men for the Genoese war service, but in return 
shared all the privileges of the Genoese repubUc in all pans 
of the world. 

S. Siro is so injured by so-called restorations as to be of 
little value. Near it is a Hospital for leprosy, which ter- 
rible disease still lingers around S. Remo. It is hopelessly 
incurable, the limbs and the faces of the lepers being grad- 
ually eaten away, so that with several, while you look upon 
one side of the face, and see it apparently in the bloom of 
health and youth, the other has already fallen away and 
ceased to exist. The disease is hereditary, having remained 
in certain families of this district almost from time im- 
memorial. The members of these families are prohibited 
from intermarrying with those of others, or indeed from 
marrying at all, unless it is believed that they are free from 
any seeds of the fatal inheritance. Sometimes the marriages, 
when sanctioned by magistrates and clergy, are contracted 
in safety, but often, after a year or two of wedded life, the 
terrible enemy appears again, and existence becomes a curse ; 
thus the fearful legacy is handed down. 

A stony walk over dull hills leads from the hospital to the 
mountain sanctuary of S. Romolo, who gave his name to the 
town, invariably called S. Romolo till the fifteenth century ; 
and it is probable tJiat the present name is due, not to a pun 



TAGGIA. 



17 



on Romulus and Remus, but to a contraction of its full 
ecclesiastical title — " Sancti Romoli in Eremo." The her- 
mitage stands in a wood of old chestnut trees, enamelled 
with blue gentians. A chapel contains a large white mitred 
statue of the saint with a sword through his breast, on the 
spot where he suffered martyrdom, and is attached to and 
encloses the cave where he lived in retirement. 

(An excursion should be made from S. Remo to Taggia 
(about five miles) and Lampedusa. The road thither passes 
beneath the sanctuary of La Madonna della Guardia, and by 
Armi, with its rock chapel facing the sea, and turns off from 




\ ^^ 







r L ^ 




Lampedusa from Taggia. 



the coast-road at the village of La Riva. Hence it is a 
lovely drive through luxuriant olives surrounded by high 
mountains, on the steep sides of which the town of Castel- 
laro soon appears upon the right, and beyond it, the famous 
shrine of Lampedusa, jammed into a narrow ledge of the 
precipice. 

Taggia itself is deep down in the valley by the side of the 

VOL. I. 2 



l8 ITALIAN CITIES. 

rushing river of the same name. Its streets are curious ; 
several of its houses have been handsome palazzi, and there 
is still a native aristocracy resident in the place. Many of 
the old buildings are painted on the outside with fading 
frescoes, of others the stone fronts are cut into diamond 
facets, others are richly carved. Most of them rest upon 
open arches, in which are shops where umbrella-vendors set 
out their bright wares, and crimson beretti hang out for sale, 
enlivening the grey walls by their brilliant colouring. All 
the spots described in the novel of Doctor Antonio really 
exist, and the crowd which collects around the carriage of 
strangers when it stops, invites them to visit the house of 
" Signora Eleanora," '" II Baronetto Inglese," &c. The long 
bridge across the valley is adorned with a shrine com- 
memorating the adventure of two children who were thrown 
down by an earthquake with two of its arches in 1831, and 
escaped uninjured. 

From hence a path, turning to the right, mounts by a steep 
ascent to Castellaro, where the church (engraved here, as a 
good specimen of the graceful Riviera churches) stands cut 
finely upon the spur of the hill, its gaily-painted tower re- 
lieved against the blue background of sea. Beyond this is 
Lampedusa. 

"A broad, smooth road, opening; from Castellaro northwarls, and 
stretching over the side of the steep mountains in capricious zig-zags, 
now conceals, now gives to view the front of the sanctuary, shaded by 
two oaks of enormous dimensions. The CastelHni, who made this road 
' in the sweat of their brows,' point it out with pride, and well they may. 
They tell you with infinite complacency, how eveiy one of the peb )les 
•with which it is paved was brought from the sea-shore, those who had 
•mules using them for that purpose, those who had none bringing up 
loads on their own backs ; how every one, gentleman and peasant, young 
and old, -women and boys, worked day and night, with no other induce- 
ment than the love of the Madonna. The Madonna of Lampedusa is 
their creed, their occupation, their pride, their carroccio, their fixed idex 



LAMPEDUSA. 



19 



" All that relates to the miraculous image, and the date and mode of 
its translation to Castellaro, is given at full length in two inscriptions, 
one in Latin, the other in bad Italian verses, which are to be seen in the 



I 




Castellaro. 

interior of the little chapel of the sanctuary. Andrea Anfosso, a native 
of Castellaro, being the captain of a privateer, was one day attacked and 
defeated by the Turks, and carried to the Isle of Lampedusa. Here he 
succeeded in making his escape, and hiding himself until the Turkish- 
vessel which had captured his left the island. Anfosso, being a man of 
expedients, set about building a boat, and finding himself in a great 
dilemma what to do for a sail, ventured on the bold and original step of 
taking from the altar of some church or chapel of the island a picture of 
the Madonna to serve as one ; and so well did it answer his purpose, 
that he made a most prosperous voyage back to his native shores, and, 
in a fit of generosity, offered his holy sail to the worship of his fellow- 
townsmen. The wonder of the affair does not stop here. A place was 
chosen by universal acclamation, two gini-shots in advance of the pre- 
sent sanctuaiy, and a chapel erected, in which the gift was deposited 
with all due honour. But the Madonna, as it would seem, had an in- 
surmountable objection to the spot selected, for, ever)' morning that 
GckI made, the picture was found at the exact spot where the actual 
church now stands. Sentinels were posted at the door of the chapel, 
the entire village remained on foot for nights, mounting guard at the 
entrance ; no precaution, however, availed. In spite of the strictest 
watch, the picture, now undeniably a miraculous one, found means to 



20 ITALIAN CITIES. 

make its way to the spot it preferred. At length, the Castellini came 
to understand that it was the Madonna's express will that her head- 
quarters should be shifted to where her resemblance betook itself every 
night ; and though it had pleased her to make choice of the most abrupt 
and the steepest spot on the whole mountain, just where it was requisite 
to raise arches in order to lay a sure foundation for her sanctuary, the 
Castellini set themselves con amore to the task so clearly revealed to 
them, and this widely-renowned chapel was completed. This took place 
in 1619. In the course of time some rooms were annexed, for the 
accommodation of visitors and pilgjrims, and a terrace built ; for though 
the Castellini have but a small purse, theirs is the great lever which can 
remove all impediments — the faith that brought about the Crusades. 

" To the north a long, long vista of deep, dark, frowning gorges, 
closes in the distance by a gigantic screen of snow-clad Alps — the glorious 
expanse of the Mediterranean to the south-east and west, range upon 
range of gently undulating hills, softly inclining towards the sea — in the 
plain below, the fresh, cozy valley of Taggia, with its sparkling track of 
waters, and rich belt of gardens, looking like a perfect mosaic of every 
gradation of green, chequered with winding silver arabesques. Ever 
and anon a tardy pomegranate in full blossom spreads out its oriflamme 
of tulip-shaped dazzling red flowers. From the rising ground opposite 
frowns mediaeval Taggia, like a discontented guest at a splendid ban- 
quet A little further off westward, the eye takes in the campanile of 
the Dominican church, emerging from a group of cypresses, and further 
still, on the extreme verge of the western cliff, the sanctuary of our lady 
of the Guardia shows its white silhouette against the dark blue sky. ' — 
Ruffi.ni.') 

After leaving La Riva, the post-road to Genoa passes 
through the villages of S. Stefano al Mare, and S. Lorenzo 
al Mare, and then Porto Maurizio comes in sight, covering 
the steep sides of a promontory.* The church here is white, 
and the town cold in colour compared with its neighbours. 

Oneglia {Inn. Vittoria) is an ugly towTi, with modem 
arcaded streets, but a good place for the study of fishing 
boats and fishermen. It was the birth-place of Andrea 
Doria, the great Genoese admiral, in 1466. There is a road 

• Places in the diligence from S. Remo to Porto Maurizio cost 2 frs., a carriage from 
Porto Maurizio to Albenga 15 frs., and 15 frs. mne rom Al'uenga to Savona. 



ALBENGA. 



21 



from hence to join the railway from Turin to Cuneo (at 
Fossano) by the ravine of the Tanaro, and the pass of the 
Col di Nava. 

Through Diana Marina, and Cervi, and by the Castle of 
Andora, we reach Alassio {Inn. La Bella Italia), a better 
sleeping-place than Albenga. We see the Island of Galli- 
nara, with the remains of a Benedictine convent, before 
reaching — 

Albenga {Inn. Albergo d' Italia, very poor), the ancient 
Albium Ingaunum, and the birth-place of the Emperor Pro- 




Cathedral of Albenjja. 



cuius. Its thirteen mediaeval towers remind the Italian 
traveller of S. Gimignano rising out of the plain like a 



22 ITALIAN CITIES. 

number of tall nine-pins set close together. Albenga affords 
many artistic subjects, possessing a very ancient Gothic 
Cathedral, an early Baptistery, all green with mould and 
damp, and three equally grim and green Lombardic lions at 
the foot of the tower called Torre del Marchese Malespina. 
A little way beyond the to\vn is a Roman bridge, Ponte 
Lungo. The place is so unhealthy that — ' Hai faccia di 
Albenga ' — is a proverbial expression in the country for one 
who looks ill. 

(There is a lovely drive (8 frs.) up the vale of Albenga to 
Garlanda. This valley is radiantly beautiful in spring. 
Overhead are tall peach-trees with their luxuriance of pink 
blossom. Beneath these the vines cling in Bacchanalian fes- 
toons, leaping from tree to tree, and below all, large melons, 
young corn, and bright green flax, waving here and there 
into sheets of blue flower, form the carpet of Nature. Some- 
times gaily-painted towers, and ancient palazzi, with carved 
armorial gateways and arched porticoes, break in upon the 
solitude of the valley. In one of these, the palace of Lusig- 
nano, which is girt about on two sides by the steep escarp- 
ment of the mountains, and backed by a noble pine-tree, 
Madame de Genlis lived for some time, considering her 
abode an Arcadia, and here she wrote her story of the 
Duchess of Cerifalco, shut up for nine years in a vault by 
her husband, of which Albenga is the scene. 

Beyond this, the mountains form rugged precipices, only 
leaving space for the road to pass by the side of the clear 
rushing river Centa. The stream divides to embrace the 
mediaeval walls and towers of Villa Nuova, a curious and 
tiny city. Near the road is a round church with a Gothic 
. tower, built of deep yellow stone, and highly picturesque. 



FI.VALE AND SAVON'A. ij 

Hence, across the marshy plain of the Lerone, one sheet of 
flowers in spring, we reach the old castle of Garlanda, with 
Scotch-looking pepperbox tourelles, which guards the 
narrowing fastness of the valley. Beyond is the church, 
where the whole peasantry of the valley rose against 
the French in defence of their picture by Domenichino — of 
S. Mauro kneeling at the feet of the Virgin and Child — 
and succeeded in preventing its being carried off. In the 
same church is a horrible Martyrdom of S. Erasmus, at- 
tributed to Poussin.) 

After leaving Albenga, the high-road passes through Loano 
{Tn?i. Euro'^d). There is a very picturesque view of an aque- 
duct, and the fine church of Monte Carmelo, built by the 
Dorias in 1609, just outside the further gate. The next 
village is Pietra. There is a tunnel through the rocks before 
reaching — 

Finale Marina {run.' Hotel de Venise), one of the most 
picturesque villages on the shore. The views of the 
Apennine ranges beyond Spezia and Carrara are most 
beautiful on clear evenings from all this part of the coast, 
and the descent to the sea-shore at this point, flanked by 
gigantic precipices, on one of which is a tall mediaeval 
tower, is certainly the finest scene at this end of the 
Riviera. 

Hence the road follows the coast, sometimes above, 
sometimes on a level with the sea. The first village is 
Varigotti. We pass through a tunnel in the rocks before 
reaching Noli. Then come Spotorno, Bergeggi, and Vado. 
The stately buildings of Genoa shine in the clear light long 
before reaching Savona. 

Savona {Inns. Italia, Pensione Suizzera — both good) is the 



24 



ITALIAN- CITIES. 



largest town on the coast after Nice and Genoa, and has a 
small but safe harbour. The handsome Cathedral of 1604 
contains, in the Cappella Sistina, the tomb of the parents of 
Pope Sixtus IV., by Michele and Giovanni de Andria. Among 
the pictures are a Madonna, by Aurelio Robert elli, 1449 ; an 
Assumption, by Brea, 1495 ; ^"^ ^^ Annunciation and 
Presentation, by .(4/(Ja«/'. The Church of S. Giovanni Battista 
contains a Nativity, by Girolamo da Brescia, 15 19, and a 
picture falsely attributed to Albert Durer. In the Church of 




At Savo.ia. 



S. Giacomo is the tomb of the lyric poet Chiabrera, who was 
bom here, inscribed by his own desire : — 



" Amico, io, vivendo, cercava conforto 
Nel Monte Pamasso ; 
Tu, meglio consigliato, cercalo 
Nel Calvario." 



THE SANTUARTO. 25 

The house in which Chiabrera Hved in the town is inscribed 
with the motto he chose — " Nihil ex omni pane beatum." 
The Tfieatre is dedicated to Chiabrera. Pius VII. was long 
detained at Savona as a prisoner. Artists will not fail to 
sketch the lovely view from the port with its old tower. 
The statue of the Virgin here has an inscription which can 
be read either in Latin or Italian : 

" In mare irato, in subita procella, 
Invoco te, nostra benigna stella." 

(It is about an hour's drive — carriage 6 frs. — from Savona 
to its famous Santuario. Through a winding valley you 
enter a court-yard, shaded by great elm-trees. In the centre 
is a fountain, and on the further side a fine 16th-century 
church, containing a few tolerable pictures. The first 
appearance of the miraculous Virgin, in whose honour all 
this was built, is said to have taken place at the little round 
chapel on the hill above the present sanctuary, where she 
showed herself to a poor countryman, and desired him to 
go into Savona, and declare what he had seen. This he 
did boldly, and was put into prison for his pains, but an 
unknown lady came to open his prison-door and release 
him. Again, at the scene of his daily labours, the Virgin 
revealed herself to him, and again desired him to go and 
tell what he had seen in Savona, but he remonstrated, saying 
that the last time she had told him to do this he had obeyed 
her and had been imprisoned in consequence. "Yes," 
answered the Virgin, " and it was I who released you ; go 
then again boldly, and I will protect you." So he obeyed, 
and went to tell what he had seen in Savona, but the people 
mocked, and no one believed him, and he returned home 
sorrowful. On his way, as he was pondering sadly over 



26 ITALIAN CITIES. 

these things, he met a great multitude of people. " WTience 
do you come," he said, " and what are you going to do ? " 
" Oh," they said, " we are the inhabitants of the Albergo dei 
Poveri, and we are going to Savona, that we may obtain 
food and continue to live, for we have no corn left in our 
granaries." Then he bade them return, for their granaries 
should be filled. And they were unbelieving, yet still they 
returned, and when they reached the granaries, they were 
unable to open the doors on account of the quantity of grain 
that was in them. All the people of Savona, when they saw 
the miracle, gave praise to the Virgin who had delivered 
them ; and now, convinced of the truth of the countryman's 
story, they built the church and hospital in her honour, 
which are still to be seen in the valley of S. Bernardo. 

Within, the church is magnificent, its walls being entirely 
covered with precious marbles, which in their turn are 
encrusted with votive oflferings of gold and silver. The 
under church is even more splendid than the upper. Here 
is the famous image of the Virgin, hideously radiant in the 
jewelled crown of Pope Pius VII , and the diamond collar 
of King Charles Albert. Beside her kneels a little marble 
figure of the countryman to whom the discovery was due* 
Beneath her feet issues a stream of water, served to visitors 
from a massive silver jug upon a silver tray; "holy water," 
says the Sacristan, " and competent to cure all manner of 
diseases," but, as a matter of fact, it is so icily cold that it 
has quite the contrary effect upon those who drink it after 
a hot walk from Savona. In the afternoon a Litany is 
most sweetly sung at the Santuario by the inmates of the 
neighbouring poor-house and orphanage, all looking most 
picturesque ; the younger women in white veils (pezzottos), 



COGOLETTO. 27 

the elder wearing over their heads scarfs with brightly- 
coloured flowers stamped upon them (mezzaras). When 
their service is over, they emerge from the church in pro- 
cession, with crosses and banners.) 

On leaving Savona, the road passes through Albizzola 
Marina. One mile inland is Albizzola Superiore, where 
there is a fine palace of the Delia Rovere family. The Delia 
Rovere Popes, Sixtus IV. and Julius II., were both natives 
of Albizzola. The family was then so much reduced, that 
Sixtus IV., though of noble descent, was the son of a poor 
fisherman, and his nephew, Julius II., was occupied in his 
youth in daily carrying the products of his father's farm to 
Savona, either by boat or mule, whatever the rudeness of the 
season, and was often received with great severity on his re- 
turn, if his provisions had not sold well. 

In the church of S. Michelc is a picture by Pierino del 
Vaga, which he vowed during a storm. Vorazze, a great 
ship-building place on the sea-shore, was the birth-place 
(1230) of Jacopo de Voragine, author of "The Golden 
Legend," afterwards an excellent Archbishop of Genoa. In 
the hills above this is the monastery of // Deserto, 
founded by a lady of the Pallavicini family, who is repre- 
sented there as the Madonna in an altar-piece by Fiasella. 

Cogoletto is the reputed birth-place of Columbus, in 
1447, and the house of his father Domenico (doubtful *) is 
pointed out by the inscription — 

" Hospes, siste gradum. Fuit hie lux prima Colombo : 
Orbe viro majori heu nimis arcta domus ! 
Unus erat mundus. * Duo sunt,' ait ille. Fuere." + 

* In his will Columbus says—" Que siendo yo nacido en Geneva, coino natural 
d"r\lla porque de ella sali y en ella naci." 
t CagUu£&. 



28 ITALTAN CITIES. 

Voltri is a large town with paper-manufactories. In the 
neighbouring valley of the Leira are baths for cutaneous dis- 
orders. 

Pegli {Hotel d'Angleterre, facing the station— with a 
restaurant, ddjeuner 3 frs. — very good. Hotel Gargini, in 
a large garden, pension 8 to 9 frs., excellent). The 
entrance to the Villa Pallavicini'vs, through a house adjoining 
the pretty railway station on the left. A visit to this famous 
villa occupies quite two hours, and no one who is unequal 
to a long walk should attempt it. It should also be remem- 
bered, where time is an object, that there is nothing especially 
to be seen in the villa. The grounds were entirely laid out 
in 1836 — 1846, during which time 100 men were constantly 
at work. The pleasant, shady walks are bordered by 
immense heaths, and other flowering shrubs. There is a great 
deal that is very fooHsh, and has been very expensive, in the 
way of fifth-rate triumphal arches, marble summer-houses, 
artificial cascades, &c. What is really pretty is a grotto, 
where you step into a boat, and are rowed in and out 
amongst the stalactyte pillars, emerging on a miniature 
lake fringed with azaleas and camellias. The villa now 
belongs to the Marchesa Pallavicini Durazzo. 

The Villa Doria at Pegli has pleasant grounds. 

Hence the approach to Genoa is through a continuous 
suburb, till, after passing the light-house, one comes upon 
one of the grandest city views in the world. 



CHAPTER II. 

GENOA. 

GENOA stands at the north-western point of Italy, and 
is, as it were, its key-note. No place is more entirely 
embued with the characteristics, the beauty, the colour of 
Italy. Its ranges of marble palaces and churches rise above 
the blue waters of its bay, interspersed with the brilliant 
green of orange and lemon groves, and backed by swelling 
mountains ; and it well deserves its title of Geneva La 
Superba. The best view is that as you approach by the rail- 
way from Savona : hence you see : — 

"The queenly city, with its streets of palaces rising tier above tier 
from the water, girdling with the long lines of its bright white houses, 
the vast sweep of its harbour, the mouth of which is marked by a huge 
natural mole of rock, crowned by its magnificent light-house tower. Its 
white houses rise out of a mass of fig, and olive, and orange-trees, the 
glory of its old patrician luxury ; the mountains behind the town are 
spotted at intervals by small circular low towers, one of which is dis- 
tinctly conspicuous where the ridge of hills rises to its summit, and hides 
from view all the country behind it. These towers are the forts of the 
famous lines, which, curiously resembling in shape the later Syracusan 
walls enclosing Epipolte, converge inland from the eastern and western 
extremities of the city, looking down, the western line on the valley of 
the Polcevera, the eastern on that of the Bisagno, till they meet on the 
summit of the mountains, where the hills cease to rise from the sea, and 
become more or less of a table-land running off towards the interior, at 
a distance of between two and three m'les from the outside of the city." 
— Arnold, Lectures on Modern History. 



30 ITALIAN CITIES. 

" Ecco ! vediam la maestosa immensa 
Citta, che al mar le sponde, il dorso ai monti 
Occupa tutta, e tutta a cerchio adorna. 
Qui volanti barchette, ivi anchorate 
Navi contemplo, e a poco a poco in alto 
Infra i lucidi tetti, infra I'eccelsi 
Cupole e torri, il guardo irgendo a I'anipio 
Girevol mura triplicate, i chiusi 
Monti da loro, e le minute rocche 
A luogo a luogo, e i ben posti ripari 
Ammiro intomo : inusitata intanto 
Vaghezza a I'Dcchio, e bell' intreccio fanno 
Col tremolar de le frondose cime, 
Col torreggiar de I'appuntate moli. " — Bettinelli. 

Genoa, anciently Genua, was the chief maritime city of Liguria, and 
afterwards a Roman municipium. Under the Lombards the constant in- 
vasions of the Saracens united the professions of trade and war, and its 
greatest merchants became also its greatest generals, while its naval 
captains were also merchants. 

The Crusades were of great advantage to Genoa in enabling it to 
establish trading settlements as far as the Black Sea, but the power of 
Pisa in the East, as well as its possession of Corsica and Sardinia, led 
to wars between it and Genoa, in which the Genoese took Corsica, and 
drove the Pisans out of Sardinia. By land, the Genoese territory was 
extended to Nice on one side and to Spezia on the other. After the defeat 
of Pisa in the battle of Molara, 1 284, and the destruction of its harbour, 
Genoa became complete mistress of the western sea. In the east its 
power was only surpassed by that of Venice, but constant competition 
with the rival city excited its energies to the utmost, and the services 
which it was able to render to the Byzantine emperor led to its gradually 
supplanting Venice in Greece and the Black Sea. 

The most formidable enemy which Genoa had to deal with was its 
want of the internal unity which was conspicuous at Venice. In the 
1 2th century the people were already divided into eight political parties, 
which in the time of the Hohenstaufens resolved themselves into the 
Ghibellines under the Dorias and Spinolas, and the Guelfs under the 
Fieschi. At the end of the 12th centuiy the plan of government by a 
foreign Podesta was introduced, assisted by a council of eight, but by 
the 14th century the rivalries of the different noble families had led to 
civil war in almost all the possessions of the State, though trade and 
navigation only seemed to flourish the more ; and the speculations, 
ventures, and spirit of enterprise of Genoa only increased. 



HISTORY OF GENOA. 31 

In 1339 the Genoese elected their first Doge, Simone Boccanera, who 
abdicated, was recalled, and eventually poisoned ; and as the chief 
power was afterwards always the subject of contention between the 
families of Adorno, Fregosi, Marchi, and Montaldi, the possession of a 
Doge failed utterly in establishing internal peace. Still trade flourished 
and increased, and, from the beginning of the fifteenth century, the 
chief power really rested with the managers of the famous Banco di 
San Giorgio, which maintained an army and naval force of its own. 

Genoa fell several times into the hands of France. The famous 
Andrea Doria was at first Admiral of the French fleet, but, disgusted at 
the breach of faith shown by Francis I. , and his inattention to the freedom 
granted to Genoa, he went over to the Emperor Charles V., and having 
obtained a promise that his native city should be an independent 
Republic, drove the French out of the city, and introduced a constitu- 
tion in which all family interests were made subordinate to the real 
welfare of the State. It was thus ordained that all the old families 
possessing landed property were to be counted as equal ; and every noble 
family which possessed six inhabited houses in the town was to form an 
" Albergo," to which poorer families were to associate themselves, an 
arrangement which gave an opportunity of uniting those families who 
had hitherto favoured the Guelphs to Ghibelline Alberghi, and those 
who were Ghibellines to Guelphic Alberghi, and in this way gradually 
extinguishing their party-spirit by their interests. Out of the 28 
Alberghi thus formed, a senate of 400 members was chosen, which was 
to fill up all the offices of state, the Doge being only elected for two 
years. 

Having no children, Andrea Doria had chosen as his heir his great- 
nephew Gianettino, a vain young man, who was suspected of wishing 
to aspire to the sovereignty when his uncle should be dead. The offence 
which he gave to one of the great Genoese nobles, Giovanni Luigi di 
Fieschi, Count of Lavagna, led to the famous conspiracy of the Fieschi, 
by which it was resolved to overthrow the new constitution of Genoa 
and the influence of the Dorias. For the moment the insurgents were 
successful. Gianettino was killed at the Porta S. Tommaso, and Andrea, 
on hearing of his death, fled to Savona ; but the conspiracy was brought 
to nothing by the death of Fieschi, who fell into the water as he was 
stepping into a galley, and was drowned by the weight of his armour ; 
after which, Andrea Doria was brought back to Genoa with honour, 
and the whole property of the Fieschi was confiscated and their palace 
razed to the ground. 

From this time Genoa enjoyed tranquillity, till the reign of Louis XIV., 
who sent a fleet to besiege the town in 16S4, when the Palace of the 



32 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Doge and many other fine buildings were destroyed by bombardment, 
and the city was forced to submit. 

In 1800 Genoa again underwent a siege, when it was attacked by sea 
by an English and Neapolitan fleet, and by land by the Austrians. The 
blockade caused a terrible famine, in which 20,000 persons perished, 
and Massena, with his French garrison, was obliged to capitulate on the 
4th of June, but re-entered the town on the i6th. The last Doge 
chosen was Girolamo Durazzo. In 1805 Genoa was incorporated with 
France, and its trade was stopped. In 1814 it was stormed by the 
English, The Vienna Congress made it over as a Duchy to the King 
of Sardinia, and it has since followed the fortunes of the house of Savoy. 

The imports of Genoa are now estimated at three hundred million 
francs, its exports at a hundred and twenty million. The number of 
vessels anually calling at its port is considered to be 7000 sailing-vessels 
and 2300 steamers, including 1 700 sa.ling- vessels and 800 steamers from 
foreign counti 

The architect aral features of Genoa are first its mediaeval churches, 
with striped facades of black and white marble, and, secondly, its 
magnificent sixteenth-century palaces. The residence of Rubens and 
Vandyke in the town has greatly enriched it with their paintings, which 
for the most part remain in the hands of those families for whom they 
were originally executed. The Genoese painters — Ludovico Brea, c. 
1483; Luca Cambiaso, 1527 — 1585 ; Castello il Bergamasco, 1500 — 
1570 ; Bernardo Strozzi (called "II Cappuccino" or "II Prete"), 1581 
— 1644; Carloni, 1593 — 1630; were of inferior importance. 

The principal hotels are all ranged along the edge of the 
port, but are separated from the sea by a tramway and a 
high stone terrace, which hide the view from the lower win- 
dows, so that rooms "al terzo piano" are greatly to be pre- 
ferred. From these one can overlook the harbour, and 
watch the glorious sunsets behind the grandly-proportioned 
light-house, called La Fanale (built 1547), 247 feet high, 
which closes the port at its western extremity. 

Hotels. Albergo cT Italia, kept by Bottacchi, the proprietor of the 
once well-known Croce di Malta, now closed ; Albergo delle Quattre 
A'azwni, excellent and very reasonable (pension 10 frs.) ; Hotel de la 
Ville ; Hotel Feder ; Hotel de France ; and the Hotel de Londres near 
the station. Visitors to Genoa in warm weather will do well to go for 



GENOESE LIFE. 33 

luncheon or ices to the really beautiful and thoroughly Italian cafe, " La 
Concordia," in the Strada Nuova : its garden, on summer evenings, is 
perfectly delightful. 

Carriages (in all the piazzas), the course, 80 c. ; at night, i fr. 25 c. 
The 1st hour, i fr. 50 c. ; at night 2 frs. Every half-hour after the first, 
75 c. For the day, with 2 horses, 15 frs. ; with i horse, 10 frs. For the 
half-day, with 2 horses, 10 frs. ; with I horse, 5 frs. 

Omnibus (public) from the station to Piazza S. Domenico, and all over 
the town, 20 c. 

Boats, with I rower, in the harbour, for 2 to 4 persons, 2 frs. the hour. 

Post Office. 18 Piazza Fontane Amorose. 

The principal sights of Genoa may be comprised within 
a single walk, and may be visited in the following order : 
The Strada degli Orefici, Cathedral, (S, Maria di Carignano), 
S. Matteo, Palazzo Spinola, (Acqua Sola), Palazzo Doria 
Tursi, Palazzo Brignole Rosso, L'Annunziata, Albergo dei 
Poveri, Palazzo Balbi, Palazzo Durazzo della Scala, Palazzo 
del Principe Doria. But there are many other objects 
in Genoa full of beauty and interest, and several days 
may be well spent in the examination of its glorious palaces, 
and the treasures they contain. Those who are unequal to 
much exertion will find constant amusement in the view 
from their windows, for which it is most desirable to secure 
rooms on the third story. 

" Genes rend paresseux. De sa fenetre on y jouit trop pour qu'il n'en 
coflte pas d'aller chercher au loin ses curiosites. Le voyageur assez 
heureux pour plonger sur cette vaste mer, sur ce port magnifique qui en 
est comme le vestibule, sur cette foret de mats que les flots balancent 
sous les yeux, ne peut pas s'en arracher. Le mouvement et la vie qui 
se jouent et se deploient sous milles formes diverses, ces legers bateaux 
qui se glissent entre les vaisseaux immobiles, ces voix confuses qui se 
melent au bruit sourd des vagues, les cris des matelots adoucis par 
I'espace, leurs costumes si pittoresques, leurs physionomies si expres- 
sives, cette mer si bleue, ce ciel si pur, cette vive lumiere, ces brises si 
frafches et pourtant si douces, ce cintre qui resserre le tableau afin de 
n'en faire perdre aucun detail, et tout cela un seal coup d'oeil I'embrasse ! 
VOL. I, 3 



34 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Ici vraiment tout ce qui respire jouit, tout ce qui regarde est heureux ! 
II est sans doute un grand nombre de ports de mer qui offrent une vue 
etendue et variee, mais en outre d'une magnificence que Ton chercherait 
vainement ailleurs, les differents plans sur lesquels la ville de Genes est 
batie, semblent comme autant de gradins disposes pour faire jouir les 
habitans de I'eternelle naumachie qui se deploie a leurs regards." — 
Madame Swetchine. 

" Looking out from my bed-i-oom, I saw beneath me rows of lengthy, 
oddly-constructed waggons, laden, some with sacks of corn, some with 
barrels of (I know not what), some with pigs of lead and iron, some with 
cocoa-nut matting, others with logs of timber, others, again, with dried 
fish ; and, what with the ceaseless din of human voices, pitched in 
every key, the clang of iron rails as they were flung from the carts to the 
ground, the blasting of the neighbouring rocks for the fortifications, the 
braying of mules and donkeys, the tinkling of the bells affixed to their 
harness, and the cracking of vetturinos' whips as they whirled their crazy 
vehicles through the streets, the hammering of iron pots and copper 
pans, the chanting monotone of the sailors, with their yo-ho, yo-ho ! as 
they raised anchor before leaving harbour, the creaking of cordage, the 
cries of hucksters as they advertised their wares for sale, and the vibra- 
tion of all the church bells as they chimed the quarters, — I thought my 
tympanum must have burst. I say nothing of the fragrant odours drawn 
forth by the heat of the sun from Parmesan and Gruyere cheese and 
Bologna sausages ; nor will I dwell on the filthy habits of women spit- 
ting and men smoking at every turn. In spite of all these drawbacks, 
the eye enjoys a perpetual feast in the strange dramas acting every 
minute, and the picturesque groups standing at every comer. The 
superfluous energy of gesticulation about the veriest trifle, in which 
almost all classes indulge, would be amusing were it not fatiguing. It 
was but now I saw two men, with naked, nervous arms and legs, and 
swarthy breasts, with no article of clothing on them but cotton drawers, 
flinging their arms about so wildly, and gabbling at each other with such 
frantic vehemence, that I expected blood-shed every instant. The ring- 
ing laugh which succeeded this redundancy of gesture taught me that I 
did not yet understand the national temperament. " — yulian C. Young. 

Emerging from the hotels on the side towards the sea, the 
traveller finds himself in a heavy white-washed arcade be- 
neath the old hotises, a place sufficiently repulsive in its first 
appearance, but always full of life and " movimento," and 
where the character of the Genoese people may be well 



STRADA DEGLI OREFICI. 35 

Studied. Women pass in the veils of Genoa, the graceful thin 
muslin veils of the unmarried women, called pezzottos, and 
the picturesque mezzaras, a kind of gaily-flowered chintz, of 
the married women. It will be observed what numbers of 
priests and monks of every kind still abound in the city 
which is especially dedicated to the Madonna. The Italian 
proverb about Genoa, 

Mare senza pesce*, monti senza legno, uomini senza fede, donnesenza 
vergogna, 

has no truth, and is probably of hostile Pisan origin : cer- 
tainly the Genoese would not be likely to say it of them- 
selves. However, two of the greatest of Italian poets con- 
demn the faults of Genoa : 

"Ahi Genovesi, uomini diversi 
D'ogni costume, e pien d'ogni magagna 
Perche non siete voi del mondo spersi." 

Dante, Inf. jpcxiii. 151. 

"Tue ricchezze non spese, eppur corotte, 
Fan d'ignoranza un denso velo agli uni, 
Superstizion tien gli altri ; a tutti e notte." 

Alfieri, Sonn. 76. 

Following the arcades to the left (from the hotels), the Via 
della Ponte Reale leads to the busy little Piazza Banchi, 
containing the gaily-painted sixteenth-century Exchange — 
Loggia dei Banchi — raised aloft on a balustraded platform. 
From this square opens the Strada degli Orefici, the jewel- 
ler's street, bright with shops of coral, and silver and gold 
filigree-work, chiefly in the form of butterflies, flowers, or 
feathers. On the left of the street, near the end, is a shrine, 
much esteemed by the Genoese, containing a beautiful pic- 
ture of the Virgin and Child with S. Eloy (the patron of 

* There are 180 different kinds. 



36 ITALIAN CITIES. 

smiths), by Pellegrino Piola. Its beauty is said to have 
led to the assassination of the artist, in his twenty-second 
year, by his jealous master Castello. When Napoleon wished 
to remove this picture, the gold and silversmiths effectually 
defended it, and it was never taken to France. 

Returning to the arcades, we have, facing us, the black 
walls and rugged arches of the old Dogana, enclosing the 
Banco di San Giorgio, used for the Bank, which was founded 
in 1346,10 meet the expenses of resisting the Grimaldi of 
Monaco. The building is a memorial of Genoese hatred and 
vengeance against Venice, having been erected stone for stone 
with the materials of a castle belonging to the rival city, 
which fell into the hands of Genoa in 1262, transported 
hither by sea at great cost. Against the outer arches, hung 
for nearly 600 years, a similar memorial of the remorseless 
hatred of Genoa against Pisa — the chains of the Porto 
Pisano, carried off, in 1290, by Conrad Doria, with forty 
galleys : these have lately been restored to Pisa. Amongst 
the decorations of the building is the Griffin of Genoa 
strangling the imperial Eagle, and the Fox of Pisa in its 
claws, with the motto — 

" Griphus ut has angit 

Sic hostes Genua frangit." 

. The upper hall, a striking picture of neglected and decay- 
ing magnificence, is surrounded by two ranges of grand life- 
size statues of Genoese heroes — Spinolas, Dorias, Fieschis, 
&c., the upper row standing, the lower seated. 

In this neighbourhood, closing the eastern side of the 
harbour, is the Porto Franco. Here there is a curious 
population of porters, founded in 1340 by the Banco di 
S. Giorgio, which imported 12 porters hither from the 



I 

{ 

i 






CATHEDRAL OF GENOA. 37 

valley of Brembana, of which the inhabitants were famous 
for their industry and honesty. In order to succeed to his 
father's employment it was indispensable that a son should 
be born, either within the precincts of the Porto Franco, or in 
the villages of Piazza and Lugno, and such was the morality 
of the colony that in the annals of the police no complaint 
has ever been brought against its people. The Caravanas, 
as they were called, from the Arab fashion of their amval, 
had the privilege of selling their posts to their compatriots, 
and these were often valued at as much as 10,000 francs. 
Now they have lost their privileges, and the Facchini xaa.y be 
^simple Genoese. 

We now turn to the left, by the Via S. Lorenzo, to the 
"Cathedral, which was chiefly built in the twelfth century, 
and restored in the fourteenth. It is striped in alternate 
courses of black and white marble, like most of the great 
Genoese buildings. In the west front are three tall Gothic 
portals, divided by twisted columns taken after the siege of 
Almeria, in 1148, and approached by a staircase guarded by 
two grand couchant lions. Over the central door is a relief of 
the martyrdom of S. Lorenzo, the patron-saint of the church. 
On the right is a beautiful semi-detached column, with a 
saint in a niche, resting on a grotesque monster. 

The church is approached through a kind of vestibule 
or inner porch, and the effect of its interlacing arches is 
very striking. The nave, which is far the finest part of 
the building, is separated from the aisles by dark marble 
pillars, supporting striped arcades of black and white marble. 
Here and there a crimson curtain gives a bright patch of 
colour, which is repeated in the figures kneeling below. 
The chapel of the Doges at the end of the right aisle has 



38 ITALIAN CITIES. 

a great Crucifixion, by Vandyke : the arrangement is rather 
stiff; S. Sebastian is represented with the Virgin and S. John 
at the foot of the Cross. The choir is renaissance, with stalls 
of mtarsia-vfoxk. Before a chapel on the left of the altar 
kneels the marble figure of Cardinal Pallavicini : the Genoese 
say that he has confessed and long sought absolution, but 
still waits for it. From the centre of the left aisle opens the 
rich and picturesque Chapel of S. John the Baptist, built 
1496. It is decorated with statues by Guglielmo delta Porta, 
and Matteo Civitali di S. Giovanni (a Florentine), 1490. 

" The finest among the statues is that of Zacharias, a noble figure, 
clad in the official robes of a Jewish high priest, standing with arms 
raised to heaven as if 'executing the priest's office before God in the 
order of his course.' The Elisabeth is remarkable for its fine drapery 
and grandiose style ; the Habakkuk is a striking figure ; but the Adam 
wants dignity, and the Eve is coarse and without expression." — Perkin's 
Tuscan Sculptors. 

The shrine is adorned with hanging lamps, always kept 
burning. The relics ot the saint are preserved in a silver 
shrine by Daniele di Terramo (1437). In consequence of 
the crime of Herodias' daughter, an edict of Innocent VIII. 
forbids females to enter the chapel except on one day in 
the year. In the treasury of the cathedral (only shown by 
a special order from the Municipality) is the Sacro Catino, 
long shown to the people as the vessel used by Our Saviour 
at the Last Supper; another tradition tells that it was 
originally given to King Solomon by the Queen of Sheba. 
When Cesarea was taken by the Genoese and Pisan Cru- 
saders in 1 10 1, the Genoese gave up to the Pisans all the 
rest of the booty, on condition that the Sacro Catino was 
left to them. Nothing could exceed the veneration with 
which it was afterwards regarded at Genoa. Twelve knights 



S. MATTEO. 39 

called " Clavigeri " were appointed as its special guard, each 
being responsible during one month of the year for the safety 
of the tabernacle in which it was contained. It was believed 
to be formed from a single emerald, and as there were heretics 
to this faith, in 1476 a law appeared, punishing with death 
any one who made experiments upon the Sacro Catino, " by 
touching it, with gold, stones, coral, or any other substance." 
Unfortunately it was carried to Paris in 1809, and, when 
sent back in 18 15, it was broken between Turin and Genoa. 

" II resulte que Genes ne croit plus que le Sacro Catino soit une 
emeraude. 

'* Genes ne croit plus que cette emeraude ait ete donnee par la reine de 
Saba a Salomon ; —Genes ne croit plus que dans cette emeraude Jesus- 
Christ ait mange I'agneau pascal. Si aujourd'hui Genes reprenait 
Cesaree, Genes demanderait sa part du butin, et laisserait aux Pisans le 
Sacro Catino, qui n'est que de verre." — Dumas. 

Turning to the right on leaving the west door of the 
cathedral, by the Via and Salita del Arcivescovado, we 
reach the Church of S. Maiteo. The little platform in front 
of the church is surrounded by curious fifteenth-century 
palaces. One (right) has a long inscription relating to the 
victories of the Dorias. Two others have reliefs above 
their doors, of S. George and the Dragon. The palace in 
the right-hand corner, striped with black and white marble, 
and with a door richly-adorned with arabesques, was that of 
the famous Andrea Doria, given to him by the Republic, 
and bears the inscription : Senat. Cons. Andrecz de Oria 
Patria Liberatori Afutius Publicum. 

" This house was Andrea Doria' s. Here he lived ; 
And here at eve relaxing, when ashore, 
Held many a pleasant, many a grave discourse 
With them that sought hirn, walking to and fro 



40 ITALIAN CITIES. 

As on his deck. 'Tis less in length and breadth 
Than many a cabin in a ship of war ; 
But 'tis of marble, and at once inspires 
The reverence due to ancient dignity. 

He left it for a better ; and 'tis now 
A house of trade, the meanest merchandise 
Cumbering its floors. Yet, fallen as it is, 
'Tis still the noblest dwelling — even in Genoa ! 
And hadst thou, Andrea, lived there to the last, 
Thou hadst done well ; for there is that without. 
That in the wall, which monarchs could not give, 
Nor thou take with thee, that which says aloud. 
It was thy Country's gift to her Deliverer. 






'Tis in the heart of Genoa (he who comes, \ 

Must come on foot) and in a place of stir ; 

Men on their daily business, early and late, 

Thronging thy very threshold. But, when there, 

Thou wert among thy fellow-citizens. 

Thy children, for they hailed thee as their sire ; 

And on a spot thou must have loved, for there. 

Calling them round, thou gav'st them more than life. 

Giving what, lost, makes life not worth the keeping. 

There thou didst do indeed a deed divine ; 

Nor couldst thou leave thy door nor enter in, 

Without a blessing on thee. " — Rogers. 

It was from the platform in front of the church that 
Andrea Doria harangued the people in 1528, urging them 
to resist the French, who were then besieging the town. 
In the beautiful little cloister, on the left of the church, are 
the remains of the colossal statues of Giannettino Doria and 
another of the family, erected in front of the Doge's palace 
in 1577, and broken to pieces by the mob in 1797. 

The church itself is of the thirteenth century, and striped 
with black and white marble. On the right of the west front, 
in low relief, are some shields of the Dorias ; and, beneath 
the window, an ancient sarcophagus, in which Laraba Doria 



S. MATTEO. 



41 



was buried in 1323. Over the high altar hangs the sword of 
Andrea Doria, sent to him in 1535 by Pope Paul III. At 




Cloisters of S. Matteo, Genoa. 

the end of the left aisle is the Doria Chapel, with a picture 
of Andrea and his wife kneeling at the feet of the Saviour. 
Hence we enter a crypt adorned with stucco-reliefs by 
Montorsoli, containing the tomb which Andrea Doria erected 
for himself in his life-time, with figures allegorical of Vigilance 
and Plenty. Facing it is a Reliquary of the True Cross, of 
which the keys are always kept by the present Prince 
Pamfili-Doria. The figures behind the high altar and the 
beautiful balconied organ-loft are by Montorsoli. All the 
monuments of the Dorias in suppressed churches or con- 
vents have been collected in this church and its cloister. 
The burial-place of Andrea Doria will recall the lines of 
Ariosto — 

" Questo e quel Doria, che fa dai Pirati 
Sicuro il vostro mar per tutti i lati. 

Non fu Pompejo a par di costui degno, 
Se ben vinse e caccio tutti i corsari : 



42 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Per6 che quelli al piii possente regno 
Che fosse mai, non poteano esser pari ; 
Ma questo Doria sol col proprio ingegno 
E proprie forze purghera quel mari ; 
Si che da Calpe al Nilo, ovunque s'oda 
II nome suo, tremar veggio ogni proda. 

Questi ed ognaltro che la patria tenta 
Di libera far serva, si arrossisca ; 
Ne dove il nome d' Andrea Doria senta, 
Di levar gli occhi in viso d' uomo ardisca. 
Veggio Carlo che'l premio gli augumenta ; 
Ch' oltre quel ch' in commun vuol che fruisca 
Gli dk la ricca terra, ch' ai Normandi 
Sari principio a farli in Puglia grandi." — 

Orlando Furioso, xv. 

Hence we may ascend to the handsome Piazza Carlo 
Felice, containing the modern Exchange and Theatre. Close 
by is the modern Palazzo Ducale, occupying the site of the 
ancient Palace of the Doges, and with a handsome marble 
hall and staircase. Facing the palace is the Church of 
Sanf Ambrogio, built by the Pallavicini. It contains 
three large and good pictures, which are shown by the 
Sacristan : — 

Guido. The Assumption of the Virgin. 

Jtubms. The Circumcision (over the high altar). 

Rubens. S. Ignatius healing a Demoniac. 

From the Piazza Carlo Felice opens the street of the 
same name. On the left is the Palazzo Pallavicini, once 
remarkable for its pictures, now removed to the Palazzo 
Durazzo in the Via Balbi. We now reach the Piazza delle 
Fontane Amorose. On the left is the post-office. On the 
right are the handsome Palazzo Negroni and another 
Palazzo Pallavicini. The upper end of the square is 



1 



ACQUA SOLA, PALAZZO SPINOLA. 43 

occupied by the picturesque Palazzo Spinola dei Marmi, built 
of black and white marble in the fifteenth century, and adorned 
with statues of Spinolas, commemorated beneath by ancient 
Gothic inscriptions. This palace was erected with the 
materials of the old Fieschi Palace, destroyed by the Senate 
to punish their conspiracy in 1336. It contains some early 
frescoes of Luca Catnbiaso, or Lucchetto da Genova, 1527 — 
1580, one of the best of the Genoese painters. 

(On the left of the palace the steep Salita di Sta Catarina 
leads to the beautiful Prommenade of Acqiia Sola, much 
frequented by the Genoese in summer. Here is the Caffe d* 
Italia, in a pleasant garden. 

At the top of the Salita, on the left, is the old Palazzo 
Spinola, having a grand entrance court covered with decaying 
frescoes. The rooms open upon a marble terrace, where the 
walls are decorated in fresco by pupils of Pierino del Vaga. 
Among the pictures are : — 

Pierino del Vaga. Holy Family. 

Fiasella. Samson bound. 

Bonifazio. The Prodigal Son. 

Unknown. Portrait of Baldassare Castiglione. 

Tintoret. A fine portrait of a Spinola (signed). 

Vandyke. Portrait of a Spinola. 

Ann. Caracci. S. Jerome. 

Titian. Holy Family. 

Here also is a beautiful bronze figure by Giovanfii da 
Bologna. 

The street beneath the arch of Acqua Sola leads to the 
English Church.) 

From the Piazza delle Fontane Amorose opens the Via 
Nuova, a succession of palaces, one more splendid than 
another. 



44 ITALIAN CITIES. 

" When can one forget the streets of palaces ; the Strada Nuova and 
the Strada Balbi ; or how the former looks when seen under the brightest 
and most intensely blue of summer skies, which its narrow perspective of 
immense mansions reduces to a tapering and most precious strip of 
brightness, looking down upon the heavy shade below. The endless 
details of these rich palaces ; the walls of some of them within, alive 
with master-pieces of Vandyke. The great heavy stone balconies one 
above another, and tier above tier, with here and there one larger than 
the rest, towering high up, a huge marble platform ; the doorless vesti- 
bules, massively-barred lower windows, immense public staircases, thick 
marble pillars, strong, dungeon-like arches, and dreary, dreaming, echoing, 
vaulted chambers, among which the eye wanders again, and again, and 
again, as every palace is succeeded by another ; the terrace-gardens 
between house and house, with green arches of the vine, and groves of 
orange-trees, and blushing oleanders in full bloom, twenty, thirty, forty 
feet above the street ; the painted halls mouldering and blotting and rot- 
ting in the damp comers, and still shining out in bright colours and 
voluptuous designs where the walls are dry ; the faded figures on the 
outsides of the houses, holding wreaths, and crowns, and flying upward 
and downward, and standing in niches, and here and there looking 
fainter and more feeble than elsewhere by contrast with some fresh little 
cupids, who on a more recently decorated portion of the front, are 
stretching out what seems to be the semblance of a blanket, but is, in- 
deed, a sun-dial ; the steep, steep, uphill streets of small palaces (but 
very large palaces for all that), with marble terraces looking down into 
close by-ways, the magnificent and innumerable churches ; and the 
rapid passage from a street of stately edifices into a maze of the vilest 
squalor, steaming with unwholesome stenches, and swarming with half- 
naked children, and whole worlds of dirty people, make up, altogether, 
such a scene of wonder ; so lively and yet so dead ; so noisy and yet so 
quiet ; so obtrusive and yet so shy and lowering ; so wide awake and 
yet so fast asleep ; that it is a sort of intoxication to a stranger to walk 
on, and on, and on, and look about him. A bewildering phantasmagoria, 
with all the inconsistency of a dream, and all the pain and all the 
pleasure of an extravagant reality. "— Dickens. 

Passing (right) the Cambiaso, Parodi, and Del Sindaco 
Palaces we reach (No. 9) Palazzo Doria Tursi, now belong- 
ing to the municipality, with a hanging terraced garden. In 
the beautiful entrance court is a good statue of Giuseppe 
Mazzini. We must ascend the splendid vast marble staircase 



I 

1 



PALAZZO ROSSO. 45 

to the great hall, now the Sala Communale, adorned with 
modern mosaics of Columbus and Marco Polo. The room 
on the right contains a hollow pillar, filled with the MS. 
letters of Columbus, and surmounted by his bust. The room 
on the left contains the bronze Tabula (discovered 1506), 
recording the investigation of a boundary question between 
the Genuenses and the Veturii, by Quintus Marcus Minutius, 
and Q. F. Rufus in a. u. c. 633. Here also are a few good 
pictures, especially a triptych of Albert Durer, representing 
the Virgin and Child with S. Mark and S. Nicholas, and a 
Van Eyck of the Crucifixion with the Virgin and S. John. 
A sort of shrine, lined with pink silk, contains the relics of 
Paganini — his miniature, his medals, and his violin with its 
case. 

No. 18, in the Via Nuova, is the magnificent Palazzo 
Brignole Sale, or Palazzo Posso (from the red colour with 
which it is painted), lately made over by the Duchess 
Galiera, the heiress of the Brignole family, to the Municipio, 
on condition of its being kept up, and its art collections 
being undisturbed — an act of extraordinary magnificence, 
as the palace alone was valued at three millions of francs, 
and the Library, included in the gift, is particularly rich in 
" memoires pour servir " for the period of the French Re- 
volution. The best pictures are : 

^rd Chamber [Sala della Primaverd). — 

Vandyke. Portrait of a Prince of Orange. 

*Id. Portrait of the Marchese Giulio Brignole, riding and waving his 
hat, with his dog running by his side. 

•/</. Portrait of the Marchesa Paolina Brignole (wife of Marchese 
Giulio), a lovely woman, in a blue gown embroidered with 
gold, and a black feather in her chestnut hair. 

Id. Our Saviour bearing his Cross. 

Paris Bordone. A portrait with red sleeves — splendid in colouring. 



46 ITALIAN CITIES. 

/^th Chamber {Sala d' Estate). — 

Guercino. The Buyers and Sellers expelled from the Temple. 
Guido. S. Sebastian, a replica of the famous picture at the Capitol. 

5/// Chamber {Sala d' Autumjio). — 
Bonifazio Veneziano. The Virgin and Child, the Mother in a white 
veil, in an open portico, receiving the adoration of the Magi. 

dth Chamber {Sala d' Inverno). — 
P. Veronese. Judith and Holofernes. 

1th Chamber {Sala della Vita dell' Uomo). — 
Vandyke. Young man in a Spanish dress. 

*Id. Marchese Jeronima Brignole and her daughter (mother and 
sister of Marchese Giulio). 

No. 40 is the Palazzo Serra, splendidly adorned with 
gilding and modern painting, but not much worth visiting. 

Further, on the left, a little behind the street, is the 
Church of S. Siro, once the Cathedral, when it was called 
La Basilica dei Dodici Apostoli. Here the popular assem- 
blies were held, in which in 1257 Guglielmo Boccanera 
was made Captain of the People, and in which in 1339 
Simone Boccanera was elected first Doge of Genoa. The 
ancient building, however, has almost disappeared under 
alterations. 

Here we enter the Via JVuovissima, a street of shops, less 
aristocratic than the others. It leads into the Piazza deir 
Annunziata. The Church of the Annunziata is splendid of 
its kind, has fine marble columns, and is gilt with old 
Genoese zecchini. Over the entrance is a Last Supper by 
Procaccini. The church was built by the Lomellini, sove- 
reigns of Tabarea, an island on the north coast of Africa, 
till 1741. 

"The S. Annunziata was built at the sole expense of the Lomellini 
family, it is said, towards tlie end of the seventeenth century ; llioiigh 



ALB ERGO DEI POVERI, PALAZZO BALBL 47 

how a church so pure in design came to be executed then is by no 
means clear. The church is a basilica of considerable dimensions, being 
82 feet wide, exclusive of the side chapels, and 250 feet long. The nave 
is separated from the aisles by a range of Corinthian columns of white 
marble, the fluting being inlaid with marbles of a warmer colour. The 
walls throughout, from the entrance to the apse, are covered with 
precious marbles, aiianged in patterns of great beauty. The roof of the 
nave is divided longitudinally into three compartments, which prevents 
the awkwardness that is usually observed where windows of a semi- 
circular form cut into a semi-circular vault. Here it is done as 
artistically as it could be done in the best Gothic vaults. The one 
defect that strikes the eye is that the hollow lines of the Corinthian 
capitals are too weak to support the pier-arches, though this criticism is 
equally applicable to all the original Roman basilicas of the Constan- 
tinian age ; but, nevertheless, the whole is in such good taste, so rich 
and so elegant, that it is probably the very best church of its class in 
Italy. " — Fergus son. 

(The Via S. Agnese, behind the A.nnunziata, leads to the 
immense Albergo del Foveri, beautifully-situated on a height, 
with a fine sea view. It is a grand foundation of Emanuele 
Brignole in 1564, and has been enriched by most of the 
other great Genoese families. The long white chapel, on the 
upper floor, has, at its high altar, a much-praised statue of 
the Virgin by Fuget, and, over a side altar on the left, a small 
Pieta of Michael Angela, wonderfully touching and beautiful. 

Over the staircase and in the court are interesting statues 
of founders and benefactors.) 

We now enter the Via Balbi, the most striking street in 
Genoa. The splendour of the palaces seems to increase at 
every step. 

On the left (No. 4) is Palazzo Balbi, entered by a most 
lovely cortile, enclosed by triple rows of slender columns, 
through which a brilliant orange garden is seen. This is 
the most comfortable and well-furnished of all the Genoese 
palaces. The family inhabit the upper apartment, but 



4? ITALIAN CITIES. 

generously allow it to be shown to strangers. It contains — 

Great If all. — 

Vandyke. Francesco Maria Balbi on horseback. 

// Cappuccino. Joseph interpreting the dream of the Chief Butler. 

jst Chamber. — 
Guido Reni. Lucrezia. 

Titian. The Virgin and Child, with S. Catherine and S. Dominic. 
Vandyke. Madonna with a pomegranate. 

2nd Chamber. — 

• Vandyke. Philip II. on horseback (the head by Velasquez), the horse 
quite magnificent 
Id. A lady in a blue and gold dress, seated with a fan. 
Id. A male portrait standing, in a black cloak and dress. 

yd Chamber. — 

Caravaggio. The Conversion of S. Paul. 

Ann. Caracci. Portrait of a girl. A most refined and lovely picture. 

Gallery. — 

Garofalo. Holy Family. 
H. Hemmling. Crucifixion. 

On the right (No. i) is the magnificent Palazzo Durazzo 
delta Scala. Its beautiful court is surrounded by marble 
pillars, and approached by a staircase with a triple row of 
pillars upon the steps. As the Marchesa Durazzo is daughter 
and heiress of the late Prince Pallavicini, the Pallavicini 
collection is now removed here. Amongst the pictures of 
the Durazzo collection are — 

1st Chamber. — 
Ann. Caracci. A grand Portrait 

2nd Chamber. — 

Andrea del Sarto. Virgin and Child. 
Guido Reni. Sleeping Child. 
Rubens. Portrait of himself. 



PALAZZO DELV UNIVERSITA. 



49 



4M Chamber {passing the Sala Grande). — 

* Vandyke. The White Boy ("Ragazzo in abito bianco"), a most 

beautiful picture. The parrot, monkey, and fruit are by Snyders. 
Vandyke. Children of James I. of England. 
Rubens. Philip IV. 
Vandyke. A Lady and the Children. 

The Pallavicini collection includes : 

A so-called Raphael. " La Madonna della Colonna." 
Albert Durer. Virgin and Child. 

* Vandyke. The family of James I. of England. 
Luca d'Olanda. The Descent from the Cross. 

No. 5 of the Via Balbi is the Palazzo delV University, 
approached from its cortile by a magnificent staircase, 
guarded by the most grand lions. It contains some statues 




/I ^\ \ \ 

Staircase of Palazzo dell' University, Genoa. 



and bas-reliefs by Giovanni de Bologna, and has a Museum 
of Natural History and a Botanical Garden. 

VOL. I. 4 



50 ITALIAN CITIES. 

No. 10 is the Palazzo Reale, purchased from the family 
of Durazzo in 1815, and fitted up as a residence by Charles 
Albert in 1842. Its pictures have, for the most part, been 
removed. 

The Via Balbi ends in the Piazza Acqua Verde (where is 
the entrance to the Railway Station), adorned with a modem 
monument to Columbus. It is here that Massena, after 
having held the place for 60 days, and having exhausted all 
his resources, even to the saddles of his horses — themselves 
eaten long ago, assembled the brave remnant of his garrison, 
who sang French patriotic songs in the midst of their 
Austrian conquerors. 

Beyond the piazza, near the sea, is another palace, the 
magnificent Palazzo del Principe, so called from the title 
granted by Charles V. to Andrea Doria, by whom the 
Palazzo Fregoso, presented in 1522, was rebuilt on this site 
under Montorsoli. It bears the inscription : " Divino munere, 
Andreas D'Oria (Cevae. F. S. R. Ecclesiae Caroli Im- 
peratoris Catolici maximi et invictissimi Francisci Primi 
Francorum Regis et Patriae classis triremium III I. praefectus 
ut maximo labore jam fesso corpore honesto otio quiesceret, 
aedes sibi et successoribus instauravit. mdxxviii." 

On the upper floor is a loggia (now glazed), richly de- 
corated with stucco by Montorsoli, and painted in fresco 
by Pierino del Vaga, with portraits of the Dorias in heroic 
costume. Andrea is at the end of the loggia on the right, 
his brother Gioberti on the left. Lovely '* putti " occupy the 
lunettes above. By the fresco of Andrea, we enter a great 
hall with a grand black and white marble chimney, and 
furniture of the time of the great admiral. On the ceiling is 
the Fall of the Giants, by Pierino del Vaga. Beyond this, is 



S. GIOVANNI DI PRE. 51 

Andrew Doria's bed-room, with a picture of him with his 
favourite cat, and his portantina. The ceiUng represents the 
Caritas Romana. Beyond the loggia a deUghtful marble 
terrace on arches overhangs the garden and overlooks the 
port and town. Here, where the waves lap under the orange 
trees, Andrew Doria gave to the ambassadors his famous 
banquet, in which the plate was renewed three times, and 
after each course was thrown into the sea. On the fountain 
Andrew Doria is represented as Neptune. In another 
garden, behind the palace, is the tomb of the dog which 
Charles V. gave him — " II gran Roldano." He died in the 
absence of Andrea Doria, and was buried by his servants at 
the foot of a statue of Jupiter, in order that, in the words of 
the epitaph, " though dead he might not cease to guard a 
god." It was in passing through the small gate of the neigh- 
bouring Porta S. Tommaso that Gianettino, the son of An- 
drea, was killed. 

Further, on the left, are the lovely Scoglietto Gardens, 
whose balustraded terraces and mazes of flowers, with views 
of the sea between, are a perfect dream of beauty from 
March to November. 

In returning to the Hotels, the Church of S. Giovanni di 
Prl may be visited. It dates from the thirteenth century, 
and belonged to the Knights of S. John. In the adjoining 
convent. Pope Urban V. resided after his return from Avig- 
non, and here Pope Urban VI. murdered, in 1386, five of the 
cardinals whom he made prisoners at Lucera, because he dis- 
covered that they were plotting to restrict the evil use of the 
papal power. Some say they were tied up in sacks and thrown 
into the sea, others that they were put to death in prison 
and buried in a dungeon ; only Adam of Hertford, Bishop of 



52 ITALIAN CITIES. 

London, was spared, at the intervention of King Richard II. 
A separate excursion should be made to the humbler and 
more populous quarter of Genoa, where, instead of streets 
of palaces, we shall find only narrow alleys of tall houses, 
where cats can jump from roof to roof across the way, and 
where only a narrow slit of blue sky shines down upon the 
darkness. 

" In the smaller streets the wonderful novelty of everything, the un- 
usual smells, the unaccountable filth, the disorderly jumbling of dirty 
houses, one upon the roof of another ; the passages more squalid and 
more close than any in St. Giles's, or in old Paris ; in and out of which, 
not vagabonds, but well-dressed women, with white veils and great fans, 
are passing and repassing ; the entire absence of any resemblance in 
any dwelling-house, or shop, or wall, or post, or pillar, to anything one 
has ever seen before ; and the disheartening dirt, discomfort, and decay, 
perfectly confound one. One is only conscious of a feverish and be- 
wildered vision of saints' and virgins' shrines at the street corners ; of 
great numbers of friars, monks, and soldiers ; of red curtains waving at 
the doorways of churches ; of always going uphill, and yet seeing every 
other street and passage going higher up ; of fruit-stalls, with fresh 
lemons and oranges hanging in garlands made of vine leaves .... And 
the majority of the streets are as narrow as any thoroughfare can well be, 
where people (even Italian people) are supposed to live and walk about, 
being mere lanes, with here and there a kind of well, or breathing-place. 
The houses are immensely high, painted in all sorts of colours, and are 
in every stage and state of damage, dirt, and lack of repair. They are 
commonly let off in floors or flats, like the houses in the old town of 
Edinburgh, or many houses in Paris. There are few street doors ; the 
entrance halls are, for the most part, looked upon as public property, 
and any moderately-enterprising scavenger might make a fine fortune 
by now and then cleaning them out" — Dickens. 

Following the arcades below the hotels (to the left) to 
their end, we find steps leading up from the end of the Porto 
Franco to the ramparts overhanging the sea, which are 
always crowded with fishermen and sailors from the different 
Riviera ports, who sit in groups on the broad flags, sprawl 
in the sun upon the wall, or play at Mora, in their briUiant 



S. MARIA m CASTELLO. 53 

red beretti, loose white jackets, and crimson sashes. Most 
glorious are the views towards the Rivieras, that towards 
Pegli being backed by snowy Alpine ranges, while to the 
south the lovely promontory of Porto Fine stretches out 
into the sea, beyond the village and ruined church of Albaro. 

" The Mediterranean is no more than a vast mass of salt water, if 
people choose to think it so ; but it is also the most magnificent thing in 
the world, if you choose to think it so ; and it is as truly the latter as it 
is the former. And as the pococurante temper is not the happiest, and 
that which can admire heartily is much more akin to that which can 
love heartily, 6 Sk uyuirwv, Onf ijSrf S^otoc,— so, my children, I wish 
that if ever you come to Genoa, you may think the Mediterranean to be 
more than any common sea, and may be unable to look upon it without 
a deep stirring of delight." — Dr. Arnold's Letters. 

Near the little striped Romanesque Church of S. Giacomo 
the steep Salita di S. Maria in Castello leads to the church 
of that name, also striped of black and white marble, and 
said to occupy the site of a temple of Diana, of which the 
twelve granite pillars separating the nave from the aisles are 
relics. The third chapel on the right is ancient, and con- 
tains a very striking picture by Ludovico Brea of the Virgin 
in glory, with a group of saints beneath, and an interesting 
predella of the Entombment. The lower part of the chapel 
is decorated with excellent azulejos. In the choir are tombs 
of the Giustiniani. A Gothic stone pulpit projecting from 
the wall of the chapel on the left of the high altar, and the 
flat grave-stones, with incised portraits of ancient Genoese 
citizens, should be observed. In the first chapel on the left 
is an ancient sarcophagus, and above it a very curious panel- 
picture of the Virgin and saints. 

Turning left, below the church, we reach the small Piazza 
Embriaci, with an inscription which tells that — "Round 
this piazza the Embriaci had their home, a family renowned 



54 ITALIAN CITIES. 

in the wars of the cross and in their own country. Behind, 
rises intact the giant height of their ancient tower." Not 
far distant is another inscription of 1360, commemorating 
the destruction of the palace of the Raggio family, on that 
site, to punish their conspiring against the State (a similar 
inscription near the Church of S. Maria in Via Lata com- 
memorates the site of the Fieschi palace). Close by is the 
Church of S. Donato, with an octagonal bell-tower of the 
twelfth century. Hence the Stradone di S. Agostino leads to 
the beautiful but ruined front of that church, of the fourteenth 
century : the campanile is inlaid with coloured tiles. Be- 
hind the church is the Piazza di Fontorta,vi\ih a picturesque 
chicken-market. Hence the broad paved Via de Ponte di 
Carignano leads across that extraordinary bridge to the 
church, which is such a prominent feature in all distant views 
of the town. In winter the bridge is a sunny and delightful 
walk, and from it you look down on the immensely high, 
many-storied, many-windowed houses of this crowded 
quarter ; painted pink, blue, white, and yellow ; with gardens 
of flowers on their roofs ; with clothes suspended in mid-air 
from house to house. In the deep streets below are figures 
moving like ants, in an obscurity which seems almost black 
compared with the light above ; and beyond all, is the deep 
blue sea, with the port, the light-house, the shipping, and 
the lovely chains of pink mountains fading into an amber 
sky. 

The Church of S. Maria di Carignano was built in 1552, 
entirely at the expense of the Sauli family. 

" Voici a quel evenement cette eglise, Tune des plus belles de G^nes, 
doit son existence. 

' ' Le Marquis de Sauli, I'un des hommes les plus riches et les plus 
probes de Genes, avait plusieurs palais dans la ville, et un entre autres 



I 



S. AfAHIA DI CARIGNANO. 55 

qu'il habitait de preference et qui etait situe sur remplacement meme oii 
seleve aujourdhui Teglise de Carignan. Comme il n'avait point de 
chapelle i lui, il avait I'habitude d'aller entendre la messe dans celle de 
Santa Maria in Via Lata, qui appartenait a la famille Fiesque. Un jour, 
Fiesque fit hater I'heure de I'office, de sorte que le marquis de Sauli 
arriva quand il etait fini. La premiere fois qu'il rencontra son elegant 
voisin, il s'en plaignit a lui en riant. 

" — Mon cher marquis, lui dit Fiesque, quand on veutaller a la messe, 
on a une chapelle a soi. 

" Le Marquis de Sauli fit jeter has son palais, et fit elever a la place 
I'eglise de Sainte Marie de Carignan." — Dumas. 

"As an example of how bad it is possible for a desig[n to be, without 
having any faults which it is easy to take hold of, we may take the much- 
praised church of the Carignano at Genoa. It was built by Galeasso 
Alassi, one of the most celebrated architects of Italy, the friend of 
Michael Angelo and Sangallo, and the architect to whom Genoa owes 
its architectural splendour, as much as Vicenza owes hers to Falladio, 
or the city of London to Wren. 

" The church is not large, being only 165 feet square, and the dome 46 
feet in internal diameter. It has four towers at the four angles, and when 
seen at a distance these five principal features of the roof group pleas- 
ingly together. But the great window in the tympanum, and the two 
smaller windows on each side, are most unpleasing ; neither of them has 
any real connection with the design, and yet they are the principal 
features of the whole ; and the prominence given to pilasters and panels 
instead is most unmeaning. If we add to this, that the details are all of 
the coarsest and vulgarest kind, the materials plaster and bad stone, and 
the colours introduced crude and inharmonious, it will be understood 
how low architectural taste had sunk when and where it was built. Its 
situation, it is true, is very grand, and it groups in consequence well with 
the city it crowns ; but all this only makes more apparent the fault of the 
architect, who misapplied so grand an opportunity in so discreditable a 
manner. " — Fergusson. 

Under the cupola are great statues of S. John and S. 
Bartholomew by David, and S. Sebastian and the Blessed 
Alessandro Sauli by Puget. The pictures are good speci- 
mens of second-class artists. Beginning from the right, we 
see: 

Domenico Piola. S. Peter and S. John healing the palsied man. 
Carlo Maratta, Martyrdom of S. Biagio. 



S6 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Girolamo Piola. Virgin ("miraculous") and saints. 
Vanni da Siena. The last Sacrament of S. Mary of Egypt, 
Fiasella. Alessandro Sauli in the plague of Corsica. A very fine 
picture. 

Cambiaso. The Deposition. 

Procatcini. The Virgin with S. Francis and S. Carlo Borromeo. 

Guercino. S. Francis receiving the stigmata. 

In the sacristy, is the gem of the church — an Albert Durer, 
brought from an older church of the SauH family, represent- 
ing S. Fabiano, S. Sebastian, S. J. Baptist, and S. Antonio, 
with the Annunciation, and a Piet^. 

Behind the church, on the left, the broad Via Galeazzo 
Alessi, and a shady rampart looking towards the mountains 
(which continues to Acqua Sola), leads to the Church of S. 
Stefano, with a stumpy brick Romanesque tower, a striped 
marble front, and a beautiful small cloister. Over the high 
altar is a picture of the Martyrdom of S. Stephen, supposed 
to be the joint-work of Raphael and Giulio Romano, given 
to the Republic of Genoa by Leo X. It was taken to Paris 
by Napoleon, and, while there, was retouched by Girodet. 

From the west front of S. Stefano, the Via della Ponte 
degli Archi leads to the Vico di Pontecello, at the entrance 
of which is a curious relief, relating to the capture of the 
Porto Pisano by Conrad Doria, in 1260. Hence, passing 
under the magnificent lofty old gate, called Porta di S. An- 
drea, we again reach (right) the Piazza Nuova. 



The visitor to Genoa will be constantly struck by the 
immensity and magnificence of the old decaying villas and 
palaces, with which, not only the city itself, but its outskirts 
and all the surrounding villages, are filled. This perhaps is 
owing to the fact that the sumptuary laws of the republic, 



FROM GENOA TO TURIN. 57 

which forbade fetes, velvet and brocaded dresses, and 
diamonds, did not extend to buildings, into which channel 
therefore the national extravagance of the people was 
diverted. The luxury of building is nowhere more manifest 
than in the suburb of Albaro, which abounds in mouldering 
colonnades, painted walls, and decaying terraces. Here, 
beautifully placed above the sea-shore, is a ruined church, 
dedicated to S. John the Baptist, because here his relics 
were first received upon their arrival at Genoa. 

I'he Campo Santo of Genoa is beautifully situated, and 
deserves a visit. 

An excursion may be made to the villas at Pegli (see 
chap i.), about half-an-hour by rail, 90 c. (a carriage 12 
frs.). An order for the Villa should be asked for from the 
porter of the Palazzo Pallavicini Durazzo. 

Porto Fino (see chap, iii.) may also be visited in the day 
from Genoa, as also many other places on both Rivieras. 



The Railway from Genoa to Turin (18 frs. 30 c. ; 12 frs. 80 
c. ; 9 frs. 15 c.), passes through the Apennines by a tunnel and 
the valley of the Scrivia, and then across the plains of Aless- 
andria and Asti. The journey occupies about five hours. 



CHAPTER HI. 

THE RIVIERA DI LEVANTE— CARRARA AND 

MASSA. 

(TTie new railway from Genoa to Pisa, lyfts. 65 c. ; ijfrs. 20 c.; gfi^. 
75 c, allows the traveller to accomplish the journey in six hours, but at 
great sacrifice of the beautiful scenery and quiet enjoyment with which it 
was fonnerly attended. He may, however, compensate himself by giving 
the time thus gained to spending a few days between Spezia and Massa 
Ducale, which are both delightful centres for excursions of perfectly 
ideal loveliness.) 

THE first station of any importance is Nervi {Pension, 
II Stabilimento Inglese), a place which is much fre- 
quented by EngUsh invalids in winter. From the railway 
and from the dusty high-road it appears most unattractive, 
but there are charming orange groves between the houses 
and the sea, with beautiful views towards Porto Fino. Still, 
to those who are in good health, Ner\d will, at best, be a 
beautiful prison, as there are no walks, and its gardens are 
hemmed in on all sides by the mountains. 

Camogli (stat.) may be made the subject of a pleasant 
excursion from Genoa. 

" Camogli, seen from the road above, is like a tiny model on the 
margin of the dimpled water, shining in the sun. Descended into, by 
the winding mule-tracks, it is a perfect miniature of a primitive sea-faring 
town ; the saltest, roughest, most piratical little place that ever was seen. 
Great rusty iron rings and mooring chains, capstans, and fragments of 
old masts and spars, choke up the way ; hardy rough-weather boats, 
and seamen's clothing, flutter in the little harbour, or are drawn out on 
the sunny stones to dry ; on the parapet of the rude pier a few amphibi- 



RUT A AND PORTO-FIN 0. 59 

ous-looking fellows lie asleep, with their legs dangling over the wall, as 
though earth and water were all one to them, and if they slipped in, 
they would float away, dozing comfortably among the fishes ; the church 
is bright with trophies of the sea, and votive offerings, in commemora- 
tion of escape from storm and shipwreck. The dwellings not immedi- 
ately abutting on the harbour are approached by blind low archways, 
and by crooked steps, as if in darkness and in difficulty of access they 
should be like holds of ships, or inconvenient cabins under water ; and 
everywhere there is a smell of fish, and sea-weed, and old rope." — 
Dickens. 

Behind the town, rise on a hill the grounds of an old villa, 
overgrown with a wild luxuriance of cypress, oak, ilex, 
myrtle, and laburnum. From the shade of some old pine 
tree at the top you look down on one side over precipitous 
cliffs to the sea, and on the other through the woods to the 
village of Ruta, embedded on the green mountain-side. 
Far down, close to the shore, is a ruined chapel. 

{Ruta, which in vetturino-days was the first stage from 
Genoa, is situated almost on the highest part of the 
mountain-side, which, further on, where it runs into the sea, 
forms the peninsula of Porto Fino. There are two toler- 
able inns here, and, close to the higher of them, is the 
mouth of a short tunnel for the high-road, which, as it were, 
forms an entrance to the sunny gardens of the south, and 
whence you look over a swelling luxuriance of peaches and 
almonds, carpeted with melons, and garlanded with vines, 
to Rapallo, Chiavari, and Sestri, lying in brilliant whiteness 
by the side of the deep-blue water, and thence to the 
mountains, at whose point the marble rocks of Porto Venere 
form the entrance of the lovely gulf of Spezia. The view 
towards Genoa also is most striking in the sunset, mountains 
and city and lighthouse and sea alike bathed with crimson 
as the sun goes down behind the horizon of waters. 



6o ITALIAN CITIES. 

A charming excursion may be made from Ruta, when the 
sun is not too hot, along the ridges of the promontory. Deep 
down below, in one of its clefts, is the Convent of San 
Fruttuoso, lying among its palm trees by the sea-shore, the 
place where the Dorias are now brought by sea for burial, 
and where their strange sarcophagus-tombs may be seen in 
the crypt The spot had a melancholy interest some years 
ago, from the burning of a fine ship which had only left 
Genoa a few hours before. Two heroic peasant women put 
off in a small boat to save the crew, and one of them was 
lost in the attempt. Porto Fino is an interesting little town 
(about three miles from Ruta), situated in a tiny bay near 
the end of the promontory. The houses are supported by 
open arcades, the church is gaily painted, a fine umbrella- 
pine shades the neighbouring rocks, and the little port is 
crowded with picturesque fishing-boats. All the men in the 
town are fishermen, with tall red beretti on their heads, and 
the women are lace-makers, who sit at their pillows all day 
under the shady arcades beneath the houses. An enchant- 
ing terrace-walk of a mile, through the ilex-woods overhang- 
ing the sea, leads round the point of the bay from Porto 
Fino to the little cove of Piccdo Faggi, where a yellow 
castle on a rock forms a picturesque foreground to the 
purple mountains. Hence one may take a boat to Santa 
Margherita, half-an-hour's row distant. Perhaps the finest 
pomt in the whole promontory is seen by going this way ; 
the desecrated Convent of Cervaro or Sylvano, on a rock 
surrounded by gigantic aloes and palm trees, which is the 
place where Francis the First was confined before he was 
conveyed to Catalonia.) 

S. Margherita (stat) is beyond the tunnel by which the 



SESTRI DI LEVANTE. 



6i 



railway passes under the ridge of Ruta. Here there is a 
picturesque old castle in the sea. 

Rapallo (stat.) is famous for the manufacture of lace. It 
has a graceful campanile. In the Church of Madofina di 
Montallegro, there is a great festa from July i to 3, with a 
pretty illumination at night. 

Chiavari (stat.) {Inn. Posta) is a large place, and is said 
to be that whence most of the Italian organ-boys are sent to 
England. In the Church of S. Francesco is a picture, at- 
tributed to Velasquez, of S. Francis causing water to flow 
from the rock of Lavernia by his prayers. 

The approach by road to Sestri is most beautiful. The 
mountains have grand and varied forms, the gaily-painted 
churches and villages rise amid luxuriant olives and cypresses, 
and magnificent aloes fringe the rocks by the way-side. 




Approach to Sestri. 

Sestri di Levante (stat), the Roman Segeste {Inns. Europa , 



62 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



Albergo delta Strada Ferrata), is a charming spot, and quite 
worthy of a halt. There is a ruined chapel of black and 
white marble in a cove of the sea under the wooded pro- 
montory, and artists will find beautiful subjects in the ascent 
behind the town, looking towards Genoa. 

(Immediately behind Sestri the post-road ascends, till it 
reaches the summit of the Pass of Bracco, whence there is a 
grand view over billow upon billow of hill, ending in the 
noble forms of the pink, hazy, jagged mountains of Camara. 
Hence the road descends by Matarana and Borghetto till it 
reaches the wooded heights behind Spezia. 



\>.: 



J-t 




Pass of Bracco. 

" Coming upon Spezia from the Genoa road, down the zig-zags which 
descend the olive-terraced hills, nothing more beautiful can be imagined 
than the first sight of the bay. The sea is of a light azure blue, streaked 
with white lines of calm. On it are riding at anchor an abundance of 
vessels, from the stately man-of-war to the tiniest fishing-boat, all 
reflected in the waveless surface. Across the bay rise, one above another, 
lines of wooded hills, the lower ranges studded with glittering buildings ; 
the higher, melting away from brown and green, and the still lingering 
yellow tints of autumn, into tenderest purple ; and all surmounted, far, 
far above, in the blue sky, by a splendid jagged line of snowy Apen- 
nines, glowing with the warmest tints of the rose. Nor is the inland 
view from the shore unworthy of a sea-prospect so beautiful. Vast 
hills keep guard around this arsenal of Italy, terraced to the very 
summit with the grey olive. Seven different glens, each dark with 
recesses of shade and buttresses of rock, divide off one hill from another ; 
and thick-sprinkled on every knoll of vantage, gleam out villages with 



I 



LA SPEZ/A. 63 

their slender steeples through the sunny haze. East of the town, and 

overhanging its suburbs, rises the dark ruin of its ancient castle, 

buttressed with wild ravines of yellow rock, fringed with ilex and 
myrtle." — Dean Alford.) 

By the railway one sees none of these things. There are 
47 tunnels between Genoa and Spezia, and between Sestri 
and Spezia one has only an occasional flash of blue sea, with 
its white foam and jagged rocks ; indeed, where it is not 
in a tunnel, the railway is almost in the sea, overhanging it 
on the face of the precipice. The stations are mere fishing- 
villages, and the train seldom stops at more than one of 
them — Levanto — where, in one of the churches, there is a 
good picture, by Andrea del Castagno. 

La Spezia (stat.) {Inns. Croce di Malta, good, with beauti- 
ful view ; Citta di Milano, where Garibaldi resided in cap- 
tivity after the battle of Aspromonte ; Albergo Nazionale) 
was, a few years ago, one of the most beautiful places in 
Italy, and though the charm of the place itself is much 
destroyed since 1861, when it was made the harbour for 
Italian ships of war, it remains a centre for some of the 
most interesting excursions on this lovely coast. The views 
of the Carrara mountains are exquisite. There is a little 
public garden, with an avenue of oleanders. Above the 
town, under the olive-clad mountains, is an ancient castle of 
the Visconti : their badge, the viper, may still be seen upon it. 

The Gulf of Spezia, broken into a succession of little bays, 
and studded with picturesque villages, is wonderfully beauti- 
ful. It is seven miles long, by three broad. In ancient 
times it was called the Gulf of Luna, being the port for the 
great town of Luna, which Pliny calls "the first city of 
Etruria." * Strabo accurately describes the harbour as one of 

♦ Pliny, iii. s, s. 8. 



64 ITALIAN CITIES. 

the finest and largest in the world, containing within itself 
many minor ports, and surrounded by high mountains, with 
deep water close to shore.* The advantages of the port 
were afterwards evident to the Romans, who, long before 
the subjection of the mountain tribes, were accustomed to 
make the Lunae Portus the station for their fleets, destined 
either for Spain or Sardinia.! It is celebrated by Ennius, as 
quoted by Persius : — 

" Mihi nunc Ligus ora 
Intepet, hybematque meum mare, qua latus ingens 
Dant scopuli, et multa littus se valle receptat. 
'Lunai portum, est operse, cognoscite cives.' 
Cor jubet hoc Enni." — Persius, vi. 9. 

and by other Latin poets : — 

"Tunc quos a niveis exegit Luna metallis, 
Insignis portu ; quo non spatiosior alter 
Innumeras cepisse rates, et claudere pontum." 

Sil. Ital. viii. 483. 

" Advehimur celeri candentia moenia lapsu, 
Nominis est auctor sole corusca soror 
Indigenis superat ridentia lilia saxis, 

Et laevi radiat picta nitore silex. 
Dives marmoribus tellus, quae luce coloris 
Provocat intactas luxuriosa nives." 

Rutilius Itin. ii. 63. 

It was intended by Napoleon I, to make the bay of 
Spezia the Mediterranean harbour of his Empire, but this 
scheme was prevented by the outcries about the injury 
which would then be done to Toulon. 

(It is a drive of about eight miles (carriage 10 frs., a boat 
with one rower costs the same), along the western shore 
of the gulf to Porto Venere. The road passes above the 

• Strabo, v. p. 222. 
\ Livy, xxxiv. 8 ; xxxix. 21, 33. 



PORTO VENERE. 65 

bays of Cala di Mare, Fezzano, Panigaglia, Delle Grazie, 
Varignano, and La Castagna, and skirts a succession of 
picturesque villages, which have each their own little bay 
and shipping, and their old churches standing in groves of 
tall cypresses, or their ruined watch-towers. At the mouth 
of the gulf is the Island of Palmaria, three miles in circum- 
ference, famous in ancient times for its marble quarries, and 
now containing a fortress for the imprisonment of brigands. 
It has two attendant islets, Tino and Ttnetto, on the former 
of which are the ruins of a convent. 



I 



Gate of Porto Venere. 



Wonderfully picturesque is the little harbour of Porto 
Venere, where the tall, many-coloured houses come sheer 
down into the deep-blue water. Here, by a strange eastern- 
looking gate-way, one enters the narrow street, which ends 
on open rocks, where, at the extreme point of the pro- 
montory, a broken stair ascends to the ruined Church of S. 

VOL. I. 5 



66 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Pietro, of black and white marble, built by the Pisans in 
1118, marking the site of the temple of Venus, which gave 
the place its name. The ruined windows look down, on one 
side upon the still bay with its background of marble moun- 
tains, and the many villages reflected in its smooth surface ; 
and, on the other, upon the precipices to the north, whose 
colouring is all the more gorgeous from the peculiar marble 
— Portor — of black, veined with yellow, which abounds 
here. 

A second excursion should be made to Lerici, at the 
southern point of the gulf The road runs inland for some 



Lenci. 

distance, but there is a noble view before arriving at the 
Pisan castle, with its high machicolated towers, fringed with 
golden lichen, and the town and harbour nestling beneath, 
while, across the still reaches of the gulf, glow the rocks of 
Porto Venere and Palmaria. Over the castie gate was the 
boastful patois inscription : — 

Scopa boca al Zeno se 
Crepacuore al Porto Venerese 
Streppa borsello al Lucchese, 



LERICI. 67 

carried off in triumph in 1256 by the Genoese, who left lines 
of their own upon one of the towers. 

Close to Lerici, between it and Sant' Arenzo, is the beau- 
tifully-situated villa of Casa Magni, once a Jesuit convent. 
Hither Shelley came to reside with his wife, and their friends, 
Mr. and Mrs. Williams, April 26, 1822, Here, as he was 
walking in the moonlight on the terrace in front of the house, 
he beheld the omen of " a naked child, which rose from the 
sea, and clapped its hands in joy, smiling at him." Then, 
in the night, he saw " a cloaked figure which came to his 
bedside and beckoned him to follow. He did so, and when 
they came to the sitting-room, the figure lifted its hood, dis- 
closed Shelley's own features, and, saying — ' Siete soddis- 
fatto,' — it vanished." Still, Shelley continued in high spirits, 
though he said that this was in itself ominous of evil to him, 
as " the only warning he found infallible was his feeling 
peculiarly joyous, then he was certain that some disaster 
was about to ensue." 

On July I, he went to Leghorn with his friend Williams 
to see Leigh Hunt. On the 8th they set sail from Leghorn 
to return to Lerici. A sudden squall came on, after which 
his boat was never seen again. Terrible days of suspense 
ensued for the wives, and, on the 22nd, two corpses were 
found, — that of Shelley near Viareggio, that of Williams near 
the tower of Migliarino at Bocca Lerici, three miles distant. 
A volume of Sophocles was in one of Shelley's pockets ; 
Keats' last book, lent him by Leigh Hunt, and doubled 
back at the "Eve of S. Agnes," in the other — "as if 
hastily thrust away, when Shelley, absorbed in reading, 
was suddenly aroused by the bursting squall." Three 
weeks later their sailor-boy, Charles Vivian, was found, four 



68 ITALIAN CITIES. 

miles off. The schooner in which they were lost was like- 
wise found in September; she had not capsized, but had 
been swamped in a heavy sea.* 

" The corpses were in the first instance buried in the sand, and quick- 
lime was thrown in. But such a process, as a final means of disposing 
of them, would have been contrary to the Tuscan law, which required 
any object thus cast ashore to be burned, as a precaution against plague j 
and (Captain John) Trelawny, seconded by Mr. Dawkins, the English 
consul at Florence, obtained permission to superintend the burning, 
and carry it out in a manner consonant to the feelings of the survivors. 
This process was executed with the body of Williams on the 15 th of 
August — on the 1 6th with Shelley's. A fiirnace was provided of iron 
bars and strong sheet-iron, with fuel, and frankincense, wine, salt, and 
oil, the accompaniments of a Greek cremation : the volume of Keats 
was burned along with the body. Byron and Leigh Hunt, with the 
health-officer, and a guard of soldiers, attended the poet's obsequies. It 
was a glorious day, and a splendid prospect — the cruel and calm sea 
before, the Apennines behind. A curlew wheeled close to the pyre, 
screaming, and would not be driven away : the flame arose golden and 
towering. ' The only portions of the corpse which were not consumed, ' 
says Trelawny, * were some fragments of bones, the jaw, and the skull ; 
but what surprised us all was that the heart remained entire. In snatch- 
ing this relic from the fiery furnace, my hand was severely burnt.' The 
ashes were coffered, and soon afterwards buried in the Protestant ceme- 
tery at Rome." — RossettPs Memoir, 



Leaving Spezia and the coast, the railway reaches 
Areola^ with a fine old castle, and soon after crosses the 
river Magra, which was once the boundary between Liguria 
and Etruria, and afterwards between the territories of Tus- 
cany and Genoa. 



" Macra che per cammin corto 
Lo Genovese parte dal Toscano. 

Dante, Par. ix. 89. 

Sarzana (stat.) {Inns. New York, Luntgiana), lying 

* See Memoir, by William Michael Rossetti. 



i 



SARZANA, LUNA. bg 

tow in the plain, was the birth-place of Pope Nicholas V. 
(Tommaso ParentuceUi, 1447 — 1455). His statue adorns 
the~ fagade of the Cathedral, an Italian Gothic building of 
1355 — 1470 ; and in the Cappella di S. Tommaso is the grave 
of his mother, Andreola dei Calandrini. In the Church of 
S. Francesco is the tomb of the Pisan Giovanni Balducci, 
1322. East of the town is the fortress of Sarzanello, built 
by Castruccio Castracani, Lord of Lucca, for the defence of 
the adjoining territory against the Malaspinas. 

The family of Buonaparte (a name of partisanship, as 
Malaparte of the Gherardescas) is descended from that 
of Cadolingi, settled in this neighbourhood, where a Buona- 
parte existed in 1264; and hence they migrated to Corsica. 

The ancient name of Sarzana was Luna Nova, from its 

having superseded the ancient Luna. An excursion may be 

made to this celebrated site, which is situated on the left 

bank of the Magra, near its mouth. This was the most 

northern city of Etruria, but had fallen into the hands of the 

Ligurians, before we hear of them in connection with Roman 

history. It was colonized by the Romans in b. c. 177. It 

had, however, fallen into complete decay before the time of 

Lucan, who speaks of it as deserted — 

" Arruns incoluit desertse moenia Lunse ; " 

but it continued to be famous for its white marble, of which 

J;he Pantheon, the Pyramid of Caius Cestius, and other 

monuments at Rome were built, as were probably the " Can- 

dentia moenia" of Luna itself, which RutiUus speaks of. It 

is strange that, being five miles distant from the Gulf ot 

Spezia, it should have given a name to that harbour. 

" About three miles from Sarzana, on the high-road to Lucca and Pisa, 
the traveller will have on his right a strip of low, grassy land, in- 



70 ITALIAN CITIES. 

tervening between him and the sea. Here stood the ancient city. There 
is little enough to see. Beyond a few crumbling tombs, and a fragment 
or two of Roman ruin, nothing remains of Luna. The fairy-scene, de- 
scribed by Rutilius, so appropriate to the spot which bore the name of 
the virgin-queen of heaven — ' the fair white walls ' — shaming with their 
brightness the untrodden snow — the smooth, many-tinted rocks, overrun 
with ' laughing lilies ' — if not the pure creation of the poet, have now 
vanished from the sight. Vestiges of an amphitheatre, of a semi-circular 
building which may be a theatre, of a circus, a piscina, and fragments of 
columns, pedestals for statues, blocks of pavement, and inscriptions, are 
all that Luna has now to show." — Dennis. 

Continuing the railway, we reach 

Avenza (stat.) — on the left bank of the Carrione, formerly 
the Aventia — a town fortified by Castruccio Castracani, in 
1322. Hence there is a branch-line leading, in 12 min. 
(55 c. ; 40 c.; 30 c), to 

{Carrara {Locanda Nazionale, — terrible mosquitos here), 
a very ugly town, the capital of the marble- works, 400 mines 
with 6000 workmen are in operation. The works may be 
visited by ascending the right bank of the Torano and pass- 
ing through the village of that name (Guide 3 frs.). The 
hours of labour are from 5 a. m. to 3 p. m. ; a horn sounds 
when the rock is about to be blasted. 

The town is one series of sculptors' studios, in which the 
greater part of the population is employed. A statue (1861), 
of the Arch-duchess Maria Beatrice, adorns the piazza. 
Several of the churches are well worth notice, especially 
S. Andrea, which was built in the 13th century, under the 
lordship of Pisa, in the semi-gothic style. S. Giacomo is of 
the renaissance. The Madonna delle (?r^/.f is rich in costly 
marbles. 

The only Carrarese sculptors of note have been Alberto 
Maffioli in the 15th, and Danese Cattaneo in the i6th 



MASS A DUCALE. 



71 



fcentury. The latter was the intimate fnend of Torquato 

[Tasso, who speaks of him in his " Rinaldo " as being equally 

fillustrious as poet and sculptor, while Bernardo Tasso, in 

the " Armadigi," places him on the mountain of glory, and 

ills him — 

" Spirto alto ed egregio 
E poata, e scultor di sommo pregio. ") 

The outline of the mountains, with their jagged precipices, 
becomes unspeakably grand after leaving Avenza, but the 
: views reach a climax of poetic loveliness at Massa, where a 
[noble castle crowns the rich olive-clad height above the 
ftown, while beyond it, the hills, dotted with convents and 




Massa Ducale. 



villas, and radiant with vegetation, divide, to admit, like a 
fairy vision, the exquisitely-deHcate peaks of the marble 
mountains. 



72 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



Massa Ducale [Albergo Quattro Nazione, good) contains 
the immense Palace of Elisa Bacciochi, sister of Napoleon 
I., Duchess of Massa Carrara. She pulled down the old 
cathedral to improve her view, and only one door of it 
remains, inserted in the modern building. The walks 
through the lanes and vineyards near Massa, watered by 
running streams, are exceedingly lovely. Artists should 
make a point of staying here. The old castle of Montignoso, 
which belonged to the Lombard Agilulf, is passed on the 
left before reaching the station of Querceta. 

Pietra Santa (stat.) {Inn. Unmie) is another exquisitely 
attractive point in this land of beauty. In summer, nothing 
can exceed its soft loveliness, — the richness of the plain, with 
its Indian corn and vines, the luxuriance of the olive-covered 




j^^^'-y^i 



At Pietra Santa 



hills, and the noble forms of the mountain back-ground. In 
the midst rises the old walled town, which has stood many 



SERRAVEZZA, VI AR EGG 10. 73 

sieges. Its perfectly mediaeval piazza contains a machi- 
colated Town Hall of 1346, and two fine old Gothic 
churches, while the battlemented walls rise behind. 

6*. Martino is of the 14th century, but restored internally 
in the i6th. The red campanile is of 1380. The octangular 
Baptistery has bronzes by Donatella. The pulpit and holy- 
water basons are by Stagi, who was born here. S. Agostino 
is Gothic, of the 14th century, with an unfinished fa9ade. 
It contains a number of curious monuments. In the ist 
chapel on the right a picture by Taddeo Zacchia, 15 19. 

A delightful excursion (carriage 6 frs.) may be made from 
hence to the marble-quarries of Serravezza, in which the 
first breach was made by Michael Angelo, im. 1517, on a 
commission from Leo X, It is a lovely drive, through a 
valley of indescribable richness, waving with Indian corn, 
and with vines dancing in festoons from one peach tree to 
another, while behind is a most noble range of mountains, 
purple below, while above, the peaks gleam snowy-white 
against a deep blue sky. In the narrow gorge beyond the 
valley, are Silver- Afines, beautifully situated. In the moun- 
tains above Serravezza the rocks often take such strange 
forms, as to recall the descriptions of the beasts in the 
Apocalypse. 

Viareggio {Albergo del Coniinercio), much-frequented from 
Florence and Pisa, is a dull sea-place, but it has exquisite 
views of the mountains. Hence the railway passes through 
the pine-forests, almost till it reaches the noble group of 
buildings, which watch over the campo-santo of Pisa. 



CHAPTER IV 
TURIN. 

(Carriages, with i horse, the course i fr. ; the 1st hour, l\ fr., (at 
night 2 frs.), each half-hour afterwards, 75 c. Each piece of luggage 20 
c. With 2 horses, | fr. more either by course or hour. 

Hotels. Europa, most excellent, with the most charming salle-a- 
manger on the continent, and very well situated in the Piazza, del 
Castello. Londra, Piazza Castello. Troinbetta, formerly Feder, 6 Via 
S. Francesco di Paola. Close to the station is the Grand Hotel de 
Turin, which is most thoroughly excellent, clean, and comfortable. It 
is most convenient for those who only remain one night in Turin, or for 
the excursion to S. Ambrogio. It should not be confused with the 
Grand Hotel Suisse close by. 

Restaurant. Caffe del Cambio, Piazza del Carignano. 

Banker. Negra, 18 Via del Arsenale. 

English Church. 1 5 Via Pio Quinto — services 11 A.M., 3. 30 p.m. 

iglise Vaudoise. Corso del Re. Services, 9 A. M. , Italian ; 1 1 A. M. 
French, with sermon ; 3 P. M. Italian, with sermon. 

For Photographs of the Pictures in the Pinacoteca, Maggi, 6 Via del Po. 

TURIN (Torino) is said to owe its foundation to the 
Ligurian tribe of the Taurini, and afterwards to have 
received a Roman colony, Julia Augusta Taurinorum. It was 
ruled by its own Dukes in the middle ages, and came to the 
House of Savoy in the middle of the eleventh century, by 
the marriage of Adelaida, daughter of its last duke, Manfred, 
with Otho of Savoy. This family, justly popular in their 
own country, which is deeply indebted to them, have ever 



THE HOUSE OF SAVOY. 75 

since continued (until the late unhappy disturbances in the 
south of Italy) to hold their court here. The first sovereign 
was Emanuele Filiberto, 1553, after which the succession 
was — 



Carlo Emanuele I., 1580. 
Vittorio Amadeo I., 1630. 
Francesco Giacinto, 1637. 
Carlo Emanuele II., 1638. 
Vittorio Amadeo II., 1675. 



Carlo Emanuele III., 1730. 
Vittorio Amadeo III., 1773. 
Carlo Emanuele IV., 1796. 
Vittorio Emanuele, 1802. 
Carlo Felice, 182 1. 



The last of these princes died without male issue, when, in 
accordance with the right of succession settled at the Con- 
gress of Vienna, the crown passed to the House of Carignan 
(founded by Prince Tommaso Francesco, son of Carlo Eman- 
uele I.) in the person of Carlo Alberto, who, being defeated 
by the Austrians at Novara, March 23, 1849, abdicated at 
the monastery of Laghetto, and died at Oporto. He was 
succeeded by his son, Vittorio Emanuele II. 

To this line of (in their lawful kingdom) thoroughly 
national and constitutional monarchs, Turin, which is now 
one of the most prosperous cities in Europe, is indebted for 
everything it possesses. The town is regularly built, like 
an American city, long straight streets traversing it from end 
to end, and each at right angles with its neighbour. Many 
of the streets are lined with colonnades which form a plea- 
sant shade from the burning Lombard sun in summer, while 
those near the palace are the favourite evening lounge of 
the upper classes, and are crowded after sunset with smartly 
dressed officers and civilians. Exposed to bitter Alpine 
winds, Turin is piteously cold in winter. It does not con- 
tain much which deserves the special attention of strangers. 



76 ITALIAN CITIES. 

beyond the Pinacoteca and the Armoury, yet the vicinity of 
the Po, the beautiful wooded hills on the further bank, and 
the charming walks of the Public Garden near II Valentino, 
render Turin far from unpleasant as a resting-place for a few 
days in summer. The streets, in spite of their regularity, 
have a picturesqueness of their own from the richness with 
which the palaces are decorated, and, generally ending in 
arcades, remind one pleasantly of the background of many 
Venetian pictures. 

No one who has strength for the ascent should omit 
to make Turin head-quarters for the glorious excursion to 
the Sagro di S. Michele. 

Immediately opposite the station is the Piazza Carlo Felice, 
adorned with a statue of Massimo Azeglio by Balzico. On 
the pedestal are inscribed the remarkable words of his will 
(July 2, 1857) — " Rimanga la mia memoria nel cuore degli 
uomini onesti e dei veri Italiani, e sara questo il maggior 
onore che le si possa rendere e che io sappia imaginare." 

Hence the Via di Roma leads into the heart of the town, 
passing through the Piazza S. Carlo, surrounded by open 
colonnades filled with book-stalls, where collectors may often 
find treasures. In the centre of the square is a fine eques- 
trian statue by Marochelti, erected, 1858, to Emanuele Fili- 
berto — " vindici et statori gentis suae." 

The Via di Roma ends in the Piazza di Castello, in the 
centre of which stands the old castle of Turin, the Palazzo 
Madama, formerly inhabited by the Queen Mother, having 
high tiled roofs crowded with chimneys, rich fragments ot 
terra-cotta cornice, and four clumsy brick towers, two built 
up in a later fa9ade, the others very quaint, and perforated 
with holes. It is always crowded by birds, like the old 



I 



PALAZZO RE ALE, TURIN. 77 

buildings at Venice, and gives quite a charm and character 
of the Middle Ages to a comparatively featureless town. The 
handsome modern palace, and the tower of the cathedral, 
are seen behind it. 

There is nothing especial to be seen in the Palazzo Ma- 
dama. The Palazzo Reale, which contains public offices 
and the Sala del Senato, is entered by a door on the left of 
the central portal, whence a staircase leads to the great hall. 
On the first landing is the equestrian statue of Vittorio 
Amadeo I., commonly known as " II Cavallo di Marmo," 
by Adriano Frisio : the king is represented as awkwardly 
riding over some captives. 

In the Great Hall, Sala della Guardia, is a great picture 
of the battle of St. Quentin by Palma Giovane. Here 
servants are waiting (fee i franc) who will show the other 
state rooms. They are handsome, with rich ceilings, and 
are adorned by modem pictures. In the Sala di Consiglio, 
where the marriage contracts of the Princesses Clotilda 
and Pia were signed, are portraits of all " the religious " of 
the house of Savoy, including Boniface, Archbishop of Can- 
terbury. The rooms formerly appropriated to Queen Maria 
Teresa, and the Gallery, are no longer shown, being oc- 
cupied by the family of the Duke d'Aosta. 

(From the left of the Great Hall, except in the very early 
morning, the Chapel of the Santo Sudario must be entered.) 

The Armoury is in the wing of the palace, and is entered 
by the first door in the arcade to the right when facing 
the palace. A ticket of admission (free) is obtained on the 
staircase. 

The armour is not numbered; historical specimens 
are : 



78 ITALIAN CITIES. 

In the 1st Compartment : 
The sword of Napoleon I., and the crown offered to Victor Emanuel by 
Naples and Turin. 

In the 2nd Compartment : 

The four first equestrian suits belonged to the still existing but ruined 

family of Martinengo da Brescia. The fourth is absolutely magni- 
ficent. 
The fourth equestrian suit on the right belonged to the family of 

Rotta da Bergamo, under the Venetian Republic. 
The last suit on foot in the next division was that of the Marchesc 

Parella di S. Martino. 
The next suit is gigantic, and is supposed to have belonged to a 

Grimaldi of Monaco. 
Near this, in a case, is the scimitar of Constantine Paleologus, last 

Greek Emperor of Constantinople. 
Last on right, is the figure of Prince Eugene of Savoy bearing his 

cuirass and sword : near it is his shield. 
Returning, on left, is the suit of Emanuele Filiberto di Savoia, 1557, 

worn at the Battle of S. Quentin. 
The cuirass of Carlo Emanuele III. worn at the Battle of Guastalla. 
The cuirass of Prince Tommaso. 
Shields taken at the battle of Pavia. 
Saracenic armour. 
Between the 3rd and 4th Martinengo, the suit of Count Lodroni of the 

TjTOl. 

Behind the Palace is a small Garden, entered under the 
same arcade as the Armoury, and open to the public on 
Sundays and Thursdays, from 1 1 to 3. 

To the left of the Palace is the Cathedral, originally 
founded in 602, but now an unimportant building of the 
fifteenth centurj', with a few very indifferent pictures. Behind 
the high altar, raised by a flight of steps, is the domed 
Chapel of the Santo Sudario, the master-piece of Gtiarini, 
built in 1648, to receive the shroud in which our Saviour is 
supposed to have been wrapped by Joseph of Arimathea. 
Similar shrouds exist at Rome, at Besan9on, and at Cadouin 
in Perigord. The "present relic is preserved in an altar 



CHURCHES OF TURIN. 79 

beneath the cupola. The chapel is lined with black marble, 
which has a singular effect. Surrounding it are monuments 
of the house of Savoy. 

Emanuele Filiberto. Marchesi. 

Principe Tommaso di Carignano. Gaggini. 

Carlo Emanuele II. (1675). Fraccaroli. 

Amadeo VIII. (145 1). Cacciatoj-i. 

Maria Adelaida (1855), wife of Vittorio Emanuele II. Revelli. 

From the Via Porta Palatina, which runs almost in front 
of the Cathedral (turning left), an opening on the right leads 
to the Piazza di Citta, which contains the Palazzo del 
Alunicipio. In the middle of the square is the bronze statue 
of " II Conte Verde "— Amadeus VI. of Savoy (1334—83), 
by Pelagio Pelagi. At the entrance of the Piazza, on the 
right, is the Church of Corpus Domini, built by Vitozzi in 
161 7. It commemorates the miraculous refusal of a con- 
secrated wafer to be carried off in 1453, by a soldier who 
was stealing it for the sake of the pyx in which it was en- 
shrined. 

The Via della Corte d'Appello on the right of the Palazzo 
del Municipio, leads into the Piazza Savoia, a little to the 
right of which is the Church of La Consolata, built in the 
17th century by Guarini, but retaining a tower of the middle 
ages. It contains a so-called miraculous picture of " La 
Madonna delle Grazie," surrounded with ex-votos. 

Returning to the Piazza del Castello by the Via Dora 
Grossa, we find, immediately on the left, unmarked by any 
portico, but with a fantastic ribbed dome, visible at a little 
distance above the houses, the Church of S. Lorenzo, built 
by Guarini for Emanuele Filiberto as a thank-offering for 
the victory of S. Quentin. 

The Via delle Scienze, which opens from the piazza on the 



8b ITALIAN CITIES. 

right, leads immediately to Piazza Carignano. On the left 
is the fantastic Palazzo Carignatio, one of the most extrava- 
gant works of Giiarini. In the square stands the statue of 
the modem Italian philosopher Gioberti, a native of Turin 
(1801 — 48), by Albertoni. On the right is the Accademia. 

The Accademia delle Scienze is open daily from 10 to 4. 
On the ground-floor are the Museum of Antiquities and the 
Egyptian Museum (with the halls above) ; on the first floor 
is the Museum of Natural History, containing the skeleton 
of a Megatherium ; on the second floor is the Pinacoteca. 
The Galleries have no catalogues. 

The Egyptian Museum is a very fine collection, compris- 
ing grand statues of : 

Thothmes III. (basalt), B.C. 1591, and of his son — 

Amenophes (granite), B.C. 1565, and of his son — 

Setes II. (a gigantic figure), said to be the persecutor of Moses. 

* Rameses II., "Sesostris" (basalt), B.C. 13CK). The most beautiful of 

all known Egyptian statues. 

The Greek and Roman Museum contains : 

Statue of Augustus from Susa. 

Bust of Antinous. 

Statue of Bacchus. 

Bust of Juno from Alba Pompeja, supposed to have been used by the 

priests for oracles. 
Sleeping Cupid (the arm and foot modem). 
Hercules sleeping on the lion's skin- 
Hercules with the serpents. 
Bronze statuette of Minerva, found at Stradella. 
Bronze statuette of a Fawn (one leg missing). 

* Head of Caligula in bronze — very beautiful. 

Tiu Pinacoteca has a very interesting and too little known 
collection of pictures, arranged in fifteen well-lighted walls. 
The most important pictures are — 

Sala I. Pictures connected with the House of Savoy. 



PINACOTECA, TURIN. %X 

4. Giacomo Flamingo. Prince Eugene. 

15. Giacomo Argenta de Ferrara. Boy in a white dress, with a dwarf. 
*26. Vandyke. Two children with a bird. 
27. Giacomo Argenta di Ferrara. Portrait of Emanuele Filiberto, 

detto Testa di Ferro. 
30. Vandyke. Principe Giacinto di Savoia — a most charming picture 
of an ugly child, sitting in its little chair, holding a bird. 

Sala II. Piedmontese Painters, of great importance in art, 
and many of them most beautiful. 

33> 34? 36, 37, 39, 40. Macrino dAlba (1496-1506). Pictures of 

Saints. 
35. Presbyter Giovanni Canavesi. Altar-piece in 16 compartments. 
41. Gandolfino (1493). Altar-piece in 10 compartments. 
♦42. Defendente Deferrari di Chivasso. Altar-piece in many divisions, 

the central compartment most beautiful, of the Madonna with 

angels at her feet. 

43. Gerolamo Giovenone (15 14). Madonna and Child with saints, and 

the donor with her children — a very interesting picture. 

44. Defendente Deferrari. Marriage of S. Catharine. 
44, bis. Gandolfino. Madonna and Child with angels. 

47, bis. Giov. Giovenone. Madonna and Child with four saints. 
•49. Gaudenzio Ferrari. S. Peter and a kneeling donor — glorious in 

colour. 
50, bis. Macrino d'' Alba. Virgin and Child in glory, with saints and 

angels below. 
52, S3, 57, 58. Gaudenzio Ferrari di Valduggia. Four small 

pictures. 
54. Gaudenzio Ferrari. The Deposition. 
54, bis. Gaudenzio Ferrari. Virgin and Child throned, with saints — 

the background most richly and carefully painted. 
56. Bernardino Lanini de Vercelli. The Deposition. 

59. Ottaviano Cane da Trino (1541). Virgin and Child throned, with 

S. J. Baptist and S. Antonio. — Feeble, compared with the 
works of Gaudenzio and Macrino. 

Sala III. Continuation of last hall, in later date. 

60, bis. Bern. Lanini. Virgin and Child with saints. 

62. Id. (1564). Virtjin and Child with SS. J. Baptist, Nicholas, 
Lucia, and James. 
VOL. I. 6 



82 ITALIAN CITIES. 

63. Putro Grammorseo da Casale Monferraio (lS23)- Virgin and 

Child with SS. J. Baptist and Lucia, 

64. Cane da Trino {x^^"^. Marriage of S. Catherine. 

Sala IV. Continuation, but inferior. 

65. Gu^ielmo Caccia. "II Moncalvo." The Bearing of the Cross. 

Sala V. General Italian School, \^h to 16th century. 

93. Angelico da Fiesolel Madonna and Child. 

94, 96. Id. Two angels — undoubted and beautiful specimens of the 

Master. 

97. Ant. Pollajuolo. Raphael and Tobias. 

98. Sandro Botticelli. Tobias and three angels. 
100. Spinello Aretino. Siege of Jerusalem. 

loi. Francesco Francia. The Entombment. 

103. Lorenzo da Credi. Madonna and Child. 

106. Bugiardini. Holy Family. 

III. " Scuola Lombarda." Holy Family — a lovely picture 

1 14. Gian Pietrino. SS. Catherine and Peter Martyr. 
♦117. Girolamo S. Croce. S.Jerome — a grand landscape. 
*ii8. Gir. Savoldo. Adoration of the Infant Jesus — the figure of the 
Virgin most beautiful and touching in its humility. 

121. M. A. Franciabigio. The Annunciation. 

122. Franc. Penni (15 18). The Entombment — a copy of the Bor- 

ghese RafFaelle. 

127. Bronzino. Lady in a crimson dress. 

128. Id. Portrait of Cosimo de' Medici. 

130. Paris Bordone. A woman with a basket of cherries. 

Sala VI. 

133. Rinaldo Mantavano. Assumption. 

140. Ant. Badile (the master of Paul Veronese). Presentation of the 
Virgin in the Temple — a very instructive picture. 

148. Bassano. Portrait. 
•157. Paul Veronese. The visit of the Queen of Sheba — A most 
glorious picture, equally magnificent in effect, colour, and de- 
tail. The dress of the queen alone is a most wonderful study. 
The high-lights are nowhere more concentrated by the master 
than in this composition. 

Sala VII. 17th and i8th centuries. 



PINACOTECA, TURIN. 83 

170. G. Batt. Crespi. SS. Francis and Carlo Borromeo praying 

before a statue of the Virgin. 
182. Paul Veronese. The Finding of Moses, From the Palazzo 

Durazzo at Genoa. 

Sala VIII. Chiefly copies by Constantin. 
196. Luca della Robbia. Holy Family. 

Sala IX. Flower-pieces, 

Sala X. Italian School, 16th to i2>th centuries. 

234. Paul Veronese. Mary at the feet of Christ. The dog in the 
foreground is wonderful. 

236. Guido Rent. A Group of Children. 

237, 238. Caspar Poussin. Landscapes. 

239. Guercino. S. Francesca Romana — the head of the saint very 
grand. 

241. Eliz. Sirani. Death of Abel. 

242. Guercino. Ecce Homo. 

243, Bassano. The Rape of the Sabines. 

244, Orazio Lomi. Annunciation. 

249. A urelio Lomi {Visz.no). Adoration of the Magi, 
251. Bernardo Strozzi. The Blind Homer. 

254, Domenichino. Three Children, supposed to represent Architec- 
ture, Astronomy, and Agriculture. 

Sala XI. 

260, 264, 271, 274. Francesco Albani. The Four Elements — (as 
Venus— Juno — Galatea — Cybele) —painted for Cardinal Mau- 
rice of Savoy, 

262. Guercino. The Return of the Prodigal Son — magnificent in 

light and shadow. 

263. F. Albani. Salmacis and Hermaphroditus. 
276. Carlo Dolce. Madonna. 

283, 288. Canaletto. Views of old Turin — good specimens of a bad 
master. 

Sala XII. German and Dutch Schools. 

*338. Vandyke. Children of Charles I. of England. 

•351, Id. Clara Eugenia Isabella, daughter of Philip II, of Spain, 

Sala XIII, Caped'Opere. 



84 ITALIAN CITIES. 

355. A. Mantegna. Madonna and Child with saints— the head of 

the Virgin very grand, full of foreboding of the future, the rest 
inferior. 

356. Lorenzo di Credi. Madonna and Child. 

357. Guercino. Madonna and Child. 

358. y. Memling. The whole story of the Passion, wonderfully in- 

terwoven in one picture. 

359. P. Christophsen. Virgin and Child. 

*363. Vandyke. Prince Thomas of the Savoy on a white horse— one 

of the noblest portraits in existence. 
•369. Sandro Botticelli. The Triumph of Chastity — a very curious 
' and interesting picture. 
371. Gatidenzio Ferrari. Crucifixion. 
*373. Raffaelle. Madonna della Tenda — a lovely replica of the pic- 
ture at Munich. 
374. Sandro Botticelli. Madonna and Child. 
♦375. Donatello. Virgin and Child — a marble relief. 

376. // Sodoma. Lucrezia. 
♦377. Paul Potter. Cows. 

384. Vandyke. Holy Family. 

385. G. Honthorst. Samson and the Philistines. 

386. Holbein. Portrait of Erasmus. 
392. Velasquez. Philip IV. 

Sala XIV. German and Dutch. 

415. My tens. Portrait of Charles I. of England, standing at the end of 
an arched corridor. 

450. Rembrandt. A Rabbi. 

Sala XV. French School. 
481. Borgognone. Battle Scene. 

Behind the Palazzo Carignano is the Piazza Carlo 
Alberto, with an equestrian statue of Charles Albert, by 
Marochetti. 

The broad Via del Fo, on the left of which is the Uni- 
versity, with an admirable Library, leads to the river, by the 
wide Fiazza Vittorio Emanuele. This is our first sight of the 
Po, which will meet us so often again in our Italian wander- 
ings. It rises on Monte Viso and flows to the Adriatic, 



PUBLIC GARDEN, TURIN. 85 

being navigable for nearly 250 miles. Many are the classical 
allusions to it : — 

" Proluit insano contorquens vortice silvas 
Fluviorum rex Eridanus, camposque per omnes 
Cum stabulis armenta tulit." — Virgil, Georg. i. 481. 

" Et gemina auratus taurine comua vultu 
Eridanus : quo non alius per pinguia culta 
In mare purpureum violentior effluit amnis." 

Georg. iv. 371.* 

On the opposite side of the river is the Church of the 
Gran Madre di Dio, built by Carlo Felice in (ludicrously 
bad) imitation of the Pantheon at Rome. From the Capu- 
chin Convent which occupies the wooded hill above, there 
is an exquisite view, far beyond the town which lies at its 
feet, into the Alpine ranges. 

The Avenue along the river-side is delightful, and leads to 
one of the most beautiful Public Gardens in Europe, — not to 




I Cappuccini, Turin. From the Public Garden. 

mere dressed walks, but to glades of elms and chestnuts, 
with wide and green lawns undulating to the water-side, and 
lovely views up the still reaches of the river, fringed with 
tufted foliage which is reflected in its water; or into bosky 

* See also Lucan, ii. 408 ; vi. 273. 



86 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



valleys of the hills on the opposite bank, with old turretted 
villas and convents rising on the different heights and look- 
ing down into the luxuriance of wood and vineyard which 
intersects them. Beyond all rises the Superga on its blue 
height, and pleasure-boats with white sails or striped awn- 
ings give constant life to the scene. 

At the end of the gardens, where they melt into the open 
hayfields — completely in the country, though so close to the 
town — 'the grand old Palace of II Valentino rises from the 
river bank. It was built in the old French style by a French 
princess, Christine, wife of Vittorio Amadeo I. and daughter 
of Henri IV. and Marie de' Medici. Of rich red stone, 




II Valentino, Turin. 

with high-pitched roofs, tall chimneys, and heavy cornices, it 
resembles some of the best chateaux of the Loire, and, with 
its richly verdant surroundings, forms a beautiful subject for 
a picture. Altogether, though those who have not seen these 
gardens in spring condemn Turin as an ugly featureless city, 
those who have enjoyed their freshness, especially in May, 
when the white and crimson chestnuts are all in bloom, will 
carry away the impression of scenes of perfect Italian loveliness. 



LA SUPERGA. Sf 

One may also visit the Ft7/a della Regifia, near the bridge 
over the Po, built by Cardinal Maurice of Savoy, after he 
had renounced his Orders in order to marry his niece, 
daughter of Vittorio Amadeo I. 



The most popular excursion is that to La Superga, the 
building which crowns the highest summit of the hills near 
the town. An omnibus (20 c.) starts every hour from 25 
Via del Po, for the Madonna del Pilone, a village in the 
valley, about i| mile from the town. Hence donkeys (i^ fr.) 
may be taken, or it is a stiff walk of i| hour, to the Superga. 
The high road must be followed to the turn on the right 
beyond the next village, whence the Stradone della Superga 
winds up the hill. There is a. grand view from the platform 
I at the top towards the immense snowy barrier, which hems 
in the valley of the Po with an endless variety of outline. 
Turin, with its palaces and churches, is seen at the foot of 
the envineyarded hills on the left. Beyond it rises the great 
peak of Monte Viso : but the most beautiful point is where 
the valley of Susa, half-shrouded in purple mist, opens 
beneath the white ranges of the Mont Cenis. 

When the army of Louis XIV. was blockading Turin, 
King Vittorio Amadeo II., standing on this height with 
Prince Eugene, vowed a church to the Virgin, " if the Lord 
of Hosts would dehver him and his people out of the hands 
of their enemies." The French were totally defeated in the 
battle of Turin, Sept. 7, 1706, and Juvara was then employed 
to build the great Church of La Superga, which was begun 
in 1717 and finished in 1731. 

The Church is ill- proportioned externally, and is swallowed 
up by its own dome. The interior is dull, cold, pompous 



88 ITALIAN CITIES. 

and splendid. The pillars are of coloured marble; three 
great marble reliefs represent the Annunciation, the Nativity, 
and " La Madonna del Ex-voto." In the vaults beneath, all 
the later monarchs of the house of Savoy are buried, with 
the exception of Carlo Felice, who rests at Haute Combe on 
the Lac de Bourget. Like the popes, the last king always 
occupies a temporary position — here a colossal tomb at the 
centre of the cross — till his successor comes to turn him out. 
Vittorio Amadeo II., Carlo Emanuele III., Vittorio 
Amadeo III., and Carlo Emanuele IV., have monuments 
here, surrounding that of the great Carlo Alberto, who died 
at Oporto, July 28, 1849. 

" Here a king may fitly lie, 

Who, bursting that heroic heart of his 
At lost Novara, that he could not die, 

(Though thrice into the cannon's eyes for this 
He plunged his shuddering steed, and felt the sky 

Reel back between the fire-shocks,) stripped away 
The ancestral ermine ere the smoke had cleared, 

And, naked to the soul, that none might say 
His kingship covered what was base and bleared 

With treason, went out straight an exile, yea. 
An exiled patriot. 

. . . And now that he is dead, 
Admitting it is proved and manifest 
That he was worthy, with a discrowned head, 

To measure heights with patriots, let them stand 
Beside the man in his Oporto shroud, 

And each vouchsafe to take him by the hand, 
And kiss him on the cheek, and say aloud, — 
' Thou, too, hast suffered for our native land ! 
My brother, thou art one of us ! be proud. ' " — 

E. Barrett-Browning. 

Near each king rest his wives, one above another, as in 
the berths of a ship. One great chamber is devoted to the 



IL SAGRO DI S. MICHELE. 89 

babies of the House of Savoy ! The reigning sovereign 
annually visits the graves of his ancestors on the 8th of 
September (the Nativity of the Virgin). 



A pleasant object for a drive of about 6 miles, is the old 
palace at Mo?tcalieri {the ist station on the Alessandria line), 
built by Vittorio Amadeo I., and exceedingly handsome. 

Stiipinigi (5 m.) is a handsome palace, built as a hunting- 
lodge by J^uvara for Carlo Emanuele III. 



The most important expedition to be made from Turin 
is that to the extraordinary convent called // Sagro di 
San Michele, which occupies the summit of the mountain 
overhanging the town of Sant' Ambrogio (on the way to Susa), 
to which it is best to proceed by railway. 

Avigliana (stat.) is the birth-place of the House of Savoy. 

Sanf Ambrogio (stat.) is a most picturesque little town. Its 
rugged street, full of country-people and donkeys, presents 
one succession of pictures, with its buttressed walls, Roman- 
esque arches, overhanging roofs supported by heavy beams, 
and window-sills bright with carnations and chains of golden 
Indian com ; and beyond and over all rises the brown 
mountain side, with blue mist in its rifts, crowned by the 
vast pile of the Sagro, half convent and half castle. 

A steep mountain way (donkeys may be obtained) winds 
up behind the curious old church, through rocks and frag- 
ments of chestnut forest. Near the summit, it passes the 
little village of S. Pietro, and then emerges upon a terrace 
on the top of the rocks, whence there is the most glorious 
view, into a wilderness of snowy mountain-ranges. The 
Sagro itself, a huge mass of building, rises in the fore- 



go 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



ground, at the top of an almost perpendicular precipice, 
where it was built as a penance in the loth century, by a 
certain Hugo de Montboissier, on a spot where Bishop 
Amisone had already been directed to found an oratory, by 
fire which descended from heaven and marked out its site. 




II Sagro di San Michele. 

The most conspicuous portion externally is the apse of the 
church, which has a Romanesque arcade. Great flights of 
steps form the approach to a round-headed door facing the 
precipice, whence a tremendous staircase, supported by a 
single colossal pillar, ascends to the monastery, the walls 
being partly formed by the rock itself, which projects in huge 
masses through the masonry.* At the top of the first stair- 
case a beautiful round arch with marble pillars, very richly 

* Murray describes this staircase as having been lined with dried corpses, which 
were decorated with flowers by the peasants, but this has never been heard of at thn 
Sagro itself. 



LE CHI US A. 9t 

sculptured, opens upon a second ascent leading to the 
Church, which is exceedingly curious, with many fragments 
of ancient sculpture, and a fine Gothic tomb of GugUelmo 
di Savoia, who was abbot here. A door on the left 
forms the entrance to a little platform overhanging the rock 
called // Salto della Bella Alda, from an imprudent dam- 
sel, who, having leapt once from the top in safety under 
the protection of the Virgin, attempted to do it again, and 
perished in the attempt. Here is the entrance to the vaults 
filled with modern tombs, to which Carlo Alberto caused a 
number of the earlier sovereigns of the House of Savoy to 
be removed from the church of S. Giovanni at Turin, It 
is scarcely possible to imagine anything more beautiful than 
the views upon which the Monastery looks down. It con- 
tains several pictures of the surrounding scenery, by Massvno 
(TAzeglio, who was, however, but a poor artist. Prince Eu- 
gene, who never married, was a titular abbot of S. Michele, 
There were formerly 300 Benedictine monks here, now the 
monastery is a centre for the Missionary Preachers under 
the direction of the Rettore Carlo Caccia. 



A separate excursion on this line of railway should be 
made from Turin to Susa. A little beyond S, Ambrogio, 
on the left, may be seen the remains of walls on the side of the 
mountain. The place is called Le Chiusa, and the walls are 
relics of the famous fortifications erected in a, d, 772 by the 
Lombard king Desiderius, against his enemies from the 
north, and which he deemed impregnable. Charlemagne 
did not attack them, but was guided round the mountains 
by a Lombard spy (one Martin, a deacon, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Ravenna), and, falling upon the Lombards from 



92 ITALIAN CITIES 

the rear, totally defeated them. On this story is founded 
the " Adelchi," Manzoni's best play, carefully studied on the 
spot. 

Susa, the ancient Segusio, is a wonderfully picturesque 
place, filled with mediaeval towers and gateways, and with 
the river Dora rushing through its midst. The most con- 
spicuous building is the Cathedral of S. Justus, which has 
a noble campanile of the nth century, a fine grey marble 
font, and a gilt statue of the famous Countess Adelaida of 
Susa, through whom the House of Savoy acquired its Italian 
territory. In the sacristy is a silver cross, said to have been 
given by Charlemagne. 

On a rising ground, behind the cathedral, is the beautiful 
marble Arch of Augustus, adorned with Corinthian columns, 
and reliefs representing sacrifices of rams and swine. It 
was erected, in honour of the Emperor, about b. c. 8, by 
Julius Cottius, son of King Donnus. Above the town 
is the ruined fortress of La Brunetta, destroyed by the 
French in 1798. 

At the top of the Monte di Roccia Melone, above Susa, at 
a height of 11,139 f'S^'j ^s a chapel, romantically founded by 
the crusader Bonifazio d'Asti, who was taken prisoner by 
the Saracens and vowed this shrine to the Virgin if he 
were ever set free : his fetters hang in the chapel. A 
pilgrimage is made here annually on the feast of the Assump- 
tion. 

A little to the east of Susa, close under the Alps, 
is the site (it is little more now) of the famous Monas- 
tery of Novalesa, founded in 739, where Charlemagne once 
spent his Lent. In its prosperity, Novalesa used to send 
out in harvest-time the J>laustrum dominicale, a great car. 



VILLASTELLONE, CARMAGNOLA. 93 

supporting a pole with a bell hanging to it, which returned, 
heading all the waggons, bringing back the supplies of com 
and wine from the monastic farms. It was a rule in the 
country-side, that no fairs should begin till the plaustrum of 
Novalesa had been seen to pass. 



A railway leads in 3 hours from Turin to Cuneo for the 
passage of the Col di Tenda. It passes — • 

20 kil. Villastellone (stat.), 6 m. west of which is Carig- 
nano, a well-built town, with handsome churches. S. 
Giovanni was built by Count Alfieri : in S. Maria delle 
Grazie is the tomb of Bianca Palgeologus, daughter of 
William IV., Marquis of Monserrat, and wife of Duke 
Charles I. of Savoy, before whom Bayard contended in a 
tournament. In 1650 the title of Prince of Carignano was 
taken by Tommaso, the youngest son of Duke Charles 
Emmanuel I., and from him the present royal family are 
descended. Carignano is still one of the royal titles. 

29 kil. Cannagnola (stat.) was once, as the border-town 
of the Marquisate of Saluzzo, defended by a strong castle, a 
fragment of which remains as the tower of the Church of S. 
Filippo. In the cloister of 6'. Agostino, is the tomb of James 
TurnbuU, a Scottish condottiere, 1496. This town is the birth- 
place of Francesco Bussone, Count of Carmagnola, who was 
born here, in 1389, as the son of a peasant, and served in 
boyhood as a cowherd. He fought as general for Filippo 
Maria Visconti, Duke of Milan, for whom he reconquered a 
great part of Lombardy. From this service he passed 
into that of Venice, in which he took Brescia, and gained 
(1427) the battle of Maclodio ; but, by the jealousy of the 
Senate, after having been allured back to Venice by a vote 



94 ITALIAN CITIES. 

of thanks and confidence, he was imprisoned, tortured, and 
beheaded " between the columns," May 5, 1432. His Ufe 
is the subject of a tragedy by Manzoni. 

The name of Carmagnoia is known throughout the world 
from the " Dansons la Carmagnole, Vive le son des Car- 
magnoles," of the great revolution, the name having been 
given to the Savoyard boys, who were amongst the first 
revolutionary recruits, and many of whom came from hence. 

38 kil. Racconigi (stat.). The Castle, restored by Palagi, 
was the favourite residence of Charles Albert. Trissino 
(15 10) sang the beauty of the women of Racconigi : — 

*' E quei di Scamafesso e Racconigi, 
Ch' ban bellissime donne." 

45 kil. Cavallermaggiore (stat). (Hence there is a 
branch-line to Savona, passing through Brd,, which has a 
handsome Church of S. Chiara, built by Vettone in 1742. 
The town is united by an avenue to the Sanctuary of ^S". 
Maria dei Fiori, where it is said that on Dec. 29, 1336, an 
appearance of the Virgin was the means of rescuing a young 
girl from murder, in a copse of wild sloes, which have ever 
since blossomed three times annually. The Castle of 
Pollenzo, two miles from this, marks the Roman PoUentia.) 

52 kil. Savigliano (stat.), {Inn. Corona)^ on the river 
Macra. A triumphal arch here commemorates the marriage 
of Carlo Emanuele II. with the Infanta, Donna Caterina. 
In the churches are many pictures by Giovanni Molineri 
(called " II Carraccino," from his imitation of the Carracci), 
bom here in 1577. 

(There is a branch-line from hence in one \ hour to 
Saluzzo. Its old castle was the residence of the sovereign 



CERTOSA DI PESIA, COL DI TENDA. 95 

Marquises of Saluzzo, who became extinct in 1548. In the 
Church of S. Bernardo are the tombs of the Counts Delia 
Torre. Saluzzo was in 1789 the birth-place of the poet and 
political martyr, Silvio Pellico, to whom a statue was erected 
in 1863.) 

88 kil. Cuneo (stat.), {Inn. Posta; Londrd), usually 
spoken of as Coni, so called from the wedge of land upon 
which the town was erected, in the 12 th century, under pro- 
tection of the Abbot of S. Dalmazzo, by peasants who 
rebelled against the tyrannies of the surrounding barons. 

(About nine miles S. E. from Cuneo, in the Val Pdsio, a 
pleasant situation amid woods and mountains, always green 
and fresh, is the Certosa di Fesia, now a pension, much 
frequented by English who pass the summer in Italy. 

20 miles S. W. from Cuneo, in the Val di Gesso, are the 
Baths of Valdieri — resorted to for the cure of wounds — in a 
very fine natural situation.) 

There is a diligence from Cuneo to Nice, in 22 hours, by 
the road, made in 1591, over the pass of the Col di Tenda 
(5883 feet). The French frontier is passed at Limone. At 
S. Dalmas di Tenda is a pension (6 frs.), most beautifully 
situated. The defile of the Roya, with the picturesque 
villages of Saorgio, Ghiandola, Broglio, and Sospello (Hotel 
Carenco), is well worth seeing. The unprotected ledges of 
the pass are, in places, very alarming. 



CHAPTER V. 
THE WALDENSES. 



PROTESTANTS will be interested in an excursion to 
Waldensian Valleys ( Vall'ees Vaudoises), which are 
situated about thirty miles S. W. of Turin, and occupy a dis- 
trict of about twenty-two miles by eighteen, under the Alps 
which bound the French frontier. Here, in spite of the 
most cruel persecutions, the inhabitants have preserved their 
own form of faith unchanged for 600 years. 

The name of the Waldenses is sometimes derived from 
the Latin word Vallis, but more generally from Peter Waldo, 
a rich bourgeois of Lyons, who became, as it were, the S. 
Francis of heresy ; while his disciples, who received the name 
of the Poor Men of Lyons, "resembled the Minorites, 
the lowest of the low." At a meeting which was assembled 
for devotional purposes, Waldo had seen a man fall dead, 
struck by lightning, and thenceforward religion was his one 
thought. Ignorant himself, he employed a poor scholar to 
translate the Gospels and some of the other books of 
Scripture, and in these he instructed his disciples. He sent 
them forth by two and two to preach the Gospel. They 
sought the support of Alexander IH., but were harshly 
repulsed and censured by the Pope, and treated with the 
utmost obloquy and contempt by the clergy. The severity 
they met with caused their entire alienation from the Roman 



ORIGIN OF THE WALDENSES. 97 

Catholic Church. They denied that the priestly office had 
any intrinsic virtue, and maintained that a layman of pure life 
and manners might administer all religious rites. They 
condemned the vices of wicked popes. They rejected all 
the Sacraments, except Baptism and the Lord's Supper ; 
and they denied all sanctity in the water of baptism, and 
transubstantiation in the Eucharist. They renounced prayers 
for the dead, purgatory, and indulgences. They enjoined, 
to the extreme, a pure and virtuous life. Above all, they 
read the Gospels, preached, and prayed in the vulgar tongue. 

The followers of Peter Waldo are believed to have been 
the first teachers of these Alpine villages. The Waldensian 
Church occupies thirteen parishes situated in three valleys ; 
S. Jean, La Tour, Villar, Bobbi, and Angrogna, in the 
valley of Luzerne ; S. Germain and Pramol in the valley of 
Perouse ; Pomaret, Maneille, Massel, Rodares, Prali, and 
Prarustaing, in the valley of S. Martin, — altogether a popula- 
tion of 24,000. The English term " Lollard " came from 
Peter Lollard, a Waldensian pastor in the middle of the 
thirteenth century. 

The Protestant villages were situated in the dominions of 
the Duke of Savoy, from whom, early in the 15th century, 
they suffered their first persecution, when the inhabitants of 
the village of Prajelas were massacred or banished. In 
1487, Pope Innocent VIII. issued a Bull calling upon " all 
authorities, spiritual and temporal, to unite in the extermina- 
tion of the Vaudois." At this time 18,000 regular troops 
were sent against the valleys, when the inhabitants found 
their only protection in the mountain-fastnesses by which 
they were surrounded. When the Reformation in Germany 
took place, Pastor Martin of Luzerne travelled thither, and 

VOL. I. 7 



98 ITALIAN CITIES. 

brought back the writings of the Reformers, and, in the 
Synod of Angrogna (Sept. 12, 1532), the division of the 
Waldensian from the Catholic Church was formally ratified. 
This led to a fresh persecution, in 1532, from Charles, Duke 
of Savoy. In 1560, Emanuel Philibert of Savoy sent a 
fresh army against the Waldenses; they concealed their 
helpless in caves, and defended their valleys by ambushes. 
Their chief stronghold was the ravine of the Pra del Tor, 
which was attacked by the army of Savoy, under the Count 
de la Trinite, for four whole days ; at the end of which he 
was repulsed with great loss, numbers of his soldiers being 
precipitated from the rocks into the river. After this, the 
Duke of Savoy perceived that he was only ruining both his 
army and his treasury to please the Inquisitors, and, accept- 
ing the mediation of his duchess Margaretta, he made a 
treaty with the Vaudois, in terms which allowed them the 
free exercise of their religion. Nevertheless, they were 
perpetually tormented by his successors, till, in 1655, by 
" the bloody order of Gastaldo," more than a thousand 
families were banished in the depth of winter into the 
Alpine recesses, where a great portion perished of cold and 
starvation. The valleys were then entered by the Marchese 
di Pianezza at the head of 15,000 men, who, aware of the 
desperate resistance he should meet with if he encountered 
the Vaudois on their own ground, pretended a wisli for con- 
ciliation, and requested that, in token of obedience to the 
temporal power, they would receive companies of troops in 
their different villages. Their compliance was followed by 
the most cruel massacres. 14,000 Waldensians were im- 
prisoned, of whom 18,000 died in thirteen days of hunger 
and suffering; only 3000 saw tlie light again, and these 



SUFFERINGS OF THE WALDEMSES. 99 

were banished. Such atrocities aroused the indignation 
of all the Protestant powers. Cromwell ordered a general 
fast, had the narrative of the Waldensian sufferings printed 
and distributed through England and Wales, and himself 
headed a subscription for them with ^2000 from the privy 
purse. A sum of ^38,241 was raised for them. The British 
Ambassador, sent by Cromwell to the Duke of Savoy and 
received in the presence of his mother, Madame Royale, 
daughter of Henry IV., gave expression to the feeling of 
England. 

"Audivit enim Protector (quod nemo celsitudinis vestrae regalis 
voluntate factum esse dixerit) miserrimos illos, partim ab vestris copiis 
esse crudeliter occisos, partim vi expulsos, domoque patriaque exturba- 
tos, adeoque sine lare, sine tecto, inopes, omnique ope destitutes, per 
asperrima loca atque inhospita, montesque nivibus coopertos, cum suis 
conjugibus ac liberis vagari. Quid enim per hosce dies, quod genus 
crudelitatis inausum illis militibus, aut pra;teritum fuit ? Fumantia, 
passim tecta, et laceri artus, et cruenta humus ! Virgines, post stupra, 
differto lapillis ac ruderibus utero, astate ac morbo clinici, in lectulis 
combusti ? Infantum alii saxis allisi, alii jugulati, quorum cerebrum 
ab interfectoribus, immanitate plusquam Cyclopia, coactum ac 
devoratum. " 

It is this persecution of the Waldensian Church which 
is immortalized in the sonnet of Milton : — 

" Avenge, O Lord, thy slaughter'd saints, whose bones 
Lie scatter'd on the Alpine mountains cold ; 
Even them who kept thy truth so pure of old, 
When all our fathers worshipp'd stocks and stones, 
Forget not : in thy book record their groans. 
Who were thy sheep, and in their ancient fold 
Slain by the bloody Piedmontese that roll'd 
Mother with infant down the rocks. Their moans 
The vales redoubled to the hills, and they 
To heaven. Their martyr'd blood and ashes sow 
O'er all the Italian fields, where still doth sway 
The triple tyrant ; that from these may grow 



lOO ITALIAN CITIES. 

A hundred-fold, who, having leam'd thy way. 
Early may fly the Babylonian woe. " 

For a time, the threats of Cromwell produced a certain 
degree of toleration for the Vaudois, but, on Jan. 31, 1686, 
Vittorio Amadeo II. published a decree that every Protestant 
church and chapel should be razed to the ground, and that 
every Protestant should renounce his faith within fifteen 
days, upon pain of banishment. The whole population con- 
sisted of 15,000, and of these only 2500 were capable of 
bearing arms, " Death rather than the Mass " was, however, 
the general answer. The French General Catinet asked 
from the Duke of Savoy " the honour of striking the first 
blow at the heretics," and, in the words of Henri Arnaud, 
" had the honour of being well beaten." But prolonged re- 
sistance against overwhelming numbers was useless, and the 
Waldensians submitted, upon a promise that they should 
then experience the mercy of the sovereign, which was kept 
by his throwing the whole Protestant population into prison. 
Here the greater part perished of hunger and fever, and, 
after six months, the sentence of the survivors was remitted 
to perpetual banishment. They were forced to cross the 
Alps in the depth of winter, hundreds perishing amid the 
snows, and they took refuge in the Protestant cantons of 
Switzerland. After three years the survivors, 800 in number, 
under the command of Henri Arnaud, determined to regain 
their native villages or perish in the attempt. They crossed 
the Alps, and so bravely maintained their position in the 
defiles above Angrogna, that at last the Duke of Savoy was 
induced to reinstate them, upon condition of their fighting 
for him against Louis XIV. Of this — " La glorieuse rentrde 
des Vaudois dans leurs vallees " — Henri Arnaud has left a 
detailed account. 



DOCTRINE OF THE WALDENSES. loi 

For the generalship of the guerilla warfare in which the 
Vaudois were engaged, Arnaud was eminently fitted, and his 
personal bravery greatly contributed to their success. In 
battle he used to say — " I know not what the occasion may 
require of me ; but while I advance, follow me, and, if I fall, 
avenge me." It is, however, only fair to Roman Catholics 
to say that the return of the Vaudois was attended by the 
most horrible massacres on their part, and that they avenged 
their past sufferings by doing their best to exterminate the 
inoffensive Catholic population which had taken their place 
in the valleys. As they were unable to provide for prisoners, 
none were taken, and no quarter was given to age or sex, 

Vittorio Amadeo had afterwards so much reason to be 
satisfied with his Waldensian troops, that they were brigaded 
by themselves, were commanded by their own officers, and 
had a distinguished place in every action ; and when 
Amadeo himself was forced to fly, it was with a Waldensian 
family in the village of Rora that he took refuge. 

After their return, the Waldenses — exemplifying their 
doctrine that " the great end of Christian teaching is charity 
out of a pure heart, and of a good conscience, and of faith 
unfeigned," drew up, at a Synod in the Valley of Prajelas 
above Pinerolo, their " Rule of Conduct " : — 

How people should conduct themselves with strangers • — 

1. Love not the world. 

2. Avoid bad company. 

3. If possible, live in peace with all men. 

4. Strive not in la.w. 

5. Revenge not yourselves. 

6. Love your enemy. 

7. Be willing to suffer toils, calumny, threats, rejection of men, 

wrongs, and all torments, for truth's sake. 

8. Possess your souls in patience. 

9. Enter not into the yoke with the unfaithful. 



io4 ITALIAN CITIES. 

lO. Hold no communication with bad works, nor by any means what 
savours of idolatry, nor with services inducing to it, nor with 
anything of the sort. 

How the faithful ought to keep their bodies under sub- 
jection : — 

1. Serve not the mortal desires of the flesh. 

2. Watch over your members, lest they be members of iniquity. 

3. Rule your affections. 

4. Submit the body to the soul. 

5. Mortify your members. 

6. Avoid idleness. 

7. Be sober and temperate, in eating and drinking, in your words, 

and the cares of this world, 

8. Do works of charity. 

9. Live by faith and moral practice. 

10. Control your desires. 

11. Mortify the works of the flesh. 

12. Devote yourselves to religion in due season. 

13. Confer with one another on the will of God. 

14. Diligently examine your consciences. 

15. Cleanse, amend, and pacify your minds. 

It was in consequence of examining these canons that 
Bucer declared that it must be allowed that the Vaudois had 
truly preserved among them the discipline of Christ's church, 
an opinion assented to by Luther, CEcolampadius, and 
Melancthon. The latter, in a letter written to the Vaudois, 
A. b. 1557, had thus expressed himself: — " I cannot in truth 
object to the severe discipline and practice prevailing among 
you ; would to God it were a little more severe among us." 

The pastors of the Vaudois were diligently taught and 
rigidly examined. When approved of by the synod, they 
were ordained, with imposition of hands, by the moderator 
Their pastoral duties were explained and enforced, on these 
occasions, in a sermon, also by the moderator. Their wants 



PINEROLO, LA TOUR. 103 

were supplied from the gratuitous offerings of their flocks, 
paid publicly to the synod.* 

' ' The functions of the ancient Waldensian moderator were the same 
as those of the Protestant and Romish bishops. If the synod had a 
more general, the moderator had a more direct, authority. Though 
elected by the synod (as were all bishops in the primitive ages) he was 
not amenable to it ; but, on the contrary, was, as now, its president, 
and his office was for life. He only could confer holy orders, by the 
imposition of hands ; and he only had authority to visit the churches, 
inquire into the doctrine and practice of their pastors, examine at his dis- 
cretion the whole economy of the Church, and reform such abuses as he 
nvpht discover. Thus did the moderators, as overseers, take heed unto 
the flock. " — H. Dyke Acland. 



The Waldensian Valleys may be reached in i| hour from 
Turin by taking the train to Pinerolo (3 frs. 55 c. ; 2 frs. 
55 c. ; I fr. 70 c). There is an omnibus from Pinerolo to 
La Tour. 

Pinerolo {Inns. Grande Cjuronne, Verna Nova) is a plea- 
santly-situated provincial town on the little river Lemina. 

Hence it is i hour's drive to La Tour (Torre Luserna), 
{Inns. Ours, Lion dOr), which may be considered the capital 
of the Vaudois, but is only a large country village, with a 
clear stream running down its street. Above rises the fine 
crag of Castelluzzo, and beyond it, Mont Vanderlin. The 
primitive aspect of the people, and their good manners, 
make them very attractive. All take off their hats and give 
a kindly greeting to strangers, and they appear to be of a 
different class to the usual Italian population. There is now 
a handsome Protestant Church here ; a College for the edu- 
cation of young men for the Waldensian ministry ; a Hos- 

* See " Morland"s History of the Evangelical Churches of the Valleys of Piedmont," 
and "The Waldenses " of W. S. Gilly. 



104 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



pital ; and an Orphanage, where lace-making and straw- 
plaiting are admirably taught, and where specimens of the 
children's work may be purchased. Three excursions, which 
will give the best idea of the Vaudois valleys, may be made 
on foot, or on donkeys, from La Tour, in the day. 



m^ 




Villar. 

I. (It is possible to drive, but the road is very bad) To 
Villar, a most picturesque village, with a vine-shaded street, 
and a glorious background of mountain-peaks. Beyond this, 
about 2\ hours from La Tour, is Bobbi, or Bobbio, another 
excessively picturesque village, nearer to the foot of the 
mountains. It has been twice destroyed by inundation, and 
is now defended by the Breakwater of the Felice, built by a 
grant from Oliver Cromwell. In the war of 1799, the in- 
habitants of Bobbio were conspicuous for the humanity 
with which they treated the wounded French soldiers who 
were left behind ; and, when their resources failed, carried 



PR A DEL TOR. 



105 



them on their shoulders across the frontier, and set them 
down in their own country. A wild mountain-path leads 
from Bobbio to the ruined fortress of Mirabouc* and 
beyond it (3I hours from Bobbio) to the Bergerie de Pra. 

11. It takes about 2\ hours from La Tour to the Pra del 
Tor. It is a pleasant ascent, by the village of Angrogna, to 
this grand defile. In each village there are two churches, 
for the two religions. The inscriptions on those of the last 
village we pass are characteristic. On one is — " Allons a la 
Montagne de I'Eternel et a la maison du Dieu de Jacob, et 
il nous montrera de ses voies, et nous marcherons dans ses 
sentiers." On the portal of the opposite church is " Ave 
Maria Mater Gratise." 




Pra del Tor. 



The defile of Pra del Tor is as sacred ground to the Wal- 
densian people. Here, most of all, they fought, suffered, 

The fact that this fortre<;s was taken by the French, was used to inflame the 
P'lDular feehng against the Vaudois, though not a Protestant was there when it 
surrendered. , 



io6 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



and conquered for their faith, for, in the words of 
Leger * — " L'eternel Dieu, qui avoit destine ce paiis-lk pour 
en faire particulierement le theatre de ses merveilles, et 
I'asyle de son arche, I'a naturellement et merveilleusement 
fortifie." Here, when the Count de la Trinity invaded the 
pass in 1560, he was repulsed with shouts of "Viva 
Gesu Cristo," and two colonels, eight captains, and four 
hundred of his men perished. The Rocks of Roccialla are 
pointed out, whence the Vaudois showered down stones upon 
their enemies; the narrow pathway, where they formed their 
easy barricade; the clear river Angrogna, rushing amid the 
rocks in a succession of waterfalls, into which so many of 
their assailants were thrown ; the stone from which, in 1686, 
" the French General " was hurled into the whirlpool beneath. 
At the end of the gorge is the Pra itself, not a meadow, but 
a rocky wilderness, with a few poor cottages. 




Waldensian Cottage, Pra del Tor. 



HI. By Luzerne, to Rora, the smallest and most southern 
of the Protestant parishes, situated beneath the crags of Sea 
Bianca. Here Vittorio Amadeo H, (the persecutor of the 

• Histoire dei Eglises Vaudoises. 



I 



CASTELUZZO. 107 

Waldensians) took refuge with the family of Durand, and 
when he escaped, owing to their magnanimity, rewarded them 
by granting their family for ever the privilege of using their 
garden as a burial-ground ! 

Only hardy mountaineers will attempt to visit, in the crag 
called " Le brie Casteluzzo,"* the famous Cavern of Vandelin^ 
or Casteluzzo^ in which from 400 to 500 fugitives could take 
refuge at a time. It is a kind of open gallery on the face of 
the cliff, into which people had to be let down by ropes, as 
into a mine. There are traces of a fountain there. It was 
explored by Dr. Gilly in 1829. 

(From Pinerolo there is a road by Fenestrelles and Pra- 
gelas to Briangon.) 

* From Bricca, a steep, craggy place. 



CHAPTER VI. 

THE VAL D'AOSTA. 

ONLY 3 hours from Turin, by a branch Hne from Chi- 
vasso (3 frs. 65 c; 2 frs. 55 c; i fr. 85 c), is the 
pleasant town of Ivrea {/nns. Europa, Universa) , on the 
Dora Baltea (Doire), with a fine machicolated castle. 

(Diligence to Aosta 8 frs. ; a carriage with 2 horses, 30 frs. ; a very 
large vetturino-carriage for much luggage, 60 frs. An arrangement may 
be made with a small one-horse carriage for the whole excursion, at 12 
frs. a day.) 

The road to Aosta passes under the old castle of Mout- 
alto to (12 miles) Ponte S. Martina {Inn. Porta Possa), a 
very good halting-place, where there is a picturesque old 
Roman bridge, over the Lys (Lesa), to sketch. Hence the 
road ascends to Donnaz, where there is a Roman tunnel 
through the rock, and on to Fort Bard (10 19 feet), which for 
eight days checked the advance of the French army under 
Buonaparte in 1800 (before the battle of Marengo), being 
garrisoned by only 400 Austrians, Passing the entrance 
(left) of the Val di Campnra'ero, and the village of Arnaz, 
we reach (7I m.) Vernex {Inns. Paste, Conronne), with an 
old castle. Here French becomes the language of common 
intercourse. 

A Httle beyond this, we enter a narrow gulley in the 



AOSTA. 



J09 



rocks under the ruined castle of S. Germain, called the defile 
of Montjovet. The views are now most beautiful. The Doire 
tosses deep below. After passing the bridge called Font des 
Salassins (Sarrasins) we reach — 

9 m. Chatillon {l7i?is. Hotel Royal, Lion d'Or), and pro- 
ceed by many small villages, and through a country rich in 
vineyards, beyond which 

* ' the mountains 

Lift through perpetual snows their lofty and himinous summits,"* 

To (15 m.) Ao'S,ta.{Inns. H. du Mont Blanc — with a beau- 
tiful view, kept by Jean Tairraz, very clean and good. 
Couronne, in the town.) 

Aosta occupies the site of the city which was built for the 




Arch of Augustus, Aosta. 

permanent subjection of the Salassi, and to which Augustus 
gave the name of Augusta Prgetoria. It speedily rose to 
prosperity, and became the capital of the whole sun-ounding 
region. Pliny speaks of it as the extreme point of Italy 
towards the north. 



Longfellow's Evangeline. 




no ITALIAN CITIES. 

The town is entered by a noble Triumphal Arch of 
Augustus (Arco della Trinitk), the effect of which, how- 
ever, is rather spoilt by the tiled roof with which it is 
covered. To the right are the remains of a small Roman 
Bridge of one arch, and of a ruin, shown as the amphi- 
theatre, but in reality the straight wall of a Theatre. 
Spanning the street further on, is a double Gate, with three 
arches in each fa9ade. 

In the centre of the town is a large Piazza. The Cathe- 
dral is the Minster of SS. Grains and ^ocundus. 

" One can have little doubt in assigning a date of the eleventh cen- 
tury to the twin-towers of the cathedral church, the minster of S. Gra- 
tus and S. Jocundus. They must have been new when Anselra was 
bom beneath their shadow. The northern tower is untouched, a mag- 
nificent example of the stern grandeur of this early style, which in 
England we see only in smaller and ruder examples. Of the southern 
tower, the upper part must have been rebuilt at the end of the twelfth 
or beginning of the thirteenth century, but with a certain adapta- 
tion to the earlier work, the midwall shaft being still used. The 
towers flank the apse, but so great is the width of the church between 
them that they hardly seem to belong to the same building. The 
church itself is plain, and much disfigured, but its massive square piers 
are most likely original. On the north side is an apsidal chapel of the 
fourteenth century, which would look in place either in Germany or 
England, and a cloister, bearing date 1636, of debased style certainly, 
but which might well have passed for a century older. The choir has a 
splendid mosaic pavement of about the fourteenth century, and a noble 
set of stalls ; below it is a Romanesque crypt, in which classical capitals 
have been used up again. The treasury has also shrines and vestments 
to show, and a consular diptych of the time of Honorius." — Frcetnan. 

The Church of S. Urse contains the tomb of Duke 
Thomas of Savoy, of 1232. It has a detached tower, and a 
beautiful Romanesque cloister, with the history of Esau and 
Jacob and other Scriptural subjects upon the capitals. 



COURMAYEUR. in 

There are many picturesque points upon the old walls. 
The name of the Tour Bramafan (Cri de la faim) records 
the death of Marie de Bragance, wife of Count Rene of 
Chalons, who was imprisoned there by the jealousy of her 
husband in the fifteenth century, and left to die of starv- 
ation. 

A little further, abutting upon the city wall, is a square 
tower called Tour de la Frayeur, from the ghost story of a 
white woman holding a lamp, who is said to be seen emerg- 
ing from it on dark nights. It is also called the Tour de 
Lepreux, and is the scene of the pretty story of " Le Lepreux 
de la cite d'Aoste," by Xavier le Maistre. 

(From Aosta an excursion may be made to the Great S. 
Bernard. It is about 5| hours to the Hospice.) 

A carriage from Aosta to Courmayeur costs — for 2 people — 12 frs., or 
— for 3 people^i5 frs. Places in the Corriere to S. Didier zYz frs. 

The road to Courmayeur leads through a number of 
villages sadly afflicted with goitres and cretinism. At 
Fort Roc the road passes through a defile above the 
Doire, and hence there is a grand view of Mont Blanc. 
It is also well seen from the Baths of S. Didier {Hotel de la 
Rose). 

Courmayeur {Hotel du Mont Blanc, good ; Hotel Royal) 
is a picturesque Italian village, with the most glorious view, 
and delightful walks through meadows in which you can 
" scarce see the grass for flowers." This is the starting-point 
for the excursion to Chamounix by the Col de la Seigne, 
the Col de Bonhomme, and the Col de Voza. 

" There is a terrace upon the roof of the inn at Courmayeur where one 
may spend hours in silent watches, when all the world has gone to sleep 



^12 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



beneath. The Mont Chetif and the Mont de la Saxe form a gigantic 
portal not unworth)' of the pile that lies beyond. For Mont Blanc re- 
sembles a vast cathedral ; its countless spires are scattered over a mass 







Courinayeur. 

like that of the Duomo at Milan, rising into one tower at the end By 
night the glaciers glitter in the steady moon ; domes, pinnacles, and 
buttresses stand clear of clouds. Needles of every height and most fan- 
tastic shapes rise from the central ridge, some solitary like sharp arrows 
shot against the sky, some clustering into sheaves. On every horn of 
snow and bank of grassy hill stars sparkle, rising, setting, rolling round 
through the long silent night. Moonlight simplifies and softens the 



COURMAYEUR. 113 

landscape. Colours become scarcely distinguishable, and forms, de- 
prived of half their detail, gain in majesty and size. The mountains 
seem greater far by night than day — higher heights and deeper depths, 
more snowy pyramids, more beetling crags, softer meadows, and darker 
pines. The whole valley is hushed, but for the torrent and chirping 
grasshopper, and the striking of the village clocks. The black tower 
and the houses of Courmayeur in the foreground gleam beneath the moon 
until she reaches the edge of the Cramont, and then sinks quietly away, 
once more to reappear among the pines, then finally to leave the valley 
dark beneath the shadow of the mountain's bulk. Meanwhile the 
heights of snow still glitter in the steady light : they, too, will soon be 
dark, until the dawn breaks, tinging them with rose." — y. A. Symonds, 



VOL. I. 



CHAPTER VII. 
VERCELLI AND NOVARA. 

VERCELLI is reached in less than two hours by rail 
from Turin. The line passes through a luxuriant 
country, bounded, on the left, by the Alps. The only 
places of importance the railway passes through are Chivasso, 
which was the residence of the sovereign Marquises of Mont- 
ferrat and Santhia, whence there is a branch-line to the 
manufacturing-town of Biella, six miles from which is the 
sanctuary of La Madonna d'Oropa, with an image, said to 
have been carved by S. Luke, and brought from Syria by S. 
Eusebio. 

VercelH, in a low marshy situation, presents many curious 
architectural features, and is well worth visiting between the 
trains. All those vvho are interested in Lombard art must 
certainly stop here, as here alone can the works of the great 
artist, Gaudenzio FeiTari, be seen in their perfection. 

Close to the station is the noble Church of S. Andrea, 
which is of great beauty externally both as to colour and 
form. It was begun in 1219. The west front is gabled, 
and has three portals, with a rose window and two arcades 
above. The material is stone, but the inside of the arches 
is brick, giving much colour. The central tower is of brick, 
double, and octangular. On the south side is a detached 
campanile. Over one of the side doors is a representation 



VERCELLI. 115 

of the dedication of the church by its founder, who was the 
Cardinal Guala de' Bicchieri, the devoted ally of our King 
John, and papal legate in England during his reign and that 
of Henry III. 

The Lombard exterior suggests something different to the 
graceful early-pointed arches of the interior. The mixture 
of brick and stone is most effective, but the church is spoilt 
by wretched painting, and worse stained glass. The only 
tomb (in the 2nd chapel — in the right transept) is that of 
Tomaso Gallo, first abbot, and architect of the church, ob. 
1246, with a relief of his presentation to the Virgin, by 
Dionysius the Areopagite. 

The adjoining Hospital was also founded and endowed 
by Cardinal Guala. It has a fine cloister, now used as a 
garden. 

Behind S. Andrea is the Cathedral, which has an old 
brick campanile, but which otherwise is the work of Pelle- 
grino Tibaldi, of the i6th century. It has a handsome 
portico. Opening out of the transepts are the chapels of S. 
Eusebio, first bishop of VerceUi, and S. Amadeo di Savoia. 
The shrine of the latter was decorated with silver by Carlo 
Felice, in 1823. 

In the Cathedral Library is preserved the famous manu- 
script of the Gospels written in the 4th century by the first 
bishop, S. Eusebio, and bound in silver by order of King 
Berengarius. The manuscript is of the greatest importance, 
and is believed to be the most authentic copy of the " Itala " 
of S. Augustine. The order in which the Gospels are 
written is — S. Matthew, S. John, S. Luke (" Lucanus "), and 
S. Mark. The silver cover is very curious as a work of art. 
It represents the Saviour presenting the Gospels to the world. 



Ii6 ITALIAN CITIES. 

By his side stands " Eusebius Episcopus." The inscription 
tells :— 

" Prsesul hoc Eusebius scripsit, solvitque vetustas; 
Rex Berengarius reparavit idem." 

From the Cathedral, passing on the right the Church of 
S. Bernardino, and crossing the Corso, we reach (about \ 
mile) the Church of S. Cristoforo, which contains the prin- 
cipal works of Gaudenzio Ferrari, who was bom in 1484 at 
Valduggia, near Novara, and died at Milan in 1550. He 
was a pupil of Luini, and his pictures nearly resemble the 
works of that master. Lomazzo ranks him amongst the 
seven greatest painters in the world. 

" Gaudenzio must be pronounced a very great painter, and one who 
approached nearest of any of RafiFaelle's assistants to Pierino and Giulio 
Romano. He appears truly unequalled in his expression of the divine 
majesty, the mysteries of religion, and all the feelings of piety of which 
he himself offered a notable example, having received the title oi Eximie 
Pius in one of the Novarese assemblies. He was excellent in strong 
expressions ; not that he aimed at exhibiting highly-wrought muscular 
powers, but his attitudes were, as Vasari entitles them, wild, that is, 
equally bold and terrible where his subjects admitted them. 

" The warm and lively colouring of Ferrari is so superior to that of the 
Milanese artists of his day, that thera is no difficulty in recognizing it in 
the churches where he painted ; the eye of the spectator is directly 
attracted towards it. If we may so say, he represented the minds even 
better than the forms of his subjects. He particularly studied this 
branch of the art, and we seldom see more marked attitudes or more 
expressive countenances. Where he adds landscape or architecture to 
his figures, the former chiefly consists of very fanciful views of cliffs and 
rocks, which are calculated to charm by their novelty ; while his edifices 
are constructed on principles of the best perspective. " — Lanzi. 

The frescoes in S. Cristofero are in honour of the Virgin 
and the Magdalen. They begin in the Left Transept : — 

1. The Birth of the Virgin. 

2. The Marriage (the Presentation seen in the background) 



VERCELLI. tVf 

3. The Nativity. 

4. The Adoration of the Magi. (Between these S. Catherine of Siena 

and S. Nicholas presenting two members of the Liguara family.) 

5. The Assumption. 

Most spectators will feel that the conception of this picture is far 
grander than that of Titian. The Virgin in a light-coloured robe with 
extended hands and long golden hair, floats upwards, her feet resting on 
the back of a cherub, while other cherubs circle round her and hold a 
crown over her head. 

In the Right Transept are : — 

1. The Crucifixion. Angels of wondrous beauty float around the cross. 

In the corner on the right is represented Padre Angelo Corradi, 
one of two brothers at whose expense the frescoes wei"e executed. 
The Magdalen is the most conspicuous figure. 

2. The Conversion of the Magdalen. 

3. The Magdalen wiping the feet of our Lord. 

4. The Preaching of the Magdalen at Marseilles. 

5. The Assumption of the Magdalen, 

The Altar-pi££e rt^xQ%e.nts the Virgin and Child surrounded 
by saints. S. Christopher has a tree in his hand as a staff; 
there are two monks in white robes, and, in the foreground, 
two lovely children, besides S. John, who is holding a Lamb. 
In the Sacristy is a Nativity, with monks behind. 

Other churches in Vercelli have works of Ferrari, but of 
less importance. 

(There is a branch-line from Vercelli to Valenza on the 
line between Alessandria and Pavia. It passes through 
Casaie, the capital of the Duchy of Montferrat, with an in- 
teresting Romanesque Cathedral, consecrated in 11 07. In 
the Church of S. Domenico, a Renaissance building of 15 13, 
is the grave of Benvenuto da S. Giorgio the historian, 1527. 
Of the Marquises of Montferrat was Guglielmo the great 
imperialist, taken prisoner in the war with Alessandria, who 
died in an iron cage.* His daughter Jolante married the 

* Dante, Par. vii. 133, 



Ii8 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Emperor Andronicus Palaeologus, and the Marquises of 
Montferrat were continued by her second son Theodore. 
The male line became extinct in 1533.) 



Half an hour's rail takes us from Vercelli to Novara 
{Inns, Tre Re. Italia), which a few years ago was an old 
city with heavy arcades like Padua, but is now a modern 
town like Turin. From the railway Novara has an 
imposing appearance, the lofty white dome which is seen 
from thence being that of the Basilica of S. Gaudenzio. 
Novara is a good sleeping-place, and an evening walk on the 
ramparts is agreeable, but its sights may easily be seen in 
two hours. 

From the railway we must ascend the hill to the Statue 
of Cavour by Dini (J863.) A little to the right is the 
Basilica of S. Gaudenzio, built 1547 by Pellegrino Tibaldi, 
and a magnificent edifice of its kind. S. Gaudenzio, the 
patron and bishop of Novara, rests beneath the heavy high 
altar. The church contains : — 

Left, 2nd Chapel. La Madonna del Mezzo — one of the finest works 
of Gaudenzio Ferrari. An altar-piece intended for the high altar, and 
executed in 15 15. It is in six compartments. The Virgin and Child are 
attended by S. Ambrose and S. Gaudentius. The other divisions repre- 
sent S. Peter and S. J. Baptist ; S. Paul and S. Agibius ; the Aimim- 
ciation ; and the Nativity. 

Right, 1st Chapel. Moncalvo. A Deposition. 

Right, "i^rd Chapel. Gaudenzio Ferrari. Crucifix. 

Returning to his statue, we should now follow the Via 
Cavour, on the right of which is a monument to Charles 
Albert, recalling his abdication in consequence of the victory 
gained over the Piedmontese at Novara by the Austrians 
March 23, 1849. 



NO VARA. 119 

On the left is the Church of S. Pietro del Rosario, with 
pictures by G. C. Procaccini in the 4th Chapel on the right. 
The Church is only interesting at the place where, in 1304, 
the papal anathema was pronounced against the heresy of 
the fanatical reformer Fra Dolcino, who, having long de- 
fended himself with his followers on Mount Zerbal above 
Triverio, was put to a cruel death at Vercelli by order of 
Clement V. Dante represents Mahomet as desiring that 
Fra Dolcino may be warned of his danger : — 

"Or di'a fra Dolcin dunque, che s'armi, 
Tu, che forse vedrai il sole in breve, 
(S'egli non vuol qui tosto seguitarmi) 

Si di vivaada, che strette di neve 
Non rechi la vittoria al Noarese, 
Ch' altrimenti acquistar non saralieve." 

Inferno, xxviii. 55- 

The street opposite this church leads to the old market, 
on the left of which is the Cathedral, entirely modernized 
(i860 — 70), and containing nothing of interest, unless an 
angel, by Thorwaldsen, at the high-altar, can be called so. 
Some frescoes, by Luini (once in the chapel of S. Giuseppe), 
have been removed to the Sacristy. They are : — 

The Adoration of the Magi. 

The Massacre of the Innocents. 

The Virgin (Mater-Dolorosa), with S. Catherine and other saints. 

Here also are two panel pictures by Gaudenzio Ferrari — 

The Holy Family. 

The Adoration of the Magi. 

A " Last Supper " is attributed to Cesare da Sesto. 

The Cloisters are of great size, and contain fragments oi 
ancient fresco and sculpture, and two Roman pillars, of the 
same character as those in the Baptistry. 



120 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



At the west end of the cathedral is a pillared atrium, on 
the other side of which is the circular Baptistry, surrounded 
by fluted Corinthian columns, relics of some Roman edifice, 
with a font for immersion in the centre ; also a Roman 
relic, and bearing an inscription to " Umbrena Appolla." In 
the chapels between the pillars, with frescoed backgrounds, 
are sculptured groups from the Passion, by Gaudenzio Fer- 
rari and his pupils. Some are very coarsely executed and 
cause almost a shock, from the real hair and beards of the 
figures, but the first group, of " the Agony in the Garden," is 
exceedingly beautiful — the suffering Saviour, the comforting 
angel, and the intense sleep of the disciples, being so power- 
fully pourtrayed as quite to take possession of the spectator. 
The man who offers the sponge in the Crucifixion scene is 
also a very fine figure. 



121 



CHAPTER VIII. 

MILAN. 

NOTHING of much importance, except Vercelli and 
Novara, is passed between Turin and Milan (i6 frs. 
95 c. ; II frs. 95 c ; 8 frs. 55 c). The journey occupies 3-I 
hours. 

{Hotels. Hotel Cavour, Piazza Cavour ; Hotel de la Ville, Corso 
Vittorio Emanuele ; Hotel de Milan, Corso del Giardino ; Albergo 
Reale, Via del Pesce ; Hotel Gran Bretagna, Via Torino — very good 
and very reasonable in charges. Excellent Restaurants may be found in 
the Galleria Vittorio Emanuele. 

Omnibuses from the station to the Cathedral square, 25 c. ; to the 
hotels, 50 c. ; from any of the gates to the Cathedral square, 10 c. 
Carriages by day cost 75 c, by night i fr. 25 c. for the course or by 
tlie half-hour ; for each succeeding half-hour, they are 75 c. and I fr. ; 
each piece of luggage is charged 25 c.) 

Banker. Ulrich, 21, Via Bigli. 

Milan, as Mediolanum, situated in a plain midway between the rivers 
Ticinus and Addua, was the chief city of the Insubres in Cisalpine Gaul. 
In B.C. 222 it was talcen by the Romans, and in B.C. 49 received the 
full Roman franchise and passed into the condition of a Roman munici- 
pium. Strabo and Pliny both mention it as a considerable city, and it 
was the native place of the Emperor Didius Julianus, and of Septimius 
Geta. The Emperor Maximian made the town his permanent residence 
thus raising it to the rank of the capital of northern Italy. But greater 
importance was conferred upon the town by S. Ambrose, son of the 
Prsefect of Gaul, and himself Praetor of Upper Italy, who, elected Bishop 
of Milan while yet an unbaptized catechumen, and consecrated in 374, 
made Milan the intellectual centre of Italy. It was here that he gave 
the great example of ecclesiastical independence, by' refusing ad- 
mission to his church to the Emperor Theodosius, while he was stained 



122 ITALIAN CITIES. 

with the guilt of murder, though the same Emperor, having done penance 
for his crimes, afterwards died in his arms. 

Though the imperial court was transferred to Ravenna in 452, Milan 
continued to prosper, and, in the time of Theodoric the Great, surpassed 
Rome in its population and riches. It was plundered by Attila, and 
again (539) by Uraia, brother of Vitigesthe Goth ; yet, though the Lom- 
bard kings held their court in Pavia, Milan, as the seat of the Arch- 
bishopric, appears to have retained the rank of the capital of Liguria. 

Strongly Guelfic, Milan, having tyrannized over the neighbouring 
town of Lodi, came in for a terrible siege from the Emperor Frederic 
Barbarossa, and having been forced by famine to capitulate, March i, 
1 162, was destroyed by the imperialists ; but the town was soon rebuilt 
by the famous Lombard League, and the Milanese avenged their losses 
by the victory of Legnano, gained desperately fighting around their 
carroccio, in 11 76. The Emperor Henry VII. was crowned at Milan 
w^ith the Iron Crown of Monza in 1312. Soon after, the chief power 
was conferred by the citizens upon Matteo Visconti, whose grandson 
Azzo was made imperial vicar by the Emperor Louis the Bavarian. The 
great alliances and the ability of the house of Visconti afterwards so 
extended their power that all Lombardy and Piedmont were under their 
rule. 

In the 14th century lived Bemabo Visconti, so celebrated for his 
cruelties, who was imprisoned and pels' ned by his nephew, Giovanni- 
Galeazzo, Count of Virtu. This waa- the first of the Visconti to 
obtain the title of Duke of Milan. Having already gained the 
sovereignty, not only of all the principal Lombard towns, but of 
Bologna, Siena, Pisa, Perugia, Assisi, and Spoleto, he was about to 
march to Florence to be crowned King of Italy, when he died, in 1402. 
It was under this Giovanni-Galeazzo that the greatest public works of 
the Visconti were accomplished. He spent the most enormous sums in 
order to turn away the Mincio from Mantua and the Brenta from Padua, 
and so render those towns defenceless. He founded the Certosa of 
Pavia, and the Cathedral of Milan, and finished the palace of Pavia, 
then of the utmost magnificence. 

After the death of Gian-Galeazzo many of the towns he had governed 
deserted from the rule of his son, Gian-Maria Visconti, who was a cruel 
tyrant and was murdered in 1412. His successor, Filippo Maria, was 
even more hated. He beheaded his first wife, Beatrice di Tenda, and 
lived in such constant fear of assassination that he trusted no one, alien- 
ated the Count of Carmagnola, first his faithful general, and then, under 
Venice, his most formidable enemy, and shut himself up in the castle of 
Milan, scarcely ever visiting the town ; he died, however, a natural 
death, in 1447, leaving no sons. 



SIGHTS OF MILAN. 123 

Bianca, the daughter and heiress of Filippo-Maria, had married the 
Condottiere Francesco Sforza, son of that famous Condottiere Giaco- 
muzzo Attendolo, who, beginning life as a poor peasant of Cotignola, 
obtained the name of Sforza, because he always carried everything by 
force. Francesco ruled in Milan with great mildness and wisdom, and 
died in 1466. His son, Galeazzo-Maria, who was equally passionate and 
vicious, was murdered, and was succeeded by his brother, Ludovico il 
Moro, in whose reign the arts flourished at Milan under Leonardo da Vinci 
and Bramante. He fought against France, was taken prisoner in I5CX3, 
and died in prison. His son succeeded in expelling the French from Milan 
in 1512, but, being defeated at Marignano in 15 15, was obliged to give 
up Milan in exchange for an annuity. His younger brother, Francesco, 
received the dukedom again in 1529 from Charles V., after his victory 
over the French. Upon his death, in 1535, Charles V. gave Milan as 
a fief to his own son Philip II. of Spain, and the Spanish rule con- 
tinued till 1 713, during which the proverb was verified — " I ministri del 
re di Spagna in Sicilia rosicchiavano, a Napoli mangiavano, a Milano 
divoravano. " 

In 1 710 Milan fell into the hands of Austria, and, after being repeat- 
edly re-taken by the French, was united to the Austro- Venetian kingdom 
in 1814. By the peace of Villafranca, in 1859, it was restored to Italy. 

The greatest arciiitect who worked in Milan was Bramante, from 1479 
to 1500. The chief painters employed here were Borgognone, c. 1500, 
zxvA Leonardo da Vinci {14^2 — 15 IQ)- Among the pupils of Leonardo 
were Cesare da Sesto (c. 1520), Gio. Antonio Beltraffio (c. 1510), Fran- 
cesco Melzi (1568), Marco d'Oggione, Andrea Salaino, and the great Ber- 
nardino Luini, c. 1530. 

Two whole days at least should be given to Milan, but 
weeks may be pleasantly devoted to the study of the art- 
treasures it contains. Those who are only here one day 
should see (the best) S. Ambrogio, S. Eustorgio, and the 
Leonardo da Vinci at S. Maria delle Grazie (in this order), 
S. Maurizio, the Cathedral, and the Brera Gallery. As a 
residence, Milan is not pleasant, being exceedingly hot in 
summer and dreadfully cold in winter. The streets are all 
modern and handsome, but have none of the picturesque 
beauty of other Lombard towns, and after the cathedral and 
Chiaravalle have been seen there is little external to admire 



124 



ITALIAN' CITIES. 



either in the city or its environs. Beautiful views of the 
Alps, however, may be obtained from the shady walks on 
the ramparts, or from the top of the Cathedral. 

" L'aspect franfais de Milan, si fort accru dans ces derniers temps, avait 
ete deja remarque par Montaigne. II trouvait que ' Milan ressembloic 
assez a Paris, et avoit beaucoup de rapport avec les villes de France.' 
La meme ressemblance avait frappe le Tasse lorsqu'il vint passer i 
Paris deux annees k la suite du cardinal d'Este, et qu'il ecrivit son 
etrange parallele de I'ltalie et de la France." — Valery. 

Nurses and peasant-women may still occasionally be seen 
in the streets with the picturesque national head-dress of 
silver pins arranged in a circle, like rays of the sun. Black 
veils, after the manner of Spanish mantillas, are often worn by 
women of the middle classes. 




At Milan. 

The great centre of interest at Milan must always be its 
glorious Cathedral, built of white marble. It was founded in 
1387, by Gian' Galeazzo Visconti, on the site of a more ancient 
building, the original church on this site having been spoken 
of by S. Ambrose when writing to his sister Marcellina, as 



MILA.V CATHEDRAL. 125 

"the great new basilica." Heinrich von Gmunden, who 
built the Certosa for the same great founder, was the prin- 
cipal architect, though architects and sculptors from all 
nations were associated in his work. Since his time the 
building has been very gradually carried on. The octagonal 
cupola was erected in 1490 — 1522, under the Omodei ; the 
west end of the nave was finished in 1685 ; the spire in 1772, 
from designs of Croce ; the ugly western fa9ade in 1790. 
The Roman doors and windows in this fagade are portions 
of a design for a huge Roman portico, by Francesco Ricchino, 
which was fortunately not carried out. Even as it is, the 
contrast of these portions of the front with the Gothic work 
around them, greatly mars the effect of the whole. 

Great variety of opinions exist as to the beauty of Milan 
Cathedral, and, as a whole, the general feeling will be, that 
the often er you see it, the uglier it seems externally. But, 
as to the exquisite beauty and finish of its Gothic details 
all will agree, though, in order to appreciate these thoroughly, 
it will be necessary to ascend to the roof, an effort which 
is also well worth while on account of the noble view of the 
Alpine ranges to be obtained from thence. 

" The Cathedral of Milan has been wonderfully contrived to bury 
millions of money in ornaments which are never to be seen. Whole 
quarries of marble have been manufactured here into statues, relievos, 
niches, and notches ; and high sculpture has been squandered on 
objects which vanish individually in the mass. Were two or three 
thousand of those statues removed, the rest would regain their due 
importance, and the fabric itself become more intelligible. Those 
figures stand in rows which cross and confound the vertical direction of 
the architecture ; for here the eye naturally runs up the channelled 
pillars, the long windows, the lateral spires, the tall thin buttresses, 
and never can keep in the horizontal line of the Greek entablature."' — 
Forsyth. 

" Upon the whole, the exterior is in no respect more Italian than it is 



•126 ITALIAN CITIES. 

German in its style ; it belongs to no school, and has no fellows ; from 
the beginning it has been an exotic, and to the end of time will pro- 
bably remain so, without a follower or an imitator in the singular 
development of which it is the only example ... It has all the appear- 
ance of having been the work of a stranger who was but imperfectly 
acquainted with the wants or customs of Italian architecture, working 
to some extent with the traditions of his own native school before him, 
but, at the same time, impressed with a strong sense of the necessity 
under which he lay of doing something quite unlike what he had been 
taught to consider necessary for buildings in his native land . . . There 
is a constant endeavour to break up plain surfaces of wall, unlike the 
predilection for smooth surfaces of walling so usual in thoroughly 
Italian work, and destructive of the kind of breadth and dignity which 
this last generally has . . . The architect appears to have been shocked 
at the necessity under which he lay of sacrificing the steep lines of roof 
so dear to him in his native land, and to have striven with all his might 
to provide a substitute for their vertical eflfect by the vertical lines of 
his panelled buttresses and walls, by the gabled outline of his parapets, 
and by the removal of such a mark of horizontalism as the commence- 
ment of the traceries of his windows even on one line. And his work 
is a most remarkable standing proof of the failure of such an attempt ; 
for, despite all these precautions, and I incline to believe in con- 
sequence of them, the general effect is, after all, entirely depressing and 
horizontal." — Street's Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages. 

The first appearance of the Interior is most striking — the 
great height of the pillars, their exquisitely-sculptured 
capitals, the general solemnity, and the rich effect of light 
which streams in from the upper windows upon the golden 
pulpits at the entrance of the choir, form a picture to be 
revisited again and again. Yet even here more intimate 
acquaintance will serve to dispel many illusions, for the 
traceried roof is only painted, and but a few of the 
sculptures have any intrinsic merit. 

"The solitary blot upon this otherwise noble work is one for which 
its architect is in no way responsible — the cells of the groining are all 
filled in with painted imitations of elaborate traceries .u brown colour, 
an abominable device, which never ceases to offend and annoy the eye 
more and more every time it is observed. The window tracery through- 



MILAN CATHEDRAL. 127 

out is meagre, confused, and unmeaning, and the traceries introduced 
at mid-height most unsatisfactory ; but the glass with which it is filled, 
though poor and late in its character, contains much rich colour, and 
gives the entire building a very grand and warm tone. " — Street. 

At the entrance are the two huge granite columns given 
by S. Carlo from the quarries at Baveno. Turning into the 
right aisle, we see : — 

\st altar. F. Zticchero. S. Agata. 

2nd altar. M. Gherardino. S. Augustine. 

yd altar. Fiamminghino. Madonna and two Saints. 

Right transept. The monument of the brothers, Gian' Giacomo and 
Gabriele de' Medici (erected by their brother. Pope Pius IV.), by 
Leon Leoni, but said by Vasari to have been designed by Michael 
Angela ; the figures are in bronze. The splendid altar next to it was a 
gift of Pius IV., who was uncle of S. Carlo. The tribune of this 
transept has a statue of S. Giovanni Bono, Archbishop of Milan, ob. 
660, by Busca. The elaborate bas-reliefs, which tell his story, are by 
Simonetta, San Petro, Zarabatta, Bussola, and Brunetti. Then comes 
the entrance to the subterranean passage to the archbishop's palace. 
Then a relief of the Presentation of the Virgin (15 10), by Bambaja. 
Then the famous statue of St. Bartholemew flayed, with the inscription, 
— "Non me Praxiteles sed Marcus finxit Agrates." 

Passing the Altar of S. Agnese, we enter the Ambulatory, at the back 
of the choir, which is itself copiously adorned with bas-reliefs of the 17th 
century, relating to the life of Christ. On the right is a most beautiful 
Gothic door, by Porino Grassi, leading to the sacristy ; then a fine 
statue of Martin V. , by Jacopino di Tradate, placed here by Filippo- 
Maria Visconti, to commemorate his having consecrated the high altar, 
on his way from Constance to Rome, immediately after his election. 
Then comes the tomb of Cardinal Marino Caracciolo, Governor of 
Milan (ob. I53S)> iii black marble with figures in white marble, by 
Bambaja. A curious tablet on the wall with a monogram is called the 
" Chrismon Sancti Ambrogii," and has the inscription : — 

" Circulus hie summi continet nomina regis, 
Quern sine principio, et sine fine vides, 
Principium cum fine tibi denotat A CO." 

Next, passing an inscription to S. Carlo, is the tomb of Ottone 
Visconti (ob. 1295), Archbishop of Milan. Beyond, is the statue of 
Pius IV. (1559—65) by the Sicilian, Angela deManis: the beautiful 



128 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Gothic bracket which supports it is by Brambilla, Here is another 
rich door leading to the second Sacristy. 

Now we enter the North Transept, which contains the grand bronze 
candelabrum, given in 1562 by Giovanni Battista Trivulzio, archpriest 
of the church. Here are the slab tombs of two Visconti archbishops, 
and that of Cardinal Federigo Borromeo, nephew of S. Carlo. By the 
latter tomb travellers will remember with what tenderness and skill the 
character of Cardinal Federigo is drawn in the delightful pages of the 
Promessi Sposi. We watch the meekness and love of the saint softening 
the haughty savagery of the "unknown," the firmness and zeal of the 
chief pastor rebuking and inspiriting the pusillanimous Don Abbondio : — 
" He was one of those too rare characters who have devoted with un- 
changing energy great natural powers, all the resources of immense 
wealth, all the advantages of an exalted position, to the search after and 
practice of truth and goodness. His life was like a stream which flashes 
pure from the rock, and without ever becoming stagnant or stained 
carries its waters down their long and varied course, and pours them 
pure into the river. He made truth the sole rule of his thoughts and 
actions. Thus he learnt that life was not given to be a burden to the 
many, a holiday to the few, but to all a charge, of which each must one 
day give account : and from a child he began to think how he might 
make his own life useful and holy." It is said that the canonization of 
his cousin Carlo had so crippled the fortune of his family that they 
were fain to decline for Federigo so well-deserved but so costly an 
honour. 

Entering the Left Aisle we have a picture of S. Ambrose absolving 
Theodosius, by Baroccio, and the Marriage of the Virgin, by F. Zucchero ; 
then a crucifix, which S. Carlo carried in procession during the plague 
of 1576, at an altar which is adorned by modern statues of Martha by 
Monti, and Mary by Marchesi. Next is a tomb, with a Madonna by 
Marchesi. Near the entrance is an early mediaeval bas-relief of the 
Virgin and Child with eight saints, the latter in red Verona marble. 
Opposite this is the Baptistery, by Pellegrini, a porphyry bason with four 
columns of macchia-vecchia marble supporting the canopy. 

The Choir was designed by Pellegrini. The High Altar supports a 
great tabernacle of gilt-bronze, given by Pius IV., and wrought by the 
Solavi. 

Beneath, is the subterranean chapel of S. Carlo. 

"The subterranean chapel in which the body of San Carlo Borromeo 
is preserved, presents as strikmg and as ghastly a contrast, perhaps, as 
any place can show. The tapers which are lighted down there, flash 
and gleam on alti-relievi in gold and silver, delicately wrought by skilful 



GALLERIA VITTORIO EMANUELE. 129 

hands, and representing the principal events in the life of the saint. 
Jewels, and precious metals, shine and sparkle on every side. A 
windlass slowly removes the front of the altar ; and, within it, in a 
gorgeous shrine of gold and silver, is seen, through alabaster, the 
shrivelled mummy of a man ; the pontifical robes with which it is 
adorned, radiant with diamonds, emeralds, rubies ; every costly and 
magnificent gem. The shrunken heap of poor earth in the midst of 
this great glitter, is more pitiful than if it lay upon a dunghill. There 
is not a ray of imprisoned light in all the flash and fire of jewels, but 
seems to mock the dusty holes where eyes were, once. Every thread of 
silk in the rich vestments seems only a provision from the worms that 
spin, for the behoof of worms that propagate in sepulchres." — Dickens. 

The Sacristy contains some curious mediaeval vessels and church 
ornaments. 

From the Piazza del Duomo is the entrance to the really- 
magnificent Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, the handsomest 
and loftiest arcade of shops in the world — erected by an 
English company. When lighted up in the evening and 
filled with people, walking, or sitting under the Gaffes, it 
has the effect of a great ball-room. 

Having seen the cathedral, the other sights of Milan may 
be visited in three walks, taking the Piazza del Duomo as a 
centre, viz. : — 

I. The Church of S. Ambrogio, Baths of Hercules, Church of S. 
Lorenzo, Church of S. Eustorgio, Churches of S. Celso and 
S. Maria presso S. Celso, Church of S. Nazzaro Maggiore, 
Ospedale Maggiore, Churches of S. Giovanni in Conca and S. 
Satiro. 
II. Palazzo della Ragione, Loggia degli Ossi, Palazzo della Cittk, Bro- 
letto. Church of S. Maurizio, Palazzo Litta, Church of S. Maria 
delle Gra2 e. Church of Sepolcro, Ambrosian Library. 
III. Piazza and Teatro della Scala, Churches of S. Fedele, S. Carlo 
Borromeo, S. Marco, and S. Sempliciano, Arco della Pace, Cas^ 
tello, Church of S. Maria del Carmine, Brera Gallery. 



VOL. I. 



I30 ITALIAN CITIES. 



Turning to the left from the Piazza del Duomo, we follow 
the Via Torino. An opening on the right shows the Church 
of S. Giorgio in Palazzo, founded in 750 by Bishop Natalis, 
but completely rebuilt in 1800. It contains : — 

Gaudenzio Ferrari. S. Jerome. 
Luini. Ecce Homo — very beautiful. 

The Via del Torchio, and its continuation, the Via Lan- 
zone, lead (right) to the Church of S. Ambrogio, the most 
remarkable church in Milan, founded in 387 by St. Ambrose, 
and dedicated to All Saints. It was at the same time en- 
riched with the bones of the martyrs Gervasius and Protasius. 
It is the church where S. Augustine was baptized, and where 
the Te Deum was first recited by Ambrose and Augustine, 
who took up the verses alternately as they advanced to the 
altar. It was rebuilt by Archbishop Anspertus in the 9th 
century, and, though restored in the 19th century, it remains 
comparatively unaltered. 

" It was under the worthiest of the Karlings, Louis, King and Em- 
peror, that the pile arose in which he lies buried. It seems impossible 
to withstand the direct evidence which assigns not only the glorious 
goldsmith's work of the high altar and the soaring baldacchino above it, 
but the main part of the building itself, to Archbishop Ansbert, in 868. 
The building has received large changes and additions ; the vault with 
the pointed arches across the nave, the octagonal dome, the advanced 
upper story of the west front, seem all to belong to a renovation which 
began in the twelfth century, most likely after the overthrow of the city 
by Frederick Barbarossa. But everything leads us to believe that, ia 
the main arcades of the nave, and in the most distinctive feature of the 
whole building, the cortile, or western cloister, the genuine work of the , 
9th century still survives. It is the genuine Lombard style, something J 



S. AMBROGIO. 131 

utterly unlike the classical forms of Ravenna, Lucca, Pisa. It comes 
nearer to our Northern Romanesque in its Norman variety, but has 
throughout an earlier and ruder air. The general look of the building 
is dark and cavernous ; the proportions are low and broad ; the arcades 
support a large open triforium, but without a clerestory. As at Pisa, 
the arcade is continued across the transept arches, and the triforium 
assumes the form of coupled arches under a containing arch. The 
compound pier is used throughout both in the church and the cortile, to 
the exclusion alike of the classical column, of the square piers of the 
German Romanesque, and of the vast cylindrical piers of the English 
form of Norman. But there is a heavy squareness and flatness through- 
out, surpassing anything in Norman work. The capitals are famous for 
the lavish use of animal forms ; nowhere in Italy is there less imitation 
of classical forms. The subjects in some of the columns should be no- 
ticed, as well as those in other parts where animal forms are used. 
Some are mere plays of fancy, others seem to represent hunting-scenes ; 
but there is a more remarkable one in the west front, representing a 
human figure between two lions. The reference to the sports of the 
amphitheatre is obvious, but its special purport may be doubted. It 
may, of course, refer to some legend of martyrdom ; but it should not be 
forgotten that the combats with wild beasts went on at least as late as 
the reign of Theodoric, though they were looked on with no favouring 
eye by the Gothic King and his great Minister. Altogether, if one can 
really believe this church to be in its main features the genuine work of 
Anspert, we have in it one of the most instructive buildings in all 
Christendom, and the evidence seems directly in favour of such a belief " 
— Freeman. 

The exterior of the church is highly picturesque. The 
atrium is surrounded by open arches, the arcades being filled 
with ancient inscriptions, altars, and fragments of carving. 
In the doors are two small panels of cypress wood, removed 
hither from the Basilica Portiana, now S. Vittore al Corpo, 
and believed to be part of the identical gates which S. 
Ambrose closed against the Emperor Theodosius. 

"When Ambrose was informed of the massacre of Thessalonica, his 
mind was filled with horror and anguish. The Emperor was deeply 
affected by the reproaches of his spiritual father, and, after he had be- 
wailed the mischievous and irreparable consequences of his rash fury, 
he proceeded, in the accustomed manner, to perform his devotions in 



132 ITALIAN CITIES. 

the great church of Milan. He was stopped in the porch by the arch- 
bishop ; who, in the tone and language of an ambassador of heaven, 
declared to his sovereign, that private contrition was not sufficient to 
atone for a public fault, or to appease the justice of the offended Deity. 
Theodosius humbly represented, that if he had contracted the guilt of 
homicide, David, the man after God's own heart, had been guilty, not 
only of murder, but of adultery. ' You have imitated David in his 
crime, imitate, then, his repentance,' was the reply of the undaunted 
Ambrose. The rigorous conditions of peace and pardon were accepted ; 
and the public penance of the Emperor Theodosius has been recorded 
as one of the most honourable events in the annals of the Church."^ 
Gibbon. 

The interior of S, Ambrogio is exceedingly simple and 
beautiful. On either side the nave stands a pillar ; that on 
the right is surmounted by a curious old cross ; that on the 
left by a bronze serpent, shown as the brazen serpent of the 
wilderness, and given as such, in looi, to Archbishop 
Arnulphus by the Emperor of the East. In the decorations 
of the pulpit, is a ciuious bas-relief, representing an Agape, 
and, beneath it, an early Christian sarcophagus, called, with- 
out foundation, the tomb of Stilicho. The Tribune is 
covered with Byzantine mosaics upon a gold ground, repre- 
senting the Saviour, with SS. Protasius, Gervasius, Satirus, 
Marcellina, Candida, and the cities of Milan and Tours, the 
latter in reference to the story of S. Ambrose having been 
miraculously present at the death-bed of S. Martin of Tours, 
without leaving his own episcopal city. The inscriptions 
are partly in Greek and partly in Latin, They are supposed 
to have been executed, a. d. 832, by the monk Gaudentius. 
Beneath, is the ancient episcopal chair of S. Ambrose, in 
which the archbishops sate in the midst of their eighteen 
suffragans, whose sees extended from Coire to Genoa. The 
seats of the other bishops remained till the 1 6th century. In 
fi»nt of the tribune stands, tlifi: high altar,, b^jieath a baldac- 



S. AMBROGIO. 133 

chino, on the spot where St. Augustine was baptized by St. 
Ambrose. Here the coronations with the iron crown took 
place — Berengar, 888 ; Lothair, 931 ; Otto the Great, 961 ; 
Henry the Black, 1046 ; Henry IV., 1081 ; Henry VH. 
of Luxemburg, 131 1; Louis of Bavaria, 1327; Charles IV., 
1355 ; and Sigismund, 143 1. The golden front of the altar 
was presented by Archbishop Angilbertus II., about 835. 

"Within this venerable and solemn old church may be seen one of 
the most extraordinary and best -preserved specimens of Mediaeval Art : 
it is the golden covering of the Iiigh-altar, much older than the famous 
pala d'oro at Venice ; and the work, or at least the design, of one man ; 
whereas the pala is the work of several different artists at different 
periods. On the front of the altar, which is all of plates of gold, 
enamelled and set with precious stones, are represented in relief scenes 
from the life of our Saviour ; on the sides, which are of silver-gilt, 
angels, archangels, and medallions of Milanese saints. On the back, 
also of silver-gilt, we have the whole life of St. Ambrose, in a series of 
small compartments, most curious and important as a record of costume 
and manners, as well as an example of the state of Art at that time. In 
the centre stand the archangels, Michael and Gabriel, in the Byzantine 
style ; and below them, St. Ambrose blesses the donor. Bishop Angil- 
bertus, and the goldsmith Wolvinus. Around, in twelve compartments, 
we have the principal incidents of the life of St. Ambrose, the figures 
being about six inches high, viz. : — 

1. Bees swarm around his head as he lies in his cradle. 

2. He is appointed prefect of the Ligurian provinces. 

3. He is elected Bishop of Milan in 375. 

4. He is baptized. 

5. He is ordained. 

6, 7. He sleeps, and beholds in a vision the obsequies of St. Martin 
of Tours. 

8. He preaches in the Cathedral, inspired by angels. 

9. He heals the sick and lame. 

10. He is visited by Christ. 

11. An angel wakes the Bishop of Vercelli, and sends him to St. 

Ambrose. 

12. Ambrose dies, and angels bear away his soul to heaven." — 

Jameson^ s Sacred Art. 



134 ITALIAN CITIES. 

In making the round of the church, beginning on the 
right, we see : — 

1st Chapel. Gmidmzio Ferrari. Three frescoes of the Bearing the 
Cross, the three Maries, and the Deposition. 

(>th Chapel. Bernardino Lanini. The Story of St. George, signed 
" Bernardinus Juvenis." 

The "Jth Chapel (of S. Satiro) was called the Basilica of Fausta in the 
time of St. Ambrose, and was only united to the church in the 9th cen- 
tury. The mosaics of the 5th century are very curious, and have full- 
length figures of Ambrose, Gervasius, Protasius, Matemus, Felix, and 
Nabor. 

In the apse of the right aisle is a fine old Lombard picture of saints. 
Hence, passing through the many-pillared crypt, we reach the apse of 
the left aisle, where is a beautiful fresco of Christ amongst the Doctors, 
by Amb. Borgognone. In returning down the Right Aisle, the chapel 
nearest the entrance has a fresco of Christ between Angels, by Bern. Liiini. 

The shrine of SS. Gervasius and Protasius,* saints cele- 
brated in the dedication of many cathedrals and churches, 
is of unusual interest. 

"Their relics were found by St. Ambrose, who fell into a vision 
while praying in the church of SS. Nabor and Felix, in which he saw 
two beautiful youths presented to him by SS. Peter and Paul, and it 
was revealed to him, that their martyred bodies were buried beneath the 
spot on which he knelt. These bodies, of huge size, with severed heads, 
were found in a tomb, with a written record of their fate and story. 
Their removal to this church by S. Ambrose, and his laying their bones 
beneath the altar, saying, ' Let the victims lie in triumph, where Christ 
is sacrificed ; He upon the altar, who suffered for all ; they beneath the 
altar, who were redeemed by His suffering !' was the signal for calum- 
nies of the Arians, who accused him of having invented the new saints 
and bribed others to support him. The church was originally dedicated 
to the brothers, but, after the death of St. Ambrose, was re-named. 
Their legend tells that : — 

" ' They were twin-brothers, who had suffered for the faith under the 
Emperor Nero. Having been sent bound to Milan, together with 
Nazarus and Celsus, they were brought before Count Artesius, who, 

* In honour of these saints an annual procession has taken place, but it has lately 
been forbidden by the authorities, because the people of Piacenza threatened, if it 
occurred again, to produce tlieir relic — the third leg of S. Protasius ! 



1 



^. LORENZO. 135 

sharing in the enmity of his master against the Christians, commanded 
them to sacrifice to his idols. On their refusal, he condemned Gerva- 
sius to be beaten to death with scourges loaded with lead ; and ordered 
Protasius to be beheaded. A good man, whose name was Philip, carried 
home their bodies, and buried them honourably in his own garden ; and 
they remained undiscovered until their revelation to St. Ambrose. On 
the second day after the discovery of the relics, they were borne in 
solemn procession to the Basilica. And as they passed along the street, 
many of those who were sick or possessed by evil spirits, threw them- 
selves in the way, that they might touch the drapery with which the 
bodies were covered ; and immediately they were healed. Among these 
was a man, named Severus, well known to all in the city, who had been 
blind for many years, and was reduced to live upon the alms of the 
charitable. Having obtained permission to touch the bones of these holy 
martyrs, he was restored to sight ; which miracle, being performed 
before all the multitude who accompanied the procession, admitted of 
no doubt, and raised the popular enthusiasm to its height.' " — 
yameson's Sacred Art. 

Returning to the Corso Porta Ticinese, which continues 
the Via Torino, we find, on the left, the Colonne de San 
Lorenzo, sixteen ancient Corinthian columns, said to be the 
peristyle of the Baths of Hercules, built by Maximinian. 
They were greatly injured by fire in 107 1. Hence we enter 
the curious octangular 

Church of S. Lorenzo, rebuilt by Pellegrino and Martina 
Bassi, in the i6th century, on the plan of S. Vitale at 
Ravenna. On the right is the octagonal chapel of S. Aquil- 
linus, containing the shrine of the saint in pietra-dura. Here 
are some early Christian Mosaics, representing our Lord 
amongst his Apostles, and the Sacrifice of Isaac ; also the 
sarcophagus — adorned with the Christian monogram and two 
lambs — of Ataulphus, who married Galla Placidia, daughter 
ofTheodosius the Great. Some consider that this chapel 
was a chamber in the Roman baths. 

Behind the high-altar of the church is a fine tomb, erected, 
^538, by Gaspare Visconti to Giovanni Conti. 



136 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Continuing in a straight line down the Corso di Cittadella 
(which takes its name from this having been the first portion 
of the town fortified by the Visconti), we reach, on the left, 
the square, in front of the 

Church of S. Eustorgio, originally built by Archbishop 
Eustorgius, in a. d. 320. In the 13th century it was rebuilt 
by Tomaso Lombardino, for the Dominicans who had estab- 
lished themselves in the adjoining convent. The beautiful 
brick steeple is of this period. The whole building (of brick) 
is very interesting, as well as the tombs it contains. Adjoin- 
ing the west front is the open-air pulpit from which S. Peter 
Martyr often confuted the Manicheans. In the interior, 
which has three aisles, are : — 

(Right) 1st Chapel. Architecture by Bramante. The beautiful cinque - 
cento tomb of Stefano Brivio, 1456. The altar-piece in three parts, by 
Amb. Borgognone, is a Madonna and Child with saints. 

2.nd Chapel (of S. Dominic). Tomb of Pietro Torelli, 1416, son of 
Guido, Lord of Guastalla. 

^h Chapel. Tomb of Stefano, son of Matteo Magno Visconti, 1327, 
— a sarcophagus supported by eight spiral columns, resting on lions. 

5/A Chapel. Tombs of Uberto Visconti and Bonacorsa Borri, brother 
and wife of Matteo Magno. 

dth Chapel (built to S. Martin, by the Delia Torre family). Tombs of 
Gasparo Visconti, 1430, and his wife Agnese. The former bears traces 
upon its armorial bearings of the Order of the Garter, conferred by 
Edward III., when Gasparo was ambassador to the court of England. 

Chapel, right of High- Altar. A great sarcophagus, supposed to have 
contained the relics of the Magi, to receive which the church was origin- 
ally built. The relics were carried off to Cologne by Rinaldus, Arch- 
bishop of that city, when Milan was taken by Frederick Barbarossa. A 
bas-relief, of 1347, attributed to the scholars of Balduccio di Pisa, tells 
the story of the Nativity and the coming of the Magi. 

The High-Altar has 14th-century bas-reliefs of the Passion. 

From the O7// beneath the church, a passage leads to the 
Chapel of S. Pietro Martire, built, in 1460, by Pigello 
d^ Portinari, a Florentine, It contains the shrine of the saint. 



TOMB OF S. PETER MARTYR. 137 

by Balduccio da Pisa, looked upon by Cicognara and others 
as a master-piece. It is inscribed — " Magister lohannes 
Balducci de Pisis sculpsit banc archam, Anno Domini, 

I339-" 

Next to the founder, S. Peter Martyr is the glory of the 
Dominican Order. He was bom at Verona, 1205, and was 
induced by S. Dominic to become a monk in his 15th year. 
To reward his unrelenting persecution of heretics, he was ap- 
pointed Inquisitor-General by Honorius III. His cruelties in 
this office led to his murder, in a wood between Milan and 
Como, by two Venetian noblemen, April 28, 1252. He was 
canonized, by Innocent IV., in 1253. The history of his 
imaginary miracles fills twenty-two pages of the Acta Sanc- 
torum, 

"Balduccio's monument to this saint (1336 — 1339) consists of a 
sarcophagus, supported upon eight pilasters, in front of which stand 
allegorical figures of Hope, Prudence, Justice, Obedience, Charity, 
Faith, Force, and Temperance, all bearing the strongest evidence of 
Giotto's influence upon him. Take, for instance, the Hope, with up- 
turned eyes, full of intense expression ; and the Temperance, charming 
in repose, and noble in drapery, with a wreath of ivy-leaves around her 
veiled head, and a look of dreamy gentleness in her wide eyes ; or 
the triple-faced Prudence, which looks at once at past, present, and 
future. The eight bas-reliefs upon the side of the Area, representing 
scenes in the saint's life, are very inferior in workmanship to these 
statues, and cannot stand a moment's comparison with the bas-reliefs of 
Nicola or Giovanni Pisano, and far less with those of Andrea Orcagna. 
They are separated from each other by statuettes of SS. Peter, Paul, 
Eustorgio, Thomas Aquinas, and the Doctors of the Church ; and upon 
the sides of the lid of the 'Area,' the donators are represented in relief. 
Statuettes of angels, and a tabernacle, under which sits the Madonna 
and Child, with SS. Peter Martyr and Dominic, complete this elaborate 
work, which has few equals in unity of design, earnestness of feeling, 
and a judicious use of the symbolism of Christian art." — Ferkin's 
Tuscan Sculptors. 

Turning to the left, along the boulevard, just beyond S. 



138 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Eustorgio, and descending the first wide street on the left, 
we find (right) the 

Church of S. Celso, originally built, a. d. 396, by S. 
Ambrose, over the remains of S. Celsus, which he discovered 
here, with the body of S, Nazarus, in a field " ad tres moros." 
The small church, as it now exists, with a handsome brick 
campanile, was built by Filippo-Maria Visconti in 1429. 
Beside it stands the large 

Church of S. Maria presso San Celso (generally called La 
Madonna) begun in 1491, by Galeazzo Sforza, to accommo- 
date the crowds of pilgrims who came out of devotion to a 
small picture of the Madonna (who was said to have herself 
appeared on the spot) placed by S. Ambrose in the adjoin- 
ing church of S. Celso. The original designs were by Bra- 
mante, but were altered, in 1572, by Martino Bassi, and 
completed by Galeazzo Alessi. The church is approached 
by a cloistered court. Over the door are two Sibyls, by 
Annibale Fontana. The beautiful statues of Adam and Eve, 
on either side, are by Stoldo Lorenzi. 

The great chapel on the right contains a S. Jerome, by Paris Bordone. 

Over the 1st altar on the left, is a small head of the Madonna, by 
Sassoferrato, and over it a Madonna with two angels, by Amb. Borgog- 
none. Over the altar of the Madonna del Pianto, in the same aisle, is an 
interesting fresco of the Madonna and two saints. The shrine of SS. 
Nazarus and Celsus has a sepulchral urn of the fourth century. 

Continuing along the Corso di San Celso as far as the 
Piazza S. Eufemia, and turning (right) between that church 
and S. Paolo opposite it, we reach the Corso di Porta Ro- 
mana, on the right of which is the 

Church of S. Nazzaro Maggiore, founded by S. Ambrose 
in A. D. 382. Having been burnt 1075, it was rebuilt by 
S. Carlo Borroraeo. It is entered by the curious octangular 



S. NAZZARO MAGGIORE. 139 

sepulchral chapel, of 15 18, of the Trivulzi family, who lie 
around it, on eight sarcophagi, unfortunately too high up to 
allow of their being well seen. They are Antonio Trivulzi, 
1454 : his son, the great Gian-Giacomo, Marquis of Vige- 
rano, 15 18 (with the inscription — "Johannes Jacobus Mag- 
nus Trivultivs Antonii filius, qui nunquam quievit quiescit, 
tace ; " the wives of Gian-Giacomo, Margherita CoUeoni, 
1488, and Beatrice d'Avalos; his son, Gian-Niccolo, 151 2, 
and his wife, Paula Gonzaga ; Ippolita, Luigi, and Marghe- 
rita, children of Gian-Niccolo ; and, lastly, his son Gian 
Francesco, 1573, who erected these monuments to his family. 
The chapel itself was built by Gian-Giacomo, and is said to 
have been designed by Bramante. 

From the left aisle of the church opens the Capella di S. 
Caterina della Ruota, with noble frescoes by Bernardino 
Lanini, of the story and martyrdom of the saint. Lanzi 
says that the colouring is that of Titian, while the face 
of the saint recalls the work of Guido, the angels that of 
Gaudenzio. In the same chapel is a beautiful Gothic altar 
in carved wood, representing the Adoration of the Magi. 

(Higher up the Corso, a side street on the left leads to 
the Church of S. Alessandro, opposite which is the Palazzo 
Trivulzi (never shown without an order), containing many 
interesting historical memorials, especially the tomb, by 
Balduccio, of Azzo Visconti, Lord of Milan. 

" The front of the sarcophagus, on which the recumbent figure of the 
deceased prince lies, watched over by angels, is sculptured with reliefs, 
representing knights, and their patron saints (typical of the cities sub- 
ject to Azzo), Icneeling before S. Ambrose. It is supported upon two 
columns, above which stood the now detached statues of S. Michael 
and the Dragon, and a female figure holding before her a small child 
with clasped hands, possibly emblematic of her soul." — Ferkhi's Tus- 
can Sculptors. 



I40 ITALIAN CITIES. 

At the Porta Rotnana, which doses the Corso at the 
lower end, are some curious reliefs. 

"The victory of the Milanese at Legnano (A. D. 1 1 76) is com- 
memorated at Milan in the bas-reliefs of the Porta Romana, which re- 
present the triumphal citizens returning to their half-destroyed homes, 
headed by a monk named Frate Jacopo bearing the city banner in his 
hand, and accompanied by their allies from Cremona, Brescia, and 
Bergamo. One of the inscriptions upon the gate records the name of 
Anselmus as the sculptor of these reliefs, and honours him with the title 
of a second Daedalus ; but by applying to him the name which erroneously 
stood to them as the type of perfection in sculpture, his contemporaries 
showed how incompetent they were to estimate him rightly, for the 
short, clumsy, thick-set figures, ranged one behind the other in stiff 
monotony, dangle in the air like a row of wooden dolls with pendent 
feet and shapeless hands. Filled with contempt and hatred for Bar- 
barossa, the Milanese caused two portrait bas-reliefs of himself and his 
wife, the Empress Beatrice, to be set up upon the Porta Romana, one 
of which is a hideous caricature, the other too grossly obscene for de- 
scription." — Ferkin's Italian Sculptors. 

Behind the Church of S. Nazzaro is the Great Hospital 
(Ospedale Maggiore) founded by Duke Francesco Sforza 
and his wife Bianca Maria, in 1456, on the site of an old palace 
of Bemabo Visconti. It is a magnificent building of brick, 
with terra-cotta ornaments. The southern portion is the 
work of Antonio Filarete, the original architect ; the rest was 
added in 162 1. In the church is an Annunciation, by 
Guercino. 

*' The immense fa<jade owes its effect not merely to its unsurpassed 
wealth of ornament, but still more to its beautiful distribution and gra- 
dations ; the brick style has never produced a more splendid and, at 
the same time, a nobler creation. Briefly to recapitulate its principal 
features : — Two rows of pointed windows, bisected by small columns. 
The common framework with its elegant decorations, above all with an 
arabesque of vine-leaves and grapes, interspersed with exquisite birds. 
In the upper arched compartment vigorously-treated half-length figures 
of male and female saints. The lower row of windows, enclosed by 
circular sham-arcades resting on semi-columns. In the pendentivea half- 



i 



OSPEDALE MAGGIORE, S. STEFANO. 141 

length figures of saints, standing out in strong relief. Then the broad 
frieze, separating the two stories, decorated alternately with rosettes and 
branch-work, eagles, and angels' heads. Above, the windows of the 
lower story are repeated with the same rich ornament, but in rectangular 
frames, and the compartments thus obtained are again adorned with heads 
in relief, so that four rows are presented of these heads and half-length 
figures. All this is executed with incomparable freshness and sharpness 
in the purest forms, and is a perfect wonder in clay sculpture. The twenty- 
nine arcades to the right of the principal portal are less richly executed 
than the seventeen of the left side. The heads in the upper windows 
are able and somewhat more realistic in style than those of the upper 
parts, and here and there appear with a flowing and tolerably detailed 
beard. On the left side the utmost abundance of ornament is displayed. 
Its terra-cottas are perhaps the freest, most life-like, and most important 
works which Upper Italy has produced in burnt clay. They bear the 
perfect stamp of the sixteenth century. The male heads exhibit the 
utmost power ; at the same time, the treatment of the forms through- 
out is grand and bold. The female half-length figures are full and 
soft, beautiful, even voluptuous in the flow of the lines and in the 
mass of the falling hair ; the Putti in the framework of the windows are 
full of life, freshness, and grace. In addition to all this there is the 
equally rich ornament of the large central court, executed a little later 
by Richini. In the upper and lower rows of columns, medallions fill the 
compartments above the arches, forming altogether no less than 152 
heads. The style here is somewhat feeble and more conventional than 
even in the later parts of the facjade, although a few very able works 
appear among them." — Lubke, History of Sculpture. 

A little behind the Ospedale Maggiore is the Renaissance 
Church of S. Stefano in Broglio, celebrated as the place 
where Galeazzo-Maria Sforza was murdered. 

"The most abominable lust, the meanest and vilest cruelty, supplied 
Galeazzo-Maria with daily recreation. Three young nobles of Milan, 
educated in the classic literature by Montano, a distinguished Bolognese 
scholar, had imbibed fi-om their studies of Greek and Latin history an 
ardent thirst for liberty, and a deadly hatred of tyrants. Their names 
were Carlo Visconti, Girolamo Olgiati, and Giannandrea Lampugnani. 
Galeazzo Sforza had wounded the two latter in the points which men 
hold dearest — their honour and their property. The spirit of Har- 
modius and Virginius was kindled in the friends, and they determined 
to rid Milan of her despot. After some meetings in the garden of S. 



142 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Ambrogio, where they matured their plans, they laid their project of 
tyrannicide as a holy offering before S. Ambrose, the patron saint of 
Milan. Then, having spent a few days in poignard exercise for the sake 
of training, they took their place within the precincts of S. Stephen's 
Church. There they received the sacrament and addressed themselves 
in prayer to the Protomartyr, whose fane was about to be hallowed by 
the murder of a monster odious to God and man. It was on the morn- 
ing of Dec. 26, 1476, that the duke entered San Stefano. At one and 
the same moment the daggers of the three conspirators struck him — 
Olgiati's in the heart, Visconti's in the back, Lampugnani's in the belly. 
He cried, ' Ah, Dio ! ' and fell dead upon the pavement. The friends 
were unable to make their escape ; Visconti and Lampugnani were 
killed on the spot ; Olgiati was seized, tortured, and torn to death." — 
Symonds' Renaissance in Italy. 

Returning to the Corso Porta Romana, and its continua- 
tion, the Via del Unione, we pass, on the right, the 

Church of S. Giovanno in Conca, ruined and used as a 
store-house. The brick front has a good rose-window and 
doorway. Here was the grand tomb of the tyrant Bernabo 
Visconti, now removed to the Brera. The house on the right 
of the church is called Dei Cani, from the hounds which he 
kept there, and for the maintenance of five thousand of 
which he compelled the citizens to pay. 

A little further (right) the Via del Falcone leads to the 
curious brick chapels at the back of the 

Church of S. Satiro. The original church was built by 
Archbishop Anspertus in the 9th century, but the present 
building is of 1480. The interior is very simple and effective. 
The octagonal sacristy is by Bramante. A curious Mortorio 
in one of the chapels, " like a tableau-vivant out of one of the 
old ' Mysteries,' " is by Ambrogio Caradosso, c. 1490. 

Hence the Via Torino leads again to the Piazza del 
Duomo. 



PIAZZA DE' TRIE UN ALL 143 



II. 

Leaving the Piazza del Duomo by the west, we find our- 
selves at once in the Piazza de' Tribunali, surrounded by 
some of the most curious buildings in the city. In the 
centre rises the Palazzo della Ragione, almost dividing the 
piazza into two parts. It stands upon open arches, now 
enclosed with glass as a kind of Exchange. It was begun in 
1228, and finished in 1233, by Oldrado da Tresseno, Podesta 
of the city, who is represented on horseback, on the south 
wall of the building. The inscription below sets forth, among 
his other virtues, his persecution of Manichean heretics : — 

" Qui solium straxit, Catharos ut debuit ussit." 

On the shields ornamenting the third and fifth arches, is 
introduced the traditional half-fleeced sow which guided the 
Gaul Belovesus to the foundation of Mediolanum (In medio 
lange). 

On the left of the piazza, is the beautiful Gothic Loggia 
degli Ossi, so called from the family who built it, in 13 16. 
The front is richly adorned with shields. It was from the 
balcony in front of this edifice that sentences were pro- 
nounced upon criminals, and that the Podesta asked the 
assent of the people to the acts of government. Beyond 
this is the Scuola Palatina, a renaissance building, now an 
ofiice for mortgage deeds, with statues of Ausonius and 
S. Augustine in front. The opposite side of the piazza 
is occupied by the Palazzo della Citta (with a clock-tower), 
a town hall of the 16th century. It is adorned with a 
statue of S. Ambrose, replacing that of Philip II. of Spain, 




144 ITALIAN CITIES. 

destroyed by the mobm 1813. On the north of the piazza is 
the Broletto, built by Filippo-Maria Visconti. 

Turning a little to the right, beyond the piazza, we reach 
the Via Meraviglie, descending which — to its continuation, 
the Corso Magenta — we reach, on the left, the 

Church of S. Maurizio, said to have been one of the three 
buildings spared by Barbarossa in his general destruction of 
Milan. Small fragments of Roman work may be discovered 
in one of the two towers, which are the only really ancient 
portions remaining. The present church was built by 
Dolcebono^ a pupil of Bramante, 1497 — 1506, and the fagade 
added by Perovano in 1565. It is a perfect gallery of the 
pictures of the school of Luini. 

In the chapels on the left are, i. The Resurrection ; 2. The Preaching 
and Stoning of S. Stephen (by Aurelio Luini) ; 3. The Birth and 
Martyrdom of the Baptist (Aurelio Luini) ; 4. The Deposition (pupils 
oi Luini). The 2nd Chapel on the right has saints, hy Bern. Liiini ; the 
4th Chapel, Christ bound between S. Catherine and S. Stephen, and the 
founder of the chapel kneeling (Bern. Luini). In the lunettes of the 
screen are the Mocking, the Crucifixion, and the Deposition of Christ ; 
on the side walls, the Agony in the Garden and the Resurrection (Bern. 
Luini). The Almighty, the Evangelists, and the Angels, are attributed 
to Borgognone. 

' Numerous works in the church of the Monasterio Maggiore, the 
altar-wall in the inner church (with the exception of the old altar- 
picture), and a chapel, are painted by Luini. Here we have the most 
beautiful figures of female saints, admirable heads of Christ, and lovely 
infant angels. From the dado, painted in brown chiaro-scuro, to the 
roof, the walls are covered with masterly frescoes, and the spectator can 
scarcely fill his gaze in this lavish display of fancy. On the wall above 
the entrance to the choir is a large composition representing the Cruci- 
fixion, containing about 140 figures ; among which a group around the 
fainting figure of the Virgin, the fine form of the Centurion, those of the 
soldiers dividing the garments, and the Magdalen kneeling in ecstasy, 
are peculiarly remarkable. The painter, however, has attained the. 
highest perfection in his figure of St. John, whose action and expression 
are fiill of the loftiest inspiration and faith.- Single figures, also of great 



S. MARIA DELLE GRAZIE. 145 

beauty, are still preserved upon the different piers and walls of the 
church. There is also a very graceful Madonna in a lunette over the 
door of the Refectory, and a Last Supper in the Refectory itself, much 
resembling Leonardo's, but not a copy of it (perhaps not even the work 
of Luini)." — Kugler, 

Nearly opposite this church is the handsome Palazzo Litta, 
built by Richini. It contains some interesting frescoes of 
Luini, brought from a ruined church, and a small Correggio 
of Apollo and Marsyas. Beyond, on the same side of the 
street, we reach the famous 

Church of Sa.nta Maria delle Grazie, built 1463 — 93, 
having been founded by Count Gasparo Vimercati, com- 
mander of the army under Francesco Sforza I. The great 
cupola is a very rich and picturesque work of Bramante. 

In the 4th Chapel on the right are grand frescoes of Gaudenzio Ferrari 
(1452), of the Flagellation and the Crucifixion. On the vaulting are 
angels bearing the instruments of the Passion. 

In the Choir are a series of half-length terra-cotta figures, by Bra- 
mante. 

The adjoining convent is now turned into a Barrack, but 
the Refectory is reserved under the superintendence of the 
Academy of Arts. Here, on the wall by the entrance, is 
a great fresco of the Crucifixion, by Giov. Donato Montor- 
fano (dated 1495), ^'^^ opposite it, the world-famous Cenacolo 
of Leonardo da Vinci, 

" The purpose being the decoration of a refectory in a rich convent, 
the chamber lofty and spacious, Leonardo has adopted the usual 
arrangement : the table runs across from side to side, filling up the 
whole extent of the wall, and the figures, being above the eye, and to be 
viewed from a distance, are colossal ; they would otherwise have appeared 
smaller than the real personages seated at the tables below. The 
moment selected is the utterance of the words, ' Verily, verily, I say 
unto you, that one of you shall betray me : ' or rather, the words have 
just been uttered, and the picture expresses their effect on the different 
VOL. I. 10 



146 ITALIAN CITIES. 

auditors. The intellectual elevation, the fineness of nature, the benign 
God-like dignity, suffused with the profoundest sorrow, in the head of 
Christ, surpassed all I could have conceived as possible in Art ; and. 
faded as it is, the character there, being stamped on it by the soul, not 
the hand, of the artist, will remain while a line or hue remains visible. 
It is a divine shadow, and until it fades into nothing, and disappears 
utterly, will have the lineaments of divinity. Next to Christ is St. John ; 
he has just been addressed by Peter, who beckons to him that he should 
ask ' of whom the Lord spake ' : — his disconsolate attitude, as he has 
raised himself to reply, and leans his clasped hands on the table, the 
almost feminine sweetness of his countenance, express the character of 
this gentle and amiable apostle. Peter, leaning from behind, is all fire 
and energy ; Judas, who knows full well of whom the Saviour spake, 
starts back amazed, oversetting the salt ; his fingers clutch the bag, 
of which he has the charge, with that action which Dante describes as 
characteristic of the avaricious : — 

' Questi risurgeranno dal sepolcro 
Con pugno chiuso.' 

' These from the tomb with clenched grasp shall rise.' 

" His face is seen in profile, and cast into shadow ; without being 
vulgar, or even ugly, it is hateful. St. Andrew, with his long grey 
beard, lifts up his hands, expressing the wonder of a simple-hearted 
old man. St. James Minor, resembling the Saviour in his mild 
features, and the form of his beard and hair, lays his hand on the 
shoulder of St. Peter — the expression is, ' Can it be possible ? have we 
heard aright ? ' Bartholomew, at the extreme end of the table, has 
risen perturbed from his seat ; he leans forward with a look of eager 
attention, the lips parted ; he is impatient to hear more. On the left of 
our Saviour is St. James Major, who has also a family resemblance to 
Christ; his arms are outstretched, he shrinks back, he repels the thought 
with horror. The vivacity of the action and expression are wonderfully 
true and characteristic. St. Thomas is behind St. James, rather young, 
with a short beard; he holds up his hand, threatening — 'If there be 
indeed such a wretch, let him look to it.' Philip, young and with a 
beautiful head, lays his hand on his heart : he protests his love, his 
truth. Matthew, also beardless, has more elegance, as one who 
belonged to a more educated class than the rest ; he turns to Jude and 
points to our Saviour, as if about to repeat his words, ' Do you hear 
what he says ? ' Simon and Jude sit together (Leonardo has followed the 
tradition which makes them old and brothers) ; Jude expresses constern- 
ation ; Simon, with his hands stretched out, a painful anxiety. 



I 



THE CENACOLO. 147 

*' To understand the wonderful skill with which this composition has 
been arranged, it ought to be studied long and minutely ; and to 
appreciate its relative excellence, it ought to be compared with other 
productions of the same period. Leonardo has contrived to break the 
formality of the line of heads without any apparent artifice, and without 
disturbing the grand simplicity of the usual order; and he has vanquished 
the difficulties in regard to the position of Judas, without making him 
too prominent. He has imparted to the solemn scene sufficient move- 
ment and variety of action, without deducting from its dignity and 
pathos ; he has kept the expression of each head true to the traditional 
character, without exaggeration, without effijrt. To have done this, 
to be the first to do this, required the far-reaching philosophic mind, 
not less than the excelling hand, of this 'miracle of nature,' as Mr. 
Hallam styles Leonardo, with reference to his scientific as well as 
his artistic powers." — Ja7nesons Sacred Art. 

" Indefatigable was Leonardo in the execution of this work. ' I have 
seen him,' says Bandello, the novelist, 'mount the scaffold at day-break 
and continue there till night, forgetting to eat or drink. Not but what 
he would sometimes leave it for many days together, and then return 
only to meditate upon it, or to touch and retouch it here and there. The 
Prior was for ever complaining of the little progress that he made, and 
the Duke at last consented to speak to him on the subject. His answer 
is given by Vasari . ' Perhaps I am then most busy when I seem to be 
most idle, for I must think before I execute. But, think as I will, there 
are two persons at the supper to whom I shall never do justice — Our 
Lord and the disciple who betrayed Him. Now, if the Prior would but 
sit to me for the last — ' 

" The Prior gave him no more trouble." — Notes to Rogers' Italy. 

Retracing our steps, as far as the entrance of the Via 
Meraviglie, a street on the right will lead to a piazza in 
which is the 

Church of S. Sepokro, modernized, but with towers of 
the nth century. It contains some curious figures carved 
in wood. Over the door is a fresco, by Siiardi. 

' Bramantino the younger, or more properly Bartolomeo Suardi, has 
kft a Dead Christ mourned by the Marys, which is particularly cele- 
brated ; it is over the door of the church of S. Sepolcro ; the foreshort- 



148 ITALIAN CITIES. 

ening of the body (the feet being nearest to the eye) is said to be inimit- 
able. To protect it from the weather, this picture is unfortunately shut 
up in glass and grating, so that no part of it can be thoroughly examined." 
— Kugler. 

Behind this church, occupying a large palace, entered on 
the other side, is the celebrated Biblioteca Atfibrosiana, 
founded in 1609, by Cardinal Federigo Borromeo, Arch- 
bishop of Milan. 

The library is open from 10 to 3. The collection of MSS. 
is of the greatest interest. It comprises some of the earliest 
specimens of the Gaelic language known, consisting chiefly 
of portions of the Bible, found in the convent of Bobbio, 
which was founded in the 7th century by S. Columba. The 
Palimpsests, also from Bobbio, were discovered by Cardinal 
Mai when he was at the head of this library. They are 
written upon vellum, upon which the original MS. has been, 
as far as possible, effaced, to make use of the same surface 
for monastic purposes — so that their deciphering and re- 
storation has been both long and difficult : amongst them 
are fragments of the Codex Argenteus, a Gothic Bible, 
written a.d. 360 — 80, by Ulfilas, an Arian bishop. One of 
the greatest treasures is Petrarch's copy of Virgil with his 
notes, and a miniature by Simone Memmi, representing Virgil 
with " the various species of his poetry personified ; " this 
afterwards belonged to Galeazzo Visconti. The correspond- 
ence, and portions of the sermons, of S. Carlo Borromeo, 
and his Missal with his motto " Humilitas " are preserved 
here. 

The upper rooms are used as a museum and picture- 
gallery. The pictures are ill-arranged and numbered. The 
best works are : — 



1 



AMBROSIAN LIBRARY. 149 

Sala III. 
Amb. Borgognonc. Virgin and Child throned, with saints. 

Virgin and Child with S. John, unfinished —attributed to Raphael ? 
Andrea Mantegna. Daniel and the lions. 

Sala IV. 

Sketches of the Old Masters. 

Sala V. 

* Raffaelle. Cartoon for the School of Athens. 

B. Luini. Holy Family, copied from the Paris Leonardo. 

* Cesare da Sesto / (called a Luini). Head of the young Christ. 

" The early works of this master resemble Leonardo's ; among them 
is a youthful head of Christ, in the Ambrosian Library, of very bland 
and unaffected expression, simply and beautifully painted." — Kugler. 

* B. Luini. St. John and the Lamb. 

"The spirit of Leonardo was so largely imbibed by Luini, that his 
latest works are generally ascribed to Leonardo. This was the case for 
a long time with the enchanting half-length figure of the Infant Baptist 
playing with the Lamb." — Kugler. 

* Leonardo da Vinci. Portraits of Ludovico Moro and Beatrice 

d'Este. 
■ " Painted in oil, in the early and rather severer manner of the artist." 
—Kugler. 

Giorgione. Holy Family. 

Titian. His own portrait. 

Id. The Adoration of the Magi. 

* B. Luini. Tobit and the Angel — a most beautiful sketch. 
Id. The Madonna reading — a sketch. 

Leonardo da Vinci. Two portraits in chalk. 

Sala VI, 
Moroni. A standing Portrait, 1554- 

Sala VII. 

Vandyke. Portrait of a Lady. 
Moroni. A Portrait. 
Bonifazio. A Portrait. 



ISO ITALIAN CITIES. 



III. 



Turning (right) from the Piazza del Duomo, through the 
splendid Galleria Vittorio Emanuele — lined with shops and 
restaurants, and covered in with glass at the whole height of 
the houses — we reach the Piazza della Scala, with a modem 
statue of Leonardo da Vinci. Facing us, is the magnificent 
Theatre of La Scala, second only in size to that of San Carlo 
at Naples, and capable of containing 3600 persons. It was 
built from designs of Piermarini, and opened in 1779. It 
derives its name from the Church of S. Maria della Scala, 
on the site of which it was built. 

Turning to the right from the end of the Galleria, and 
passing (left) the Palace of the Magistrato Camerale, we 
reach (left) the 

Church of S. Fedele, built by Pellegrino Pellegrini for S. 
Carlo Borromeo. It contains a few tolerable pictures. 

A street on the right leads us back to the Corso Vittorio 
Emanuele, following which, on the left, we find the 

Church of S. Carlo Borromeo, built from designs of Amatiy 
1838, as a thank-offering for deliverance from cholera. It is 
circular, and surmounted by a dome, 105 feet in diameter, 
and 150 feet high (with the lantern). It contains two marble 
groups, by Marcliesi — on the right of the high altar, a Pieti, 
called " II Venerdi Santo ; " on the left S. Carlo Borromeo 
administering a first Communion. 

Passing, on the right, S. Babila, and, on the left, the 
Seminario Arcivescovile, with a handsome gate, we reach 
the Naviglio, which encircles Milan. Here, turning (left) 
down the Via Senato, and passing (right) the Palace of the i 



S. MARCO, S. SEMPLICIANO. 151 

Archivio and the Hospital of the Ben-FratelH, we find 

(right) the 

Church of S. Marco, a very handsome brick building of 

1254, with a good campanile, observe — 

Right, T^rd CJmpel. Lomazzo. Virgin and Child, with Saints. 
/^k Chapel. A magnificent bronze candlestick. 
%th Chapel. Virgin and Child with S. Maurice ? 

In the Right Transept are a most interesting collection of 13th-cen- 
tury monuments, the most remarkable that by Balduccio de Pisa of Lan- 
franco Settala, the first General of the Augustinians, 1243, and a Pro- 
fessor of Theology. 

"On the top of the sarcophagus, which is raised upon consoles, and 
set against the wall, the deceased monk lies upon a mortuary couch, 
behind which two figures raise the folds of a curtain. He is again re- 
presented in the centre of the front of the ' Area, ' seated at a desk, 
instructing his scholars, who are sculptured in bas-relief within the side 
panels, and his very earnest face, as well as his cowl, frock, and hands, 
being coloured, the effect is life-like and striking." — Pcrkin^s Tuscan 
Sculptors. 

The fi-escoes are by Lomazzo. Near the high altar are some huge 
pictures by C. Proccacini. 

Continuing, the Strada S. Sempliciano (on right) leads 
to the 

Church of S. Sempliciano, built by the Milanese after they 
defeated Barbarossa at Legnano, because they believed that 
they had been assisted in the battle by the spirits of saints 
(buried by S. Ambrose in a small oratory on this site), who 
perched upon the mast of their carroccio. The church is 
much altered : there are modern mosaics over the three 
doors in its west front. In the tribune is a fresco of the 
Coronation of the Virgin, by A7nb. Borgognone. 

Turning right, we reach the Avide space called Piazza 
d'Armi, beyond which, outside the Porta Sempione, is the 
Arco delta Pace, built. 1807 — ^Z, from a design of the 
Marchese Cagnola, originally intended and used (merely for 



152 ITALIAN CITIES. 

a wooden arch) in honour of the marriage of Prince Eugene 
Beauharnois. 

"Unarc de triomphe i qui celui du Carrousel passerait entre les 
jambes, et qui pourrait lutter de grandeur avec Tare de I'Etoile, donne 
ci cette entree un caractere monumental que le reste ne dement pas. 
Sur le haut de Tare, un figure allegorique, la Paix ou la Victoire, con- 
duit un char de bronze attele de six chevaux. A chaque angle de I'en- 
tablement, des ecuyers tendant des couronnes font piaffer leurs montures 
d'airain ; deux colossales figures de fleuves accoudes siu- leurs urnes 
s'adossent au cartel gigantesque qui contient I'inscription votive, et 
quatre groupes de deux colonaes corinthiennes marquent les divisions 
du monument, soutiennent la corniche et separent les arcades au nombre 
de trois ; celle du milieu est d'une prodigieuse hauteur. " — Theophile 
Gautier. 

On the other side of the Piazza d'Armi is tlie Castelhy 
built originally by Galeazzo Visconti in 1358, but destroyed 
on his death, and rebuilt by his son, Gian Galeazzo. The 
second castle was destroyed by the people in 1447, and the 
present edifice (much altered by Philip II., and stripped of 
its fortifications by Napoleon) is the work of Francesco 
Sforza. It is rather picturesque. Being now used as a 
barrack, almost all the frescoes in the interior have perished. 

Turning (left) to the Corso di Porta Garibaldi, and follow- 
ing it for a little distance, the Via del Carmine leads to the 

Church of S. Maria del Carmine, where, over an altar 
on the left, is a beautiful little fresco by Bern. Luini of the 
Madonna and two saints, and two pictures by Camilla Pro- 
caccini. 

"The Eclectic school of the Procaccini at Milan rose to greater im- 
portance than that of the Campi, owing to the patronage of the Borro- 
meo family. Its founder was Ercole Procaccini (1520 — 1590), who was 
bom and educated at Bologna. His best scholar was his son Camillo, 
who flourished about the beginning of the seventeenth century. His 
later pictures are in the churches and galleries of Milan ; in these a 
peculiar gentleness occasionally reminds us of the manner of Sasso 
ferrate. " — Ku^er. 



THE BRERA. 153 

Following the Via del Carmine to the Via della Brera, 
and turning left, we reach (right) the Palace containing the 
famous 

Galleria della Brera (so called from the Collegio di Santa 
Maria in Brera — Brera, a corruption of Prgedium, meaning 
meadow). The palace was erected by the Jesuits in 16 18, 
from designs oi Richini ; the portal and facade are by Pier- 
marini. In the centre of the court is a bronze statue of 
Napoleon I., by Canova : around it are statues of famous 
natives of Milan, 

The ground-floor is occupied by a Scientific Institute, a 
Library, a Museum of Coins and Medals, and the 

Archceological Museum (entrance 50 c), which is worth 
visiting, if it is only for the sake of seeing the exquisitely 
beautiful recumbent statue, by Agostino Busti [Bambaja) of 
Gaston de Foix, nephew of Louis XII. and Governor of 
Milan, who was killed, 1 5 1 2, in the battle of Ravenna, after 
a short career of two months — " qui fut toute sa vie et son 
immortalite."* The statue was brought from his famous 
tomb in the now destroyed Church of S. Marta, where it 
was erected by the French when they were in possession of 
Milan. 

"Were it not for this one statue, we should think Bambaja overrated, 
notwithstanding his great skill as an ornamental sculptor. Clothed with 
armour, and wearing a helmet wreathed with laurel upon his head, the 
young soldier lies in a simple attitude, with his arms crossed upon his 
breast, and a severe and dignified expression in his face, 'quasi tutto lieto 
nel sembiante, cosi morto per le vittorie avute.' " — Perkin's Italian 
Sculptors, 

In the centre of the gallery is a great equestrian statue of 
Bernabo Visconti, Duke of Milan (1385), celebrated for 

* Henri Martin. Histoire de France. 



154 ITALIAN CITIES. 

cruelties, which can can only be accounted for by insanity. 
He kept five thousand hounds, which he quartered upon the 
richest citizens. Every two months there was an inspection. 
If a dog was too fat, the keeper was fined for over-feeding ; 
if he was too thin, he was fined equally ; but, if a dog was 
dead, the householder was imprisoned, and all his property 
was confiscated. Bernabo was treacherously seized by liis 
nephew, Gian-Galeazzo, Conte di Virtu, and imprisoned in 
the castle of Trezzo, where he died of poison, upon which 
his nephew took possession of his sovereignty. 

"It is well to recall what manner of man Bernabo was as we look at 
his statue, which needs soaae historical association to give it interest. 
Clad in armour, and holding the baton of command in his left hand, he 
sits stifSy upon his horse, whose trappings, enriched with his cypher and 
the emblems of his house, were once gay with gilding and colour ; two 
diminutive figures of Fortitude and Justice stand like pages at his 
stirrups. The statue is raised upon a sarcophagus which rests upon nine 
short columns, and has its four sides adorned with coarsely-modelled 
bas-reliefs of the Crucifixion, the dead Christ and Angels, the Evangel- 
ists, and single figures of saints. It is not the monument of Bernabo, 
as one would naturally suppose, but that which he erected to the 
memory of his wife, Regina della Scala, who had great influence over 
him, and to whom he was much attached, despite his cruelty, his bad 
temper, and libertinism. It originally stood behind the high-altar at S. 
Giovanni a Conca, in such a position that the worshippers appeared to 
be praying to Bernabo, which was considered so scandalous, that it was 
removed, soon after the tyrant's death, to a more fitting place near the 
door. Matteo da Campione is said to have been its sculptor, but we feel 
rather induced to ascribe it to Bonino, from the resemblance of the 
equestrian group to that with which he crowned the Gothic tomb of 
Can Signorio at Verona." — Perkin's Italian Sculptors. 

Among other monuments here, we must notice the beau- 
tiful Renaissance tomb of Bishop Bagaroto, 15 19, brought 
from S. Maria della Pace. 

"The figure of the deceased is dignified, and the drapery grandly 
arranged ; the arm is drawn easily below the head, and thus the e.Tect of 
quiet slumber is obtained." — LUbke, History of Sculpture, 



THE BRERA. I^S 

The tomb of Lancino Curzio, 1513, is by Bambaja. 

" Among the most important works here, which evidence the com- 
mencement of the new style, there is an extremely nobly-conccived 
female monumental statue, represented lying with arms crossed, with 
grandly-arranged drapery, the head and arms treated with the finest per- 
ception of nature, and with a long flowing garment, in which we can 
still trace remains of the Gothic style. Several masterly heads in relief 
exhibit the advanced realism of the fifteenth century : thus, for instance, 
a male portrait of energetic expression, the luxuriant hair encircled with 
a laurel wreath, and the mouth especially betraying vigorous power, 
while the whole recalls to mind the heads of Mantegna or Buttinone. 
Another head exhibits the still bolder and commanding features of an 
older man, who acquires a character of unflinching firmness from the 
strongly projecting lower lip. A cap covers the shortly-clipped hair. 
Another, with a great wig-like head of hair, reminds us of Bellini's 
heads. There is a head in relief in black marble of Ludovico Moro, 
recognizable from the fat double chin and rich hair, a work of delicate 
execution and masterly conception. Among the most important works 
of the time, there is also a statue of a woman praying, with long hair 
falling to her feet, in simple, flowing, and grandly-designed drapery, and 
with an expressive head. Among the relief compositions, a gracefully 
executed Madonna, with the Nativity, is especially striking. Mary and 
Joseph and a group of angels are worshipping the Child, who is lying on 
the ground. The style of the drapery belongs, in its creased and restless 
folds, to the most conventional works of the period. On the other hand, 
a relief of Christ teaching in the Temple, just as He is discovered by 
his parents, exhibits the nobly-finished style of about 1520." — Liibke. 

A number of Roman altars, fragments of sculpture, and 
inscriptions, are collected here ; also some interesting in- 
scriptions (near the entrance) relating to the great plague of 
Milan. 

Ascending the handsome staircase in the court-yard, we 
reach (right) the entrance to the Pinacoteca, open on week- 
days, from November to February, from 9 to 3 ; in the sum- 
mer months from 9 to 4 ; on Sundays from 12 to 3 : 
admission free. 

The entrance corridor is almost entirely occupied by a 



156 ITALIAN CITIES. 

most lovely collection of the works of Bernardino Luini. 
They are chiefly frescoes. 

"Foremost amongst the scholars of Leonardo stands Bernardino 
Luino (or di Luvino, a village on the Lago Maggiore), a master whose 
excellence has been by no means sufficiently acknowledged. It is true, 
he rarely rises to the greatness and freedom of Leonardo ; but he has a 
never-failing tenderness and purity, a cheerfulness and sincerity, a grace 
and feeling, which give an elevated pleasure to the student of his works. 
That spell of beauty and nobleness, which so exclusively characterizes the 
more important works of the Raphaelesque period, has here impelled a 
painter of comparatively inferior talent to works which may often rank 
with the highest which we know," — Kugler. 

All the pictures of Luini in this corridor are well-deserving 
of study ; perhaps especially noteworthy are — 

23. The Ascension. 

45. The Virgin and Child, with saints (signed 1521). 
*5o. The Burial of St. Catherine. 

"And when S. Catherine was beheaded, angels took up her body, 
and carried it over the desert, and over the Red Sea, till they deposited 
it on Mount Sinai. There it rested in a marble sarcophagus, and there 
a monastery was built over it in the eighth century, where it is revered to 
this day." — Legend of S. Catherine. 

" Three angels sustain the body of S. Catherine, hovering over the 
tomb in which they are about to lay her. The tranquil, refined character 
of the head of the saint, and the expression of death, are exceedingly 
fine. " — 'JamesorCs Legendary Art. 

3. Bart. Suardi dettd II Bramantino, is a beautiful Madonna and 
Child, with angels. 

24. Gaudenzio Ferrari, is a most beautiful Adoration of the 

Magi. 

Hence we enter the Main Gallery, and may observe : 

Sala I. 

75. Titian. St. Jerome. 
79. Palma Vecchio. Four Saints. 

81. Vandyke. Madonna and Child, with S. Antony of Padua. 
85. Niccolb Rondinslli. S. Giovanni Evangelista appearing to 
Galla Placidia in the church she had dedicated to him at 
Ravenna. 



THE BRER A. 157 

94. Domenichino. Virgin and Child throned, with saints. 
96. Paris Bordone. Baptism of Christ. 
115. Tintoretto. Dead Christ. 

Sala II. 
120. Giacomo Francia. Virgin and Child, with saints and wor- 
shippers. 
124. Paul Veronese. The Coming of the Magi. 

12'? ) 

^' [ The doors to this picture — the Fathers of the Church. 

142. Girolaftio Savoldo. Virgin and Child, with saints. 

143. Tintoretto. A group of Saints. 

144. Paid Veronese. SS. Cornelius, Antonius, and Cyprianus. 

Sala III. 
147. Gentile da Fabriano. Coronation of the Virgin — called " II 

Quadro della Romita." 
149. Carlo Crivelli. In three divisions. In the centre, the Madonna ; 

on the left, S. Peter and S. Dominic ; on the right, S. Peter 

Martyr and S. Gemignano. 

154. Girolamo Genga. Saints around the Madonna, God the 

Father and angels above. 

155. Gentile Bellini. The preaching of S. Mark at Alexandria. 

" In the works of Gentile the heads display more softness than those 
of Giovanni Bellini. This may be said of a large picture with numerous 
figures in the Brera ; the subject is St. Mark preaching at Alexandria. 
This painter, as is well known, repaired to Constantinople, by desire of 
the Sultan (1497). Several of his still-existing pictures bear evidence of 
that journey, especially this, in which oriental costumes are almost 
exclusively introduced. " — Kugler. 

158. Bart. Montagna da Vicenza, 1499. Madonna and Child, with 

SS. Andrew, Monica, Ursula, and Sigismund. 
162. Palmezzano (signed in his peculiar manner). Nativity (1492). 
164. Timoteo della Vite. Annunciation, with S. John Baptist and 
S. Sebastian. 
"This picture is of the painter's earlier time, before he joined 
Raphael ; the heads recall Francia and Perugino. " — Kugler. 

168. Andrea Alantegna (1454). Saints in twelve compartments. 

169. Cima da Conegliano. SS. Peter Martyr, Nicholas, and 

Augustine. 
172. Frate Carneuale (1484). Madonna, with the kneeling knight 
Duke Federigo d' Urbino — very interesting to those who 
have studied his beautiful life. 



158 ITALIAN CITIES. 

173. Guruanni Sanzio. Annunciation. 

181. Bartolomeo Montagna. Virgin and Child, wth S. Bernardino 
and S. Francesco. 

184. Paul Veronese. The Supper in the Pharisee's house. 

185. Giovanni da Udine. S. Ursula and her virgins. 
187. Benvemiti Garofalo. The Crucifixion. 

192. Giotto (signed "op MAGISTRI JOCTI "). Madonna and Child. 

This picture was originally in the Church of S. Maria degli Angeli 
at Bologna. It had side-panels, with saints and angels, which are now 
in the gallery at Bologna. 

194- Marco Palmezzano da Forli (signed 1493). Madonna and 

Child, with saints. 
195. Stefano da Ferrara. Madonna and Child throned, with four 

saints. 

" This artist was a pupil of Mantegna ; his works have a peculiarly 
fantastic character. " — Kugler. 

199. Carlo Crivelli. Virgin and Child, with garlands of flowers. 

Sala IV. (The ist of the small rooms). 
207. Lorenzo Lotto. Pieta. 

212. Correggio. Virgin and Child, with SS. Barbara and Lucia. 
220. Giovanni Bellini. Dead Christ, with the Madonna and S. 
John. 

234. Vittore Carpaccio. St. Stephen and the Doctors of the Law. 

Sala V. 

235. Palmezzano. Coronation of the Virgin. 
250. Liberali da Verona. S. Sebastian. 

Sala VI. 

272. Scuola di Perugino. S. Sebastian. 

♦287. Cima da Conegliano. S. Peter throned, with S. Paul and 
S. John Baptist standing. 

288. Cima da Cone^iano. Madonna 

293. Giovanni Bellini. Madonna and Child. 

* 296. Francesco Albani. Dance of the Cupids. 

♦312. Giovanni Bellinu (Signed 15 10). Madonna and Child. 

Sala VII. 
^ ■ I Cima da Conegliatw, Two small pictures of Saints. 



THE BRER A. 159 

315. Sketch either for or from the Nozze Aldobrandini, attributed 
to Raphael. 
*3I9. Guercino. Abraham and Hagar. 

" Agar pleure de desespoir at d'indignation ; mais elle se contient, 
Torgeuil feminin la roidit ; elle ne veut pas donner sa douleur en pature 
a Sarah, sa rivale heureuse. Celle-ci a la hauteur d'une femme 
legitime qui fait chasser u.ia maitresse ; elle affecte de la dignite et 
cependant regarde du coin de I'oeil avec une mechancete satisfaite. 
Abraham est un pere noble qui represente bien, mais dont le tete est 
vide ; 11 etait difficile de lui trouver un autre role." — Taine. 

321. Marco Basaiti. S.Jerome. 

322. Andrea Solari, Portrait. 

323. Cesare da Sesto. Virgin and Child. 

324. Luca da Cortona. The Flagellation. 

325. Andrea da Milano. Holy Family. 

326. Velasquez. Sleeping Monk. 

* 328. Leonardo da Vinci. Head of Christ (in chalk). 

" This sketch is of the highest interest, as being the original study for 
the all but lost fresco in the Madonna delle Grazie." 

329. Bern. Liiitti. Madonna and Child (much restored). 
-^l\. Fil Mazzicola. Portrait. 
332. Moroni (1565). Portrait. 
* 334. Raffaelle. The Spozalizio. 

" This picture is inscribed with the painter's name, and the date, 1504. 
The arrangement is simple and beautiful : Mary and Joseph stand 
opposite to each other in the centre ; the high priest, between them, 
joins their hands ; Joseph is in the act of placing the ring on the finger 
of the bride : beside Mary is a group of the Virgins of the Temple ; 
near Joseph are the suitors, who break their barren wands, — that which 
Joseph holds in his hands has blossomed into a lily, which, according to 
the legend, was the sign that he was the chosen one. In the back- 
ground is the lofty Temple, adorned with a peristyle. With much of 
the stififaess and constraint of the old school, the figures are noble and 
dignified ; the countenances, ofthe sweetest style of beauty, are expressive 
of a tender, exquisite melancholy, which lends a peculiar charm to this 
suliject, inappropriate as it is in more animated representations." — 
Kngler. 

"Raphael avait vingt et un ans, et copiait avec quelques petits 
changements un Perugin qui est au musee de Caen. C'est une aurore, 
la premiere aube de son invention. La couleur est presque dure et 



i6o ITALIAN CITIES. 

decoupee en taches nettes par des contours sees. Le type moral des 
figures viriles n'est encore qu' indigne ; deux adolescents et plusieurs 
jeunes filles ont la meme tete ronde, les memes yeux petits, la meme 
expression moutonniere d'enfant de choeur ou de communiante. II ose 
\ peine ; sa pensee ne fait que peindre dans un crepuscule. Mais la 
poesie virginale est complete. Un grand espace libre s'etend derriere 
les personnages. Au fond, un temple en rotonde, muni de portiques, 
profile ses lignes regulieres sur un ciel pur. L'azur s'ouvre amplement 
de toutes parts, comme dans la campagne d'Assise et de Perouse ; les 
lointains paysages, d'abord verts, puis bleuatres, enveloppent de leur 
serenite la ceremonie. Avec une simplicite qui rappelle les ordonnances 
hieratiques, les personnages sont tous en une file sur le devant du 
tableau ; leurs deux groupes se correspondent de chaque c6te des deux 
epoux, et le grand pretre fait le centre. Au milieu de ce calme universel 
des figures, des attitudes et des lignes, la Vierge, modestement penchee, 
les yeux baisses, avance avec une demi-hesitation sa main ou le grand 
pretre va mettre I'anneau de mariage. Elle ne sait que faire de I'autre 
main, et, avec une gaucherie adorable, la laisse coUee a son manteau. 
Un voile diaphane et delicat eflleure a peine ses divins cheveux blonds ; 
un ange ne I'eut pas pose sur elle avec un soin et un respect plus chaste. 
Elle est grande pourtant, saine et belle comme une fille des montagnes, 
et pres d'elle une superbe jeune femme en rouge clair, drapee d'un 
manteau vert, se tourne avec la fierte d'une deesse. C'est deja la beaute 
paienne, le vif sentiment du corps agile et actif, I'esprit et le gout de la 
renaissance qui percent a travers la placidite et la piete monastiques. " — 
Taine. 

Sala VIII. 
343. F. Francia. The Annunciation. 

345. Ltica da Cortona. Virgin and Child. 

346. ) Vittort Carpacdo. The Presentation and Marriage of the 
%353- 1 Virgin. 

*350. Andrea Mantegna. Pieta. 

"The giants painted in chiaro-oscuro by Paolo Uccello in the Palazzo 
dei Vitelliani at Padua furnished Mantegna with an object of study and 
emulation ; and by dint of constantly exercising his pencil in every 
variety of fore-shortening, and habituating himself to overcome the 
greatest difficulties in this branch of the art, he at length succeeded 
in producing this astonishing figure of the dead Christ, which, from the 
peculiar position of the body, with the feet towards the spectator, pre- 
sented a problem to the artist, the solution of which had been hitherto j 
reputed impossible." — Rio. 



THE BRER A. l6l 

■^$1. II Civetta. The Nativity. 
352. Lorenzo Costa. The Coming of the Magi. 
*354. Dosso Dossi (sometimes considered to be the work of Gior- 
gione). S. Sebastian 

"St. Sebastian is standing, bound to an orange tree, with his arms 
bound above his head ; his dark eyes raised towards heaven. His 
helmet and armour lie at his feet ; his military mantle of green, em- 
broidered with gold, is thrown around him. This picture, with the 
deep blue sky and deep green foliage, struck me as one of the most 
solemn effects ever produced by feeling and colour. He is neither 
wounded nor transpierced." — yamesou's Sac7-ed Art. 

355. Guido Reni. SS. Peter and Paul. 
*363. Giorgione. The Finding of Moses. 

"A picture in the Brera at Milan, very deserving of notice, is perhaps 
one of Giorgione's most beautiful works ; it is historical in subject, but 
romantic in conception. Tlie subject is the Finding of Moses ; all the 
figures are in the rich Venetian costume of Giorgione's time. In the 
centre the princess sits under a tree, and looks with surprise at the child, 
who is brought to her by a servant. The seneschal of the princess, with 
knights and ladies, stand around. Oil one side two lovers are seated on 
the grass ; on the other are musicians and singers, pages with dogs, a 
dwarf with an ape, &c. It is a picture in which the highest earthly 
splendour and enjoyment are brought together, and the incident from 
Scripture only gives it a more lively interest. The costume, however 
inappropriate to the story, disturbs the effect as little as in other 
Venetian pictures of the same period, since it refers more to a poetic 
than to mere historic truth, and the period itself was rich in poetry ; its 
costume, too, assisted the display of a romantic splendour. This 
picture, with all its glow of colour, is softer in the execution than the 
earlier works of the master, and reminds us of Titian, the more successful 
rival of Giorgione — not like him, to be cut off by death in the very midst 
of the greatest efforts." — Kugler. 

" Personne ne songe ici a Moise : la scene n'est qu'une partie de 
plaisir pres de Padoue ou de Verone pour de belles dames et de grands 
seigneurs. On voit des gens en beau costume du temps sous de grands 
arbres, dans une large campagne montagneuse. La princesse a voulu 
se promener et a emmene tout son train : chiens, chevaux, singes, 
musiciens, ecuyers, dames d'honneur. Dans le lointain arrive le reste 
de la cavalcade. Ceux qui ont mis pied a terre prennent le frais sous 
les feuillages ; ils se donnent un concert ; les seigneurs sont couches 
aux pieds des dames et chantent, la toque sur la tete, I'epee au cote ; 
VOL. I, H 



1 62 ITALIAN CITIES. 

elles, rieuses, causent en ecoutant. Leurs robes de soie et de velours, 
tantot rousses et rayees d'or, tantot glauques ou d'azur fence, leurs 
manches bouffantes a creves font des groupes de tons magnifiques sur 
les profondeurs de la feuillee. Elles sont- de loisir et jouissent de la 
vie. Quelques-unes regardent le nain qui donne un fruit au singe, ou le 
petit negre en jaquette bleue qui tient en laisse les chiens de chasse. 
Au milieu d'elles et plus fasteuse encore, comme le premier joyau d'une 
parure, la princesse est debout ; un riche surtout de velours bleu fendu 
et rattache par des boutons de diamants laisse voir sa robe feuille-morte ; 
la chemise pailletee de semis d'or avive par sa blancheur la chair satinees 
du col et du menton, et des perles s'enroulent avec de moUes lueurs dan 
les torsades de ses cheveux roussatres." — Taitie. 

Sala IX. 

369-) 

370. I Lorenzo Lotto. Magnificent Portraits. 

371- ' 

376. Titian. Portrait. 

377. Francesco da Cottignola. Virgin and Child, with SS. Nicholas 

and Francis. 
381. Sassoferrato. Madonna and sleeping Jesus. 
385. Vandyke. Portrait of a Lady 

Sala X. 
388. Caspar Poussin. S. John Baptist as a child, in the 

wilderness. 
395. Pietro da Cortona. Virgin and Child, with saints. 
427. Bonifaziv. The Supper at Emmaus. 
441. Salvator Rosa. S. Paul the Hermit, in the wilderness. 

Sala XI. 

445. Marco d'Oggione. The Archangels. 

447. Gaudenzio Ferrari. Martyrdom of S. Catherine. 

" St. Catherine is represented in a front view, kneeling, her hair dis- 
hevelled, her hands clasped, and in the eyes, upraised to the opening 
heavens above, a most divine expression of faith and resignation ; on 
each side are the wheels armed with spikes, which the executioners are 
preparing to turn : behind sits the emperor on an elevated throne, and 
an angel descends from above armed with a sword. In this grand 
picture the figures are life-size." — yameson's Sacred Art. 

"This is a work of strong and somewhat coarse expression. The scene 
of torture is well-executed, though the colouring is somewhat glaring ; 



J 



CHIARAVALLE. 163 

the saint is noble and gentle, and the executioners full of effective 
action. " — Lubke. 

449. Bernardo Zenale. Madonna and Child, with the Fathers of 

the Church. 

450. Calisto da Lodi. Madonna and Child, with S. Jerome and 

S. John Baptist. 

459. Cesare da Sesto. Holy Family. 

460. Bern. Luini. The Drunkenness of Noah. 

479. Amb. Borgognone. Christ bound. 

480. Amb. Borgognone. Assumption and Coronation of the 

Virgin. 

Sala XII. 

Among modem pictures, the Statue of " The Reading Girl" of Cav. 
Magni, 1861. 

Sala XX. 

At the end of many rooms of sculpture. The Three Graces and 
Cupid of Thorwaldsen, as a monument to Andrea Appiani. 

In the Galleria Oggioni, opening out of the first room 
wilh the frescoes, are only two pictures especially demanding 
notice : — • 

762. Carlo Crivdli (signed 1493). The Coronation of the 

Virgin. 
784. Bern. Luini. Madonna. 



No one should leave Milan without making an excursion 
to the wonderful old church of Chiaravalle, about t,^ miles 
distant, beyond the Porta Romana. 

"This was the church of the first Cistercian monastery that was estab- 
lished in Italy. The Cistercian reform was first introduced by St. Bernard, 
who was abbot of Clairvaux in France. In 1 134 St. Bernard crossed 
the Alps to attend a council at Pisa, and on his way back paid a visit to 
Milan. The citizens of Milan advanced seven miles beyond their gates 
to receive him. His presence excited the most enthusiastic feelings ; 
and within a year after his departure a monastery was built at a distance 
of about four miles from the city, which was to be governed by St. 



i64 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Bernard's rules, and to receive a name from the parent institution. The 
monastery was inhabited in 1136, but it was not till nearly the close ol 
the twelfth century that the church was completed. It is in the 
Lombard style, and deserves consideration, as an architectural com- 
position, for the importance of its central tower. The body of the 
fabric is left perfectly plain, and, in effect, serves only as a base for the 
leading features of the design. The tower alone is enriched. Octagonal 
in its form up to a certain height, it becomes a spire above. Both the 
octagonal and spiral portions are enriched with Lombard galleries, 
which give an appearance of lightness, and attract the eye to that part 
of the building on which it is intended to rest. It is evident that the 
architect must have made the central tower the chief object ; and when- 
ever an architect has had a peculiar object, and has succeeded in 
producing the effect which he desired, his work deserves to be studied." 
— G. Knight. 

The monastery was suppressed in 1797. The interior of 
the church is faUing into decay, but very picturesque and 
beautiful. The tomb of Ottone Visconti is shown, who Hved 
much here in retirement. In the adjoining graveyard are 
many monuments of the Torriani, who governed Milan before 
the Visconti, including that of Pagano della Torre, 1241. 
Here also is the tomb, marked by five stars on the wall, of 
the famous Wilhelmina, a Bohemian, who died in 1282. 

" She appeared in Milan, and announced her gospel, a profane and 
fantastic parody, centering upon herself the great tenet of the Fraticelli, 
the reign of the Holy Ghost. In her, the daughter, she averred, of 
Constance, Queen of Bohemia, the Holy Ghost was incarnate. Her 
birth had its annunciation, but the angel Raphael took the place of the 
angel Gabriel. She was very God and very woman. She came to save 
Jews, Saracens, false Christians, as the Saviour the true Christians. Her 
human nature was to die as that of Christ had died. She was to rise 
again and ascend into heaven. As Christ had left his vicar upon earth, 
so Wilhelmina left the holy nun, Mayfreda. Mayfreda was to celebrate 
the mass at her sepulchre, to preach her gospel in the great church at 
Milan, afterwards at St. Peter's at Rome. She was to be a female Pope, 
with full papal power to baptize Jews, Saracens, unbelievers. The four 
gospels were replaced by four Wilhelminian evangelists. She was to be 
seen by her disciples, as Christ after his resurrection. Plenary indul- 



TOMB OF WILHELMINA. 165 

gence was to be granted to all who visited the convent of Chiaravalle, 
as to those who visited the tomb of our Lord : it was to become the 
great centre of pilgrimage. Her apostles were to have their Judas, to be 
delivered by him to the Inquisition. But the most strange of all was 
that Wilhelmina, whether her doctrines were kept secret to the initiate, 
lived unpersecuted, and died in peace and in the odour of sanctity. 
She was buried first in the church of S. Peter in Orto ; her body was 
afterwards carried to the convent of Chiaravalle. Monks preached her 
funeral sermon ; the Saint wrought miracles ; lamps and wax candles 
burned in profuse splendour at her altar ; she had three annual festivals ; 
her Pope, Mayfreda, celebrated mass. It was not till twenty years after 
that the orthodoxy of the Milanese clergy awoke in dismay and horror ; 
the wonder-working bones of S. Wilhelmina were dug up and burned ; 
Mayfreda and one Andrea Saramita expiated at the stake the long ume- 
garded blasphemies of their mistress. " — Milman's Latin Christianity. 



CHAPTER IX. 

PAVIA. 

NO lover of art must leave Milan without making an 
excursion to the wonderful Certosa, and the curious 
old city of Pavia. 

(The Croce Bianca at Pavia is a tolerable hotel, but both the Certosa 
and Pavia may be visited in a day from Milan. In the spring and 
summer months, the best way is to take the train which leaves Milan 
at 12. lo for the Certosa, proceeding to Pavia at 4.25, and returning to 
Milan at 8.50. Tickets to Pavia, 4.40 ; 3.20 ; 2.30. ) 

The fine church of Chiaravalle (right) is the only object 
of interest passed on the way to the Certosa. 

The Certosa appears to be close to the station (of La 
Certosa), but it is nearly a mile to the entrance, as half the 
circuit of the wall of the convent garden has to be made. 
Carriages may generally be procured at the station. Ladies 
are now admitted to see everything here. The Certosa 
stands in the midst of the unvaried Lombard plain, whose 
marshy meadows, ever resounding from a chorus of frogs, 
produce several crops in the course of the year. Thick 
bands of willows and poplars, which follow the ditches and 
canals, shut out the view on every side. Here Gian-Gale- 
azzo Visconti founded (Sept 8, 1396) the most magnificent 
monastery in the world, as an offering of atonement for the 
blood of his uncle and father-in-law Bernabo Visconti and 



THE CERTOSA. 



167 



his family, whom he had sent to be poisoned at the castle 
of Trezzo. Since the suppression of monasteries, only eight 
monks have been allowed to remain here, barely sufficient 
to take care of the monastic buildings, and to show them to 
visitors. 




Gate of the Ccrtosa, Pav{a. 



The convent gate is covered with fading frescoes, by Luini, 
and is most picturesque. It forms the entrance to a large 
quadrangular court, on the opposite side of which rises the 
gorgeous western facade of the church, which is coated with 
marble, while the rest of the building is of brick. This 
fa9ade, which bears an inscription dedicating it to ** Mary 
the Virgin — mother, daughter, and bride of God," is covered 
with delicate arabesques, and small bas-reliefs of Scriptural 
subjects, often beautiful in themselves, but producing, in 
their general effect, more of richness than of grace. The 
principal bas-reliefs on the right relate to the foundation of 
the church, those on the left pourtray the funeral procession 
of Giovanni Galeazzo from Melagnano to the Certosa, on 
Nov. 9, 1443. The smaller reliefs relate to the lives of the 



168 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Virgin, St. John Baptist, S. Ambrose and S. Sire, and are 
described by Cicognara as, " oltre ogni credere degni d'ad- 
mirazione." 

" If we are content, as the Italians were, that the facade of the Certosa 
shall be only a frontispiece, suggesting rather than expressing the con- 
struction of the church behind it, this is certainly one of the most beau- 
tiful designs of the age. It was commenced in the year 1473, from 
designs prepared by Borgognone, a Milanese artist, whose works here 
show how much more essentially he was a painter than an architect. 
The fa9ade consists of five compartments, divided vertically by buttresses 
of bold and appropriate form ; the three central divisions representing 
the body of the church, with its aisles, the outer ones the side chapels of 
the nave. Horizontally it is crossed by two triforium galleries — if that 
name can be applied to them — one at the height of the roof of the aisles, 
the upper crowning the fa<;ade, and reproducing the gallery that was round 
the older church under the eaves of the great roof. All these features 
are therefore appropriate and well placed, and give relief with light and 
shade to the composition, to an extent seldom found in this age. The 
greatest defect of the design as an architectural object is the amount of 
minute and inappropriate ornament which is spread over the whole of 
the lower part of the facade, up to the first gallery. 

The erection of the cupola on the intersection of the nave and tran- 
septs was commenced and carried on simultaneously with that of the 
facade, and is not only a very beautiful object in itself, but is interesting 
as being the only important example of a Renaissance copy of the sort 
of dome used by the Italians in the Mediaeval period." — Fergusson. 

The plan of the church is a Latin cross. The nave is 
divided from the transepts and chapels by rich bronze gates. 
The latter are still shown by a Carthusian monk in his 
picturesque white robes. 

"I think it is hardly possible to scan or criticize the architecture of 
such a building as this ; it is better to follow the guidance of the cicerone, 
and look at the pictures behind the many altars set round with precious 
stones, and enclosed within reredoses made of such an infinite variety 
of marbles, that, with some degree of envy, one thinks how precious 
such an array would be on this side the Alps, even if spread through 
fifty churches." — Street's Brick and Marble in the Middle A^es. 



^ 



i 



THE CERTOSA. 169 

Making the round of the church, beginning from the right, 
we have : — 

1st Chapel. Procaccini. S. Veronica. Here, and in most of the other 
chapels, the altar is a gorgeous specimen of pietra-dura work. 

*znd Chapel. Madonna and Child, with two Cistercian saints 
(Antelmo, and Hygoni, Bishop of Lincoln), by Macrino d'Alba. The 
other compartments by Borgognone. 

yd Chapel. Carlo Cornara, 1668. S. Benedict seeing the assumption 
of his sister Scholastica in a vision 

* 4/^ Chapel. Borgognone. A Crucifixion, with angels floating round 
the cross. 

* <^th Cluipel. Borgognone. S. Syrus, Patron and first Bishop of Pavia. 
dth Chapel. Gii£rcino. The Virgin, with SS. Peter and Paul. 

"jth Chapel. Procaccini. The Annunciation, with a beautiful modem 
predella of the flight into Egypt, with angels floating in the sunset, by 
Gain da Milano. 

Here we enter the South Transept. At the end is a fresco, by Borgog- 
none, in which Gian-Galeazzo Visconti, on his knees, presents the church 
to the Madonna ; behind him kneels his son Filippo ; his sons, Giovanni 
and Gabriele Maria, are on the opposite side. The beautiful stained 
glass window representing S. Gregory, is by an unknown master. The 
magnificent bronze candlesticks are by Fontana. 

On the left is the grand tomb of the founder, Gian-Galeazzo Visconti, 
begun in 1490 from designs of Galeazzo Pellegrini, but not finished till 
1562. The figure of Galeazzo, guarded by angels, lies under a canopy, 
surmounted by a statue of the Madonna. Giov. della Porta and Giov. 
Cristoforo, whose name appears on one of the architraves, were em- 
ployed in the details of this monument. Strange to say, Galeazzo never 
benefited by his tomb. It was not finished till 60 years after his death, 
and during that time it had become forgotten where his bones were pro- 
visionally deposited ! 

Continuing, beyond the statue of S. Veronica, we come to a beauti- 
ful door decorated with portraits of Bianca Maria, the wife of Galeazzo, 
and her family, the Sforzas. Entering the sacristy, on the right of 
the high altar, we find the magnificent Lavatoio dei Monaci, sculptured 
m marble by Alberto da Carrara ; over it is a bust said to represent 
Heinrich of Gmunden, the architect of the church : near it is a well. 
The beautiful stained glass here is by Cristoforo de' Motis, 1477. Op- 
posite the Lavatoio is a beautiful fresco of the Virgin and Child, by 
B. Luini. 

Hence we enter the Choir, approached from the church between 



176 ITALIAN CITIES. 

splendid jasper columns. The tabernacle and altar screen are by Fran- 
cesco Brioschi. The beautiful decorations to the right and left of the 
altar by Stefano da Sesto : in that on the right St. Peter is administering 
the Sacrament to the Virgin. The magnificent candelabra are by 
Montana. The frescoes are by Crespi. The intarsiatura work of the 
stalls is by Bartolomeo da Pola, i486. 

Leaving the choir, we enter (right) the Sagrestia Vecchia, containing a 
wonderful ivory altar-piece, with sixty small reliefs and eighty statuettes. 
Here (left) is a fine picture of S. Augustine, by Borgognone. Re-enter- 
ing the church, by a door adorned with medallion portraits of Galeazzo 
Sforza and the males of his family, we have, in the North transept, first 
a copy of the statue of Christ in the Minerva at Rome : then, the beau- 
tiful figures, by Cristoforo Solari, of Ludovico il Moro • and his wife, 
Beatrice d'Este, who died in child-birth, Jan. 2. 1497. 

"The monument which contained these effigies was set up in the apse 
of S. Maria delle Grazie, whence it was removed to one of the side aisles, 
and finally, little more than a century after, was broken up and sold to 
the highest bidder ; the sepulchral effigies were then purchased for the 
Certosa, by Oldrado da Lampugnano, for 38 scudi a-piece. They are 
most interesting as faithful portraits, and careful records of costume. 
The duchess wears a closely-fitting hood, and her hair is curled in small, 
elaborate ringlets, which fall upon her neck and about her heavy placid 
face. The lids of her closed eyes are fringed with thick lashes, sharply 
cut out in the marble, and her figure is completely enveloped in the 
folds of a rich dress covered with a corded net-work, decorated with 
jewels and tassels. Her arms are crossed and partially concealed under 
her robe, and upon her feet she wears shoes, with extremely thick soles. 
The figure of her husband, who is also dressed in the costume of his 
time, is worked out in an equally realistic spirit. While looking at 
these two statues it is interesting to remember, that the duke passed the 
night before his escape from Milan, on the approach of the army of King 
Louis XH., in watching by the tomb of his wife. She had been a sup- 
port to him in previous hours of danger, and this was a last and touching 
proof of the attachment which he had always shown to her while living, 
by associating her name with his in all public acts and inscriptions, and 
by causing her portrait to be always painted with his own. Had she 
lived, he might perhaps have been spared the loss of his kingdom, and 
those eight weary years of captivity in the castle of Loches, which were 
closed by his death ; but when he lost her he was left to follow the 
dictates of a fluctuating and uncertain will, and daring too much not to 

• So called, not from his dark complexion, but because he adopted the mulberry- 
tree as his device. 



THE CERTOSA. 171 

have dared more, he committed a series of mistakes, which at last threw 
him into the power of his enemy. Although accused of some grave 
crimes, he was in many respects a model sovereign, and a distinguished 
patron of art and letters. " — Ferkin's Italian Sculptors. 

At the end of the transept is a fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin, 
by Borgognone, and a picture of Christ in Judgment — but only with the 
good — by Crespi. 

In the left aisle we have : — 

\st Chapel. Morosini. Madonna del Rosario. 

2,nd Chapel. Borgognone. S. Ambrogio, with his brother S. Satiro, 
his sister S. Marcellina, and SS. Nazaro e Celso (in a curious costume 
with spurs). 

dth Chapel. Pertigino. God the Father encircled with cherubs. The 
Virgin and Child below, and The Guardian Angel, are Copies of Peru- 
gino ; The Fathers of the Church are by Borgognone. 

From the South transept the cloisters may be visited. The 
Chiostro della Fontana is entered by a beautiful marble door 
covered with delicate reliefs, by Amadeo. It is filled with 
flowers. The arches surrounding it are exquisite specimens 
of terra-cotta ornamentation, and so is the lavatory. They 
are left in their natural red colour, and, as the walls are 
white-washed, they have a very singular effect. The Refec- 
tory is entered from this cloister ; it has frescoes of Borgog- 
none. Another door leads to the Great Cloister, 412 feet 
long by 334 feet wide, now enclosing a corn-field. It is 
beautifully ornamented with terra-cotta, and is surrounded 
by the cells of the monks — pleasant little houses, with two 
rooms below and two above, and delightful little gardens, 
each with its flowers, its vines, its stone seats, and a well. 
Only three of these are now inhabited. 

The Sagrestia Nuova, which is generally shown last (and 
where photographs of the buildings are sold by the monks), 



Mf2 ITALIAN CITIES. 

contains an Assumption by Bernardo Campi, with saints on 
each side, by A. Solari. Over the door is an interesting pic- 
ture, by Bart. Montagna, of the Virgin and Child, with S. 
John Baptist and S. Jerome. 

" BrantSme raconte qu'apres sa defaite, Fran9ois l", pris prisonnier 
dans le pare de la chartreuse, se fit conduire a I'eglise pour y faire sa 
priere, et que la, le premier objet qui s'offrit a ses yeux fut cette inscrip- 
tion tiree d'un psaume : Bonum mihi quia humiliasti me, ut discam jus- 
tificationes tuas. C'etait une grande, une touchante le^on, que la religion 
seule pouvait donner au roi qui avail tout perdu fors rkonneur." — 
Valery. 

Through the rich plain we must now proceed to Pavia 

Pavia, the ancient Ticinum, situated on the left bank of the Ticino, 
about 5 m. above its junction with the Po, was originally founded by the 
Celtic Laevi and Marsici. It was a considerable town under the Roman 
Empire, but was destroyed by Attila. Theodoric raised it from its rains, 
and, under the name of Papia, it became the residence and capital of the 
Lombard Kings. It was then called by the name of Papia, which was 
probably revived from the original name of the Celtic town. In A. D. 774 
Desiderius, the last of the Lombard kings, was besieged here by Charle- 
magne and forced to surrender. From this time Ticinus ("quae alio 
nomine Papia appellatur " *) sank to the rank of an ordinary provincial 
town. In 924 it was stormed by the Hungarians under Berengarius ; in 
1004 it was destroyed by fire ; in 11 39 it was stormed by the Emperor 
Lothaire ; in 1315 it fell into the hands of the Visconti. In 1524 it was 
unsuccessfully though repeatedly stormed by Francis I. of France with 
20,000 men, and Francis I. and Henry II. of Navarre were made 
prisoners in the then vast zoological garden of Pavia which was near the 
Certosa. In revenge the French plundered the town in 1527. 

Entering the town we follow the Contrada di Porta 
Marengo (now called Corso Cavour) — passing, on the right, 
an old palace with handsome terra-cotta ornamentation — till 
we reach (right) the Contrada S. Giuseppe, which leads to 
the Piazza del Duomo. 

* Paulus Diaconus, li. 15. 



TOMB OF S. AUGUSTINE. 175 

The Cathedral (dedicated to S. Siro, who was bishop of 
Pavia for 56 years in the 4th century, and whose effigy 
appears on the early coinage) is externally more picturesque 
than beautiful. It was begun in 1488, but is still unfinished. 
Among some earlier portions which are remains of an ancient 
Lombard basilica, the principal is a glorious old doorway 
between the campanile and the main building. Tlie model 
of Cristoforo Rocchi for the construction of the present 
edifice is preserved in the church. On the left of the 
entrance is a pillar brought from some Roman building. On 
the left is a good picture, by D. Crespi, of the Virgin and 
Child, with S. Syrus and S. Anthony of Padua ; on the right 
is the Adoration of the Magi, by G. B. Crespi. 

But the great interest of the church is concentrated in the 
chapel on the right, which contains the famous Area di Sanf 
Agostino, or Tomb of Augustine, which is attributed to 
various sculptors. 

" It was probably made by Matteo and Bonino da Campione, the two 
most remarkable artists formed by Balduccio during his residence at 
Milan. Twelve years were employed and four thousand golden scudi 
spent in constructing it in the sacristy of San Pietro in Cielo d'Oro, 
whence it was removed to its present position in the duomo, when that 
building was demolished. It is enriched with bas-reliefs, statuettes, and 
architectural accessories in the pointed style, which form an ensemble of 
a most inspiring character. The effigy of the saint, covered with a wind- 
ing-sheet held up at the corners and sides by six angels, lies upon a 
mortuary couch, seen through the arches which support its second story. 
The statuettes of the apostles are placed two by two in compartments 
around the basement story, separated from each other by pilasters, faced 
by statuettes of the Virtues. Above them smaller statuettes of saints and 
prophets stand against the pilasters of the second story, upon which rest 
consoles supporting seated figures of saints and martyrs. A row of 
pointed gables decorated with crochets and finials runs round the upper- 
most story, upon which is a series of bas-reliefs representing incidents in 
the life of S. Augustine, separated from each other by twenty statuettes. 



174 ITALIAN CITIES. 

The figures, which are very Pisan in style, have their surfaces highly 
polished, the borders of their robes carefully elaborated, and the pupils 
of their eyes painted black, according to a common custom of the 
time." — Perkift's Italian Sculptors. 

"The 'Area,' or shrine, of S. Augustine at Pavia, is attributed by the 
best critics to the brothers Jacobello and Pietro Paolo of Venice, and 
without a shadow of doubt belongs to the Sienese branch of the Pisan 
school. It is rather heavy perhaps, but not the less a most elaborate and 
beautiful piece of architectural sculpture. The sarcophagus, on which 
the effigy is laid down by angels, the canopy that overshadows it, the 
pillars that support the canopy, each and all are covered with bas-reliefs, 
delineating the life and miracles of the Saint, and interspersed with 
small statues of Apostles and Virtues ingeniously allegorized. These 
single figures struck me as superior to the bas-reliefs, though even in 
them there are many pleasing figures; the soft contemplative Sienese 
expression prevails throughout, and some of the figures have even grace 
and dignity. The Area was begun in 1362." — Lord Lindsay's Christian 
Art. 

Proceeding northwards from the Cathedral, the Strada S. 
Rocco leads to (left) 

S. Maria del Carmine, externally one of the most beautiful 
brick churches in Italy, built in 1373. It has a tall and most 
graceful campanile, and exquisite terra-cotta ornamentation 
round the doors and windows of the west front, where there 
is a fine rose-window. In the interior the brick pillars are 
left visible ; upon them are remains of frescoes ; one of S. 
Onofrio is very curious. 

Beyond this church (right) is the modem Palazzo Malas- 
pina, containing a small gallery of indifferent pictures, and 
some good engravings. 

A little further, the street opens on a boulevard near two 
old churches — ^. Croce, with a good brick campanile, and 
S. Pietro in Cielo d'Oro (desecrated), with a curious octangu- 
lar cupola. It was celebrated for the important monuments 
which it contained, especially that of Boethius. 



I 



UNIVERSITY OF PA VIA. I75 

' ' Lo corpo ond'ella fu cacciata giace 
Giuso in Cieldauro, ed essa da martiro 
E da esilio venne a questa pace." — Parad. x. 127. 

"Le tombeau de Luitprand, d'abord place a I'eglise Saint Adrien, fut 
dans la suite porte a la basilique de Saint Pierre in del d'auro : il 
avait voulu par son testament etre enterre aux pieds de Boece, afin, 
disait-il, qu'en cessant de vivre, il ne parut point cesser de lui manquer son 
respect. Le cerceuil de ce grand roi, rapporte un erudit pavesan, etait 
soutenu par quatre petites colonnes de marbre ; au-dessus etait sa statue 
en habits royaux. Le concile de Trente fit descendre le cerceuil, parce 
qu'il avait decrete que la sepulture seule des saints pouvait s' clever au- 
dessus de terre. Les cendres de Luitprand furent deposees au pied d'un 
pilastre du choeur; I'ancienne epitaphe, qui rappelait sa religion, sa 
vaillance, la sagesse de ses lois, sa conquete de I'etat romain, ses victoires 
en France sur les Sarrasins quand il accourut au secours de Charles- 
Martel, la prise de Ravenne, de Spolete, et de Benevent, tous ces 
signes de gloire disparurent, et il ne resta sur cette tombe dechue que 
les mots : ici sont les os du roi Luitprand, simple inscription qui, elle- 
meme, devait etre un jour ignoblement enfouie sous des bottes de foin, 
et que je ne pus retrouver." — Valery . 

Near these is the Castello, the old palace of the Yisconti, 
built 1460 — 69, and once most richly decorated and filled 
with the treasures collected by Gian-Galeazzo. These were 
all carried oif to France by Louis XII., and little now 
remains but the ancient walls with their picturesque towers 
at the angles and bold Guelfic machicolations. The interior 
is now a barrack. 

Following the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, opposite the 
castle, we reach a monument erected to " Pavesi caduti per 
lapatria, 1859 — 69." 

Opposite this, are the buildings of the University, whose 
foundation is attributed to Charlemagne the Great in 774. 
It was greatly enriched in the 14th century by Gian- 
Galeazzo, who appointed Baldus professor of law. Little 
remains of the ancient buildings ; the present edifice is chiefly 




176 ITALIAN CITIES. 

due to Maria Theresa in 1779, but in some of the courts are 
curious monuments of early professors, removed from de- 
secrated churches. 

On the north of the university buildmgs, the Via Tre 
Collegi leads to the 

Church of S. Francesco, another beautiful brick church, 
well deserving of study, though modernized inside. Beyond 
it is the Collegia Ghislierl, with a bronze statue of Pius V. in 
the court in front of it. 

From the west door of S. Francesco a street leads south, 
passing two very tall brick towers (there are two others a 
little to the left) — slightly leaning, and something like those 
of Bologna — to the 

Church of S. Michele, founded before 661, when Unulfus 
took sanctuary there from King Grimoaldus. It is built of 
stone, finished with brick. The interior is very handsome, 
simple, and beautiful in colour. The cupola is eight-sided. 
In the tribune is a fresco of the Coronation of the Virgin. 

"The earlier period of Lombard architecture is the more original. It 
may be seen in full development on the facade of S. Michele at Pavia 
— rude indeed to a degree, but full of fire and a living record of the 
daring race that created it. The archangel trampling down the dragon 
appears over the central door, S. George similarly victorious, and Jonah 
vomited by the whale, over those to the right and left ; while in the 
jambs of the arches and in belts running along the walls, kindred sub- 
jects are sculptured in every direction and without the least apparent 
connection — dragons, griffins, eagles, snakes, sphinxes, centaurs — the 
whole mythological menagerie which our ancestors brought with them 
from their native Iran, — and these either fighting with each other or 
with Lombard warriors, or amicably interlaced with human figures, 
male and female, or grinning and ready to fly at you from the grey 
walls — interspersed with warriors breaking in horses or following the 
hounds, minstrels, and even tumblers, or at least, figures standing on 
their heads ; in short, the strong impress everywhere meets you of a wild 
and bold equestrian nation, glorying in war, delighting in horses and 



i 



I 



BRIDGE OF PAVIA. 177 

the chace, falconry, music and gymnastics — ever in motion, never sitting 
still — credulous, too, of old wives' stories, and tenacious of whatever of 
marvellous and strange had arrested their fancy during their long 
pilgrimage from the East, — for zodiacs from Chaldaea, and emblems of 
the stirring mythology of Scandinavia, constantly alternate, in these 
and similar productions, with the delineation of those pastimes and 
pursuits which their peculiar habits induced them to reiterate with 
such zest and frequency. They are rude, most rude, — I plead only 
that they are life-like, and speak with a tongue which those who love 
the Runic rhyme and the traditions of the North, and feel kindred 
blood warm in their veins, will understand and give ear to." — Lord 
Lindsay's Christian Art. 

Turning south from S. Michele we reach the picturesque 
covered bridge, with a hundred little granite columns sup- 
porting the roof, built by Gian-Galeazzo over the Ticino. 




At Pavia. 

The bridge is of brick with stone quoins. The waters of 
, the Ticinus are celebrated by the Latin poets for their 
clearness and beauty : — 

" frondentibus humida ripis 
CoUa levat pulcher Ticinus." 

Claud, VI. Cons. Hon. 194. 

" Cseruleas Ticinus aquas, et stagna vadoso 
Perspicuus servat turbari nescia fundo, 
VOL. I. 12 



178 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



Ac nitidum viridi lenta trahit amne liquorem. 
Vix credas labi : ripis tam mitis opacis, 
Argutos inter volucrum certamina cantus 
Somniferam ducit lucenti gurgite lympham." 

SU. Ital. iv. 83.* 

There are pleasant views both of Alps and Apennines 
from the ramparts of Pavia. 

• It was on the banks of the Ticinus that the first action took place (a.c. 218) 
between Hannibal and the Romans, but the exact point of their meeting is unknown. 



J 



CHAPTER X. 
MONZA AND COMO. 

(Monza may be visited on the way to Como, but the trams are not 
always convenient, being at long intervals, and travellers must remember 
that the usual Como trains do not set down passengers at Monza, but 
only those on the Milano — Lecco line. Those who spend a few days 
at Milan may, therefore, find it more convenient to make Monza an 
afternoon's excursion from thence, taking the i .20 train to Monza, and 
coming back by one of the return carriages which may generally be 
obtained at Monza for 2 or 3 frs. 

Inns. Falcone; Castello, — indifferent, i^ hour suffices for seeing all 
the curiosities of Monza .) 

MONZA, as the ancient Modoetia, was the residence of 
the Lombard kings, and thus of the famous Queen 
Theodolinda, to whom the interest of the place is chiefly due. 
Daughter of Garibald, King of Bavaria, she was married, in 
589, to Autharis, King of the Lombards, who so romantically 
won her affections, disguised as a follower in the suite of 
the ambassador he sent to ask for her hand, that when, 
from political motives, the marriage was afterwards broken 
off, she fled from her country to join him at Verona, 
where the wedding was celebrated with great pomp. As 
the wife of Autharis, Theodolinda so gained the esteem 
of the Lombard people, that upon his death six years 
after, by poison, in the palace of Pavia, they offered her 
the crown, and promised to acknowledge as King whom- 
soever she should choose as her husband. She selected 



i8o ITALIAN CITIES. 

Agilulf, Duke of Turin, whom she converted from paganism, 
and dissuaded from an intended attack upon Rome, thus 
securing the gratitude of the pope, and lasting fame for 
herself. 

" The very existence of Monza in earlier times may be doubted. At 
all events, it could have been a place of no moment whatever till it 
attracted the discerning eye of the great Goth. Theodoric, not indeed a 
King of Italy, but a King reigning in Italy, was the fitting founder of 
the future home of the Italian crown. The Lombard Paul tells us how 
he built himself a palace at Modicia — seemingly the eldest of the many 
spellings of the name — on account of the healthiness of the air in a spot 
so near to the Alps. One almost wonders that the spot was not 
lighted on in the age when Milan was the dwelling-place of the 
Emperors ; but, as far as we know, Theodoric was the first to make 
the spot, if not a dwelling-place of man, at any rate, a dwelling- 
place of Kings. But the glory of the Goth shone only for a mo- 
ment ; the continuous history of Monza begins with the more lasting 
dominion of the Lombard. At Monza, as elsewhere, the name of the 
Arian was wiped out, and local devotion gathers round the second 
foundress, the famous Queen Theodolinda. The local chronicle records 
indeed the earlier work of Theodoric, but the legend which that 
chronicle preserves, which represents the Queen as converting her 
husband Agilulf from the worship of idols, evidently looked upon 
Monza as a site which before her time stood desolate. She vows to 
build a church — an Oracuhim — to St. John the Baptist, and a miraculous 
voice causes her to build it on a spot where there was only a great tree : 
and as the voice said * Modo,' and the Queen answered ' Etiam,' the name 
of the place was called Modoetia. And when we remember how Theodoric 
is dealt with by the sculptor's art in the great minster of his own Verona, 
we can hardly wonder that he should be forgotten in his own Mcnza. 
Theodolinda stands by herself. When we read of the Bavarian 
Princess as ' filia Garibaldi,' the name seems to carry us from the 
earliest age of strictly Italian history to the latest ; and her two romantic 
marriages, allowed as she was to carry the Lombard Kingdom as her 
dower, her missionary zeal for the Orthodox faith, her friendship with 
the great Gregory — if these things really do not put her on a level with 
her Gothic predecessor, they may at least have easily made her more 
dazzling in local eyes. She built the palace of whose painted ornaments 
the Deacon Paul gives so vivid a picture ; how in his day could still be 
seen what manner of men the Lombards were in her day, and how, 
among other points of costumes and manners, they wore inner 



CATHEDRAL OF MONZA, i8i 

garments, loose and of various colours, ' qualia Angli Saxones habere 
Solent.' She too founded the great church of Monza, the Basilica or 
Oraculum of St. John, which we would gladly see in such sort as the 
famous Queen left it ; not an episcopal church, but only a chapter of 
secular canons. The fame of its foundress and the riches of its treasury 
put it almost on a level with churches of higher rank, and the chief or 
its canons, the arch-presbyter, bore, like our united abbots, the episcopal 
insignia, and asserted, at least in theory, his right to perform the most 
dazzling of episcopal functions." — Freeman. 

Emerging from the station, and turning to the right, we 
pass (right) the Church of S. Maria in Istrada with a 
beautiful Gothic front in terra-cotta. 

A Uttle beyond (right) is the CatJiedral of S. yohn 
Baptist, founded by TheodoHnda in 595, who employed the 
" Magistri Comacini " to build it, in memory of the conver- 
sion of her husband Agilulf. It was enlarged in the 14th 
century, under Matheus de Campione. The front is inlaid 
with black marble and very rich, but not effective. In the 
centre is a porch resting on serpentine columns with Hons, 
and surmounted by a gilt figure of the Baptist. Over the 
door is a very interesting reUef of the Baptism of our Lord, 
erected by TheodoHnda. 

"The Holy Spirit is represented in the likeness of a dove, holding a 
vase in its mouth, from which water descends upon the head of our 
Lord, whose garments are held by an angel, while near Him stand the 
Virgin, S. John, S. Peter, and S. Paul. Queen TheodoHnda appears 
above in the act of offering a gemmed crown to S. John Baptist, with 
her daughter Gundiberga, her husband Agilulf, and her son Adaloaldo 
beside her ; the latter holding a dove in his hand, emblematic of his 
extreme youth. The crowns, crosses, vases, &c. which she gave to the 
Basilica, are introduced." — Ferkin's Tuscan Sculptors. 

The great brick campanile was added by Pellegrini \n 1606. 
The interior is quite spoilt by the paint with which it is 
overladen. It contains : — 



i82 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Right Transept. Ambrogiano da Brescia, an interesting Cracifixion ; 
the cross is represented as a tree. On the right wall is a very curious 
relief of the coronation of Otho III. in this cathedral, the vessels given 
by Theodolinda are represented upon the altar ; the six electors present 
have their names inscribed, the Count of Saxony holds the sword of 
state 

Right of Choir. Cappella del Santo Chiodo. Over the altar is preserved 
the famous Iron Crown of Lombardy, said to have been given to 
Theodolinda, by Gregory the Great, containing the rim of iron inside a 
circle of gold and jewels, which is supposed to have been beaten out of 
one of the nails used at the crucifixion. It is only exhibited on the ist 
Sunday in September. A representation of it is given on the tablets 
whichcommemoratethecoronationsof Napoleon I., 1805, and Ferdinand 
I., 1838. Henry VII. of Luxemburg was crowned with the iron crown, 
but at Milan, in 1311. Frederick Barbarossa was amongst those who 
were crowned here. Napoleon I. placed it on his own head %vith the 
words " Dieu me I'a donne, gare k qui la touche." Now Monza is 
neglected, but it is the Rheims of Italy, and king and archbishop 
would do well to come hither for the coronations. 

Right of High Altar. C. Procaccini. S. Joseph. On the rails of the 
choir may be seen the arms of Theodolinda, a hen, and seven chickens 
for her seven provinces. The silver gilt Paliotto of the high altar, 
adorned with reliefs from the life of the Baptist, was given by Berengarius 
in the 9th century 

Left of High Altar. Bern. Luini. S. Gherardo — a very beautiful 
figure. 

Chapel left of Choir. Troso da Monza (14th century). The History 
of Queen Theodolinda — the vision which urged her to build the church 
at Monza greatly injured. 




Tomb of Queen Theodolinda. 
Left Transept. Tomb of Theodolinda — a sarcophagus resting on four ' 



BROLETTO OF MONZA. 183 

pillars. Here is the entrance to the Sacristy, which contains the gifts 
made by Theodolinda to the church and other relics of her — her crown ; 
her fan of painted leather ; her comb of gold filigree and emeralds ; 
her silver gilt hen and chickens ; her cup, said to be formed from a sap- 
phire, but of very fine glass, and, above all, the precious Gospel book and 
cross given to her by Gregory the Great upon the baptism of her eldest son 
Aldoald, in a letter which contains the last words which he wrote before 
his death, March 12, 604. Other relics here are the Sacramentary of 
King Berengarius, and the Cross used at the coronations, and hung 
round the neck of the sovereign. 

Left Aisle. The 1st Chapel contains the Baptistery, by Pellegrini ; and, 
Guercinv, The Visitation. 

Close by is the very picturesque Gothic Broletto (Town- 
hall), and dating from the 13th century. It is raised upon 
open arches of stone, two at each end and five at the sides, 
with a canopied balcony projecting on brackets in the 
centre of the gabled front. 

Beyond the town, approached by avenues of trees, is the 
Villa Reale built by Piermarini, 1777. It contains nothing 
worthy of observation, but is an occasional residence of 
Victor Emmanuel. The so-called " English Park " has 
nothing English about it. 



(It is I /4 hour from Milan to Camerlata (5 frs. 45 c. ; 4 frs. ; 2 frs. 
85 c), which is the station for Como, about i mile distant. Here 
omnibuses set travellers down wherever they like (50 c), and carriages 
await the trains. 

The sights of Como are the Cathedral, Broletto, and Church of S. 
Fedele, all close together, and near the harbour, so that they may be 
visited in an hour, but the place is pleasant, the hotel excellent, and 
those who stay longer may employ their time agreeably. It is also well 
to sleep at Como and take the early boat up the lake. 

Inns. Hotel Volta, in the piazza on the lake, quite first-rate. Italia, 
opposite.) 

Pleasant avenues of trees skirt the descent from Camerlata 
to Como. On the hill upon the left rises the old tower 



i84 ITALIAN CITIES. 

called Cistello Baradello, frequently inhabited by Frederick 
Barbarossa. Como is approached by a long suburb, but 
retains its old walls and gates. 

The Cathedral, begun in 1396 and finished in 1528, is 
built entirely of marble, and is one of the finest churches in 
North Italy. The fagade is of later date than the rest of the 
building, and was entirely erected in the latter half of the 
fifteenth century, under Lucchino da Milano, an architect who 
chose the transition style, the greater part of his work being 
pointed, but having three rich round Lombardic portals, 
with reliefs of the Nativity, the Coming of the Magi, and the 
Circumcision. Above the principal door is the Virgin and 
Child, with the native saints, Abbondio, Protus, Hyacinth, 
&c, ; then — on each side of the beautiful rose-window — the 
Annunciation. At the sides of the central door, in 
beautiful Renaissance niches, by Tommaso and Jacopo 
Rodari, 1498, are statues of the two Plinys. Below that of 
the elder Pliny is a relief of the Eruption of Vesuvius. The 
younger Pliny was bom at Como. Reaching the whole 
height of the fagade are four chains of saints. Some of 
the figures are very beautiful, especially a bishop on the 
first pillar on the right, a pope on the second, and S. 
Antonio on the third. 

The South Porch (right) by the two Rodari, of 1491, is 
very rich and beautiful. The relief represents the Flight 
into Egypt. The North Porch, also by the Rodari, and 
inscribed with their names, has a relief of the Salutation ; 
at the sides are SS. Peter, Paul, Protus, and Hyacinth. In 
the frieze above are the prophets. The sculpture of this 
door has been thought worthy of the most enthusiastic 
praise by Lubke and other authorities. The Interior is 



CATHEDRAL OF COMO. 185 

very beautiful and simple in its proportions. The eight 
sided cupola was added hy /uvara in 1750. The Holy 
Water basons rest on ancient marble lions. 

Right. Tommaso Rodari (the great sculptor of Como), 1457- Ma- 
donna between S. Peter and S. Catherine ; below, the Baptist, between 
S. Protus and S. Hyacinth. 

The monument erected by the citizens to the Cardinal Bishop 
Tolomeo Gallio, i860— "angelo di luce, apostolo di carita pel povero." 

On either side of some 14th-century reliefs of the Passion, are pictures 
of SS. Sebastian and Christopher, by Luini. 

The Soiith Door. Above — Christ between the Virgin and Si^'John. 

The Tomb of Bishop Rodigadinus, 1350, with his statue and reliefs. 
Above this, the black sarcophagus of Giov. Paolo Turrio. 

The Altar of S. Abbondio, a rich work in wood, gilt. At the sides, 
Gaiidenzio Ferrari, Scene on the Flight into Egypt ; Bern. Luini, The 
Adoration of the Kings. Then — Luini, Madonna with saints and angels, 
and a predella, in the centre of which is a beautiful figure of the 
Baptist. 

The Transepts are adorned with admirable figures of saints, of c. 
1525. Liibke describes the statue of S. Sebastian as " beautifully ani- 
mated, somewhat like a painting of the Venetian School. " 

The Apostles in the Choir are modern works of Pompeo Marchesi. 

Left Aisle (returning) . Sarcophagus and bust of Zanino Cigalino. 

Marble group of the Lamentation over the dead Christ. 

Marchesi, S. Joseph. On the right, Luini, the Nativity ; on the left, 
Gaudenzio Ferrari, the Marriage of the Virgin. 

A curious sarcophagus adorned with three fishes, a mitre, pastoral 
staff, and the lamb with the cross. Above this, the black tomb of 
Benedictus Jovius, the historian of Charles V., 1544. 

Beyond the South Door, busts of Innocent XL (Odescalchi of Como) 
and Bishop Carolo Rovelli, on either side of some reliefs by the Rodari. 

A fi-esco of the Madonna, with SS. Peter and Paul; and a marble 
temple as a Baptistery, probably by Bramante. 

Joining the cathedral, is the most picturesque Broletto 
(Town-hall) of 12 15, built in courses of white, black, and 
red marble. It is vaulted throughout beneath with heavy 
octangular pillars. 

"At Como Church and State must have been on friendly terms. The 



i86 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



home of the commonwealth joins hard to the synagogue ; the duomo and 
the broletto make up a single range. The secular building is the more 
pleasing of the two. The tower is plain, one might say, rude ; but the 
body of the building belongs to that momentary stage, early in the 
thirteenth century, when the use of the pointed arch was just beginning 
to creep into the Italian Romanesque, but when the distinguishing faults 
of the Italian Gothic had not yet begun to shew themselves. The 
massive arcades have the arches slightly pointed ; but there is no other 
departure from the true national forms of Italy ; the grouped windows 
alone are round. In the west front of the Cathedral all the faults of the 
sham Gothic of Italy come out The front itself is a sham, the doors 
and windows are there, because doors and windows are things which no 
building can do without ; but, as usual in the Italian Gothic, they are 
simply cut through the wall, not worked into the design, as either in the 
Italian Romanesque, or in the Northern Gothic." — Freeman. 




Broletto, Como. 



Behind the cathedral is the handsome modem Theatre, by j 
Cufi, 1813. 

In the Corso Vittoria, the street parallel with the west] 
front of the cathedral, is (right) the old Lombard Church oj 



S. ABBONDIO COMO. 187 

S. Fedele, which is exceedingly curious. It was used as the 
cathedral, before the present one was built. 

In the Borgo S. Annunziata, i m. from the town, is the 
interesting Church of S. Abbondio, of the nth century. It 
was originally dedicated to S. Carpofero, first Bishop of 
Como, but, after the burial within it of the second Bishop, S. 
Abbondio, it was called by his name. 

" The eye is at once caught by the admirable grouping of its east end, 
a grouping German rather than ItaHan, an apse of extraordinary height 
and richness rising between two tall campaniles of the type which 
Gennany borrowed from Italy. But the great height of all this part of 
the church, quite unlike the wide, spreading apse so common both in 
Germany and Italy, and without the open gallery usual in both countries, 
gives S. Abbondio a character of its own, and one which contrasts a 
good deal with the rest of the building, where, in the outside view, 
width is the prevailing dimension. Double aisles, unmasked in any 
way, with a double clerestory, form a body as stately in its own way as 
the eastern part, and in the side aisles height strongly predominates. Of 
the four ranges of pillars, the central pair are tall columnar pieces of 
masonry, something like those of Gloucester and Tewkesbury, but with a 
more distinct cushion capital. The southern range are tall monolith 
columns, lofty beyond any classical proportion, also with cushion 
capitals. An English eye of course misses the triforium or its equiva- 
lent of some kind between the arcade and the clerestory, but the whole 
interior is of singular dignity. The western gallery within, the signs of 
a western portico, destroyed or never added without, are points to be 
noticed ; indeed, the church would well deserve a monograph. As to 
its present state, it has either been singularly fortunate in having escaped 
the destroying hands of Popes and Jesuits, or else it has been restored in 
a singularly conservative fashion." — Freeman. 

In the same suburb is the gaudy modem Church of II 
Crocefisso. 

The Lyceum is adorned with busts of all the illustrious 
natives of Como, including the popes Innocent XI. 
(Odescalchi) and Clement XIII. (Rezzonico). 

A few years ago the Httle Port of Como, crowded with boats 



ITALIAN CITIES, 



and guarded by twin chapels, was most picturesque. This 
has now been filled up, and turned into a common-place 
piazza with a fountain, in honour of the experimental 
philosopher Volta, ob. 1826 — a native of the town. 




Como. (1866.) 



Those who stay long enough at Como, will ramble along 
the mule road which overhangs the eastern shore of the 
lake, so often revisited by Dr. Arnold, and will be glad to 
read the following extracts on the spot. 

"July 25, 1825. We are on a mule track that goes from Como along the 
eastern shore of the lake, and as the mountains go sheer down into the 
water, the mule track is obliged to be cut out of their sides, like a terrace* • 
half way between their summits and their feet. They are covered with 
wood, all chestnut, from top to bottom, except where patches have \ 
been found level enough for houses to stand on, and vines to grow ; but , 
just where we are it is quite lovely ; I look up to the blue sky, and ' 
down to the blue lake, the one just above me, the other just below me, 
and see both through the thick branches of the chestnuts. Seventeen j 
or eighteen vessels, with their white sails, are enlivening the lake, and 
about half a mile on my right, the rock is too steep for anything to 1 
grow on it, and goes down a bare cliff. A little beyond, I see some| 



MONTE GENEROSO. 189 

terraces and vines, and bright white houses, and further still, there is a 
httle low point, running out into the lake, which just affords room for a 
village, close on the water's edge, and a white church tower rising in 
the midst of it. The opposite shore is just the same, villages and 
mountains, and trees and vines, all one perfect loveliness. 

"May 19, 1827. I am seated nearly in the same spot as in 1825. 
And now, seated under its chestnut woods, and looking down upon the 
clear water of the lake, it appears as beautiful as ever. Again I see the 
white sails specking it, and the cliff running down sheer into it, and the 
village of Tomo running out into it on its little peninsula, and Blevio 
nearer to me, and the houses sometimes lining the water's edge, and 
sometimes clustering up amidst the chestnuts. I feel to be viewing the 
inexpressible beauty of these lakes for the last time. And I am fully 
satisfied ; for their images will remain for ever in my memory, and one 
has something else to do in life than to be for ever running about after 
objects to delight the eye or intellect. 

"July 25, 1830. For the third time seated under these delicious 
chestnuts, and above this delicious lake, with the blue sky above, and 
the green lake beneath, and Monte Rosa and the S. Gothard and the 
Simplon rearing their snowy heads in the distance. I see no change in 
the scenery since I was last here, and I feel very little, if any, in myself. 
Yet for me, ' summer is now ebbing. ' ... It is almost awful to look at 
the overwhelming beauty around me, and then think of moral evil ; it 
seems as if heaven and hell, instead of being separated by a great gulf 
from one another, were absolutely on each other's confines, and indeed 
not far from every one of us. Might the sense of moral evil be as strong 
in me as my delight in external beauty, for in a deep sense of moral 
evil, more perhaps than in anything else, abides a saving knowledge of 
God ! " 



Como is the best point from which to reach Monte 
Generoso. The dihgence from Como and Camerlata to 
Capolago, on the Lago Lugano, passes through (in about two 
hours) Mendrisio at the foot of the mountains, whence it is 
an ascent of about 2\ hours to the inn. The air is deh'cious, 
and the wild flowers in the woods are most beautiful ; indeed, 
in rare plants, Monte Generoso is probably the richest 
mountain in the whole Alpine chain. The Hotel du Monte 
Generoso is excellent for a mountain inn, and most beautifully 



190 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



situated; travellers are received en pension. The view is 
glorious. 

"The plain stretching up to the high horizon, where a misty range of 
pink cirrus-clouds alone mark the line where earth ends and the sky 
begins, is islanded with cities and villages innumerable, basking in the 
hazy shimmering heat. Milan, seen through a telescope, displays its 
Duomo perfect as a microscopic shell, with all its exquisite fretwork, 
and Napoleon's arch of triumph, surmounted by the four tiny horses, as 
in a fairy's dream. Far off, long silver lines mark the lazy course of 
Po and Ticino, while little lakes like Varese and the lower end of 
Maggiore spread themselves out, connecting the mountains with the 
plain." — J. A. Synionds. 

It is only a few minutes' walk from the hotel to the edge 
of the precipice, which abruptly overhangs the Lake of 
Lugano, and an easy path leads, in about half-an-hour, to the 
summit of the mountain, which has a magnificent view over 
the lakes of Lugano, Varese, Como, and Maggiore. 

There is a diligence daily (3 hours) from Como to 
Lecco, by Erba and Incino, passing through the Brianza, 
the richest district in Lombardy. There is also a diligence 
(3 frs.) to Canzo in the Brianza, from the station of Seregno, 
half-way between Monza and Camerlata. 



f 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE ITALIAN LAKES. 

(A portion of the beautiful group known as "the Italian Lakes," 
is really in Switzerland, but as their position south of the Alps, and 
their thoroughly Italian character, makes them part of almost every 
Italian tour, no work on Italy can be complete which fails to include 
the v/hole of them. The entire Lake of Como, and a considerable dis- 
trict to the north of it, including Chiavenna, are in Italy. The Swiss 
frontier makes a sudden bend southwards to the west of Como and em- 
braces nearly the whole of the Lake of Lugano and the extreme north 
of the Lago Maggiore. The Lakes of Varese and Orta, Varallo, and 
Domo d' Ossola, are in Italy. * 

The best positions for remaining some time upon the lakes are 
Bellaggio or Cadenabbia on the Lago di Como, and Baveno or Stresa 
on the Lago Maggiore. At all these places are first-rate hotels, where 
travellers are received en pension and may make themselves exceedingly 
comfortable. There is English Church-Service throughout the season 
at Bellaggio, Lugano, and Stresa. 

The usual Tour of the Italian Lakes is made in the following order. 
Ascending the Lake of Como to Bellaggio, cross thence by steamer to 
Menaggio, whence by omnibus to Porlezza on the Lago Lugano. By 
steamer from Porlezza to Lugano, whence most travellers take a carriage 
to Luino on the eastern shore of the Lago Maggiore, and thence pro- 
ceed by steamer to Baveno or Stresa, visiting the Isola Bella on the 
way. A more complete tour may be made by taking the steamer at 
2 . 30 from Lugano to Porto, and proceeding thence to Varese, whence 
the Sacro Monte may be visited, (If Varallo be seen, omit the Sacro 

• For some inexplicable reason, not only the generally so-called district of the 
Italian lakes, but Orta and Varallo, are unnoticed in Murray's so-called Hand-book 
of Northern Italy, which gives the impression they are in Switzerland. There are 
capital short notices of them in Bxdeker. 



192 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Monte ) From Varese one may proceed by omnibus or carriage to 
Laveno on the Lago Maggiore, and thence by steamer to Stresa, 
Baveno, and the Isola Bella, returning to Arona. From either Pallanza 
or Arona a detour may be made to the lovely lake of Orta {well worth 
while), and further, to Varallo. Travellers may return to Milan by rail 
&om Orta or from Arona. In all cases heavy luggage should be left at 
a hotel at Milan, as it will be found a terrible encumbrance in travelling 
upon the lakes, especially in landing and embarking. 

In a leisurely tour of the lakes, the travellers will sleep ac, I . Como 
or Villa d* Este ; 2. Bellaggio ; 3. Lugano ; 4. Varese ; 5. Baveno ; 
6. Orta ; 7. Arona. In the quick three days' tour of the lakes alone, 
travellers will sleep at Bellaggio and Baveno. ) 

TRAVELLERS who pass straight through Como with- 
out sleeping, should take a carriage from Camerlata to 
the steamer, which will allow time for a hurried ^ isit to the 
cathedral and Broletto before embarking. The views from 
the harbour, of the still reaches of water girdled by wooded 
hills fringed with villas, are most charming. 

(The steamer runs three times daily up the lake to Colico, 3J hrs. 
Fares, I. 4 firs. ; II. 2 frs. 10 c. There are only piers at Cadenabbia, 
Bellaggio, and Menaggio. At the other stations travellers have to land 
in a rowing-boat, for which coupons of the steam-boat tickets are given, 
but the boatmen expect two or three soldi of buono-mano. Those who 
embark at the intermediate stations must be sure to provide themselves 
with a ticket on the pier, before entering the steamer, to show that they 
have done so, or they may be obliged to pay the whole fare firom 
Como. 

A Rowing-boat (barca) throughout the lake generally costs \\ fr. to each 
rower for the first hour, and i fr. for every hr. afterwards. One rower 
is sufficient A boat fi-om Bellaggio to Cadenabbia and back, or from 
Bellaggio to Varenna and back, with two rowers, costs 4 frs. ) 

The Lake of Como was the Lacus Larius of the Romans. 
Its size is extolled by Virgil : — 

" Anne lacus tant OS ? Te. Lari maxime — " 

Georg. iu 159. 

It is 30 miles in length, and its greatest width (from Men- 



LA GO DI COMO. 193 

aggio to Varenna) is 2.\ miles. The hills which gird it are 
seldom of very fine forms, but are beautiful from the rich 
forests which clothe them, while the small space left between 
the hills and the water is a perpetual garden of the loveliest 
shrubs and flowers. 

The charms of a voyage up the lake are described by 
Claudian : — 

" Protinus umbrosa qua vestit littus olivi 
Larius, et dulci mentitur Nerea fluctu, 
Parva puppe lacum prastervolat, ocius inde 
Scandit inaccessos brumali sidere montes." 

Immediately upon leaving Conio we seem to glide 
through a perfect avenue of villas. Among those on the 
left bank are the Villa Battaglia, inhabited by Napoleon I. 
in 1797, the Villa Odescalchi, and the red Villa Rattazzi, 
then : — 

Left, Cernobbio. The station for the Villa d'Este, a 
large hotel, beautifully situated, joining the gardens of the 
villa built by Cardinal Gallio in 1568, and inhabited in 18 15 
by Queen Caroline, the unhappy wife of George IV. of Eng- 
land. It has charming green walks and grottoes, close under 
the mountain. 

Left, Villa Pizzo, which belonged to the Archduke Rainer, 
ob. 1853, with a promontory of cypresses rising from masses 
of banksia-roses and westeria. 

Right, Villa Taglioni, once the property of the famous 
dancer ; and, beyond the little town of Blevio, Villa Pasta, 
'the home of the celebrated singer, ob. 1865. 

Left, Villa Taverna. 

Right, Villa Pliniana, with a spring mentioned by Pliny, 
jwhich daily changes its level. 

VOL. I. 13 



194 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Right, Nesso, a village in a little bay, with a picturesque 
ravine, bridge, and waterfall. 

Left, Brienno ; here, on turning the promontory, is the 
first view of the snowy Alps. 

Left, Sala. Close to this is the only island on the lake, 
the Isola Comaccina or S. Giovanni, celebrated as a refugfe 
in the mediaeval wars. 

"The name of Comacine was derived from a body of Italian archi- 
tects who built for the Lombards, and who kept alive those art-tradi- 
tions, well-nigh smothered under the overwhelming weight of misfortune 
which pressed upon the peninsula in every shape after the invasion of 
those barbarians. For twenty years after Alboinus and his followers 
overran the plains of Lombardy, the Isoletta Comacina, which held out 
against their power under Francione, an imperial partisan, contained 
numbers of fugitives from all parts of Italy, amongst whom were many 
skilled artisans known as the Maestri Comacini, a name afterwards 
changed into that of ' Casari ' or ' Casarii,' — builders of houses. After 
they had submitted to the invaders, their college or guild was favoured 
by the Lombard kings ; its members were affranchised, made citizens, 
and allowed certain important privileges, such as that of making con- 
tracts, which were not however conceded to their assistants." — Perkins 
Italian Sculptors. 

Left, Campo. Here the beautiful promontory of Lavedo 
breaks the lines of the lake ; on its extremity is the Villa 
Balbianello, ^vith a colonnade. 

Left, Tremezzo. Then the Villa Carlotta, or Sommariva, 
with baliistraded terraces and gardens of roses. It was pur- 
chased in 1843 for the Princess Albrecht of Prussia, from 
whose daughter Charlotte, ob. 1855, it received its present 
name. It is now the property of her husband, Prince 
George of Saxe Meiningen. The Interior (i fr.) is shown, 
and contains a frieze representing the Triumph of Alexander, 
executed for Count Sommariva by Thorwaldsen. In the 
same hall are several statues by Canova, in the Billiard-room 



I 



CADENABBIA, BELLAGGIO. 195 

a small frieze by Thorwaldstn. In the Garden-Saloon is 
Napoleon as Consul by Lazzarini. 

Close to the villa {left), is Cadenabbia (Ck di navia). Inn. 
Hotel Bellevue, charmingly situated, with a long terrace on 
the lake. There is a good view from the Madonna di San 
Martina on the rock behind the town, but the views from 
this place are inferior to those from Bellaggio, which is itself 
the most conspicuous feature from hence, and not a beautiful 
one. 

(Travellers for Lecco change steamers at Cadenabbia. The Lecco 
arm of the lake is of a more savage character than the rest, and its sides 
are much more abrupt. The steamer runs three times a week, some- 
times oftener. Lecco (Inns. Albergo dUtalia, Croce di Malta) is de- 
scribed in the Promessi Sposi of Manzoni. It is hardly deserving of a 
separate visit, though it may be the object of an excursion for those who 
stay long at Bellaggio. ) 

Right, Bellaggio, on the promontory between the Lecco 
and Como arms of the lake. 

{Inns. Hotel de la Grande Bretagne, an immense building, but 
quite one of the best hotels in Italy, admirably managed and with large 
gardens. More delightful, however, is the siiccursale of this hotel, the 
former Villa Serbelloni, situated high upon the hill-side, in the lovely 
grounds which give Bellaggio its principal charm. Pension at both 
these, for not less than eight days, is 12 frs., everything included. No 
more charming residence can be found for a week than the Villa Ser- 
belloni : rooms with a view should of course be insisted upon. 

The Hotel Genazzini, close to the lake, is also excellent, and has a 
little terrace upon the water, half-smothered in roses. The new 
Grand Hotel at the landing-place is comfortable, but very inferior in its 
attractions. 

Those who stay at the Hotel de la Grande Bretagne should always re- 
member to ask the landlord for a medal of free admittance to his grounds 
of the Villa Serbelloni, otherwise they will either be charged i fr. or 
be turned back after a hot walk up the hill. 

Carriages are enormously dear at Bellaggio.) 

Bellaggio is altogether one of the most charming places in 



196 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Italy, for those who are content to be quiet for a time. But 
after having visited the Villa Serbelloni, and enjoyed its 
lovely terraces, there is not much to be seen. The Villa 
Melzt, the property of the King of the Belgians, near the 
lake, has a pleasant garden. Behind it is an avenue of 
cypresses and an old campanile, which artists will probably 
sketch. Excursions may be made to Varenna, Villa Car- 
lotta, &c. The view from the windows of the Villa Serbel- 
loni will be recalled by the lines : — 

" Sublime, but neither bleak 'nor bare, 
Nor misty are the mountains there, 
Softly sublime — profusely fair, 
Up to their summits clothed in green 
And fruitful as the vales between, 

They lightly rise, 

And scale the skies, 
And groves and gardens still abound ; 

For where no shoot 

Could else take root 
The peaks are shelved, and terraced round. 
Earthward appears in mingled growth ^ 

The mulberry and maize, above 
The trellis'd vine extends to both 

The leafy shade they love. 
Looks out the white- wall'd cottage here, 
The lowly chapel rises near ; 
Far down the foot must roam to reach 
The lovely lake and bending beach ; 
While chestnut green and olive gray 
Chequer the steep and winding way." — Henry Taylor, 

Right, beyond the entrance to the Lake of Lecco, 
Varenna {Inn. Albergo Reale — good), beautifully situated. 
In the hill above are the ruins of the Torre del Vezio. 
Some of the gardens are lovely, and the dark spires of the 
cypresses stand out gloriously against the shining water, 

The upper part of the Lake of Como is of less in teres! 



estl 

1 



COLICO, CHIAVENNA. 197 

Above Musso (left) is the castle of the Count of that name, 
who, after the battle of Pavia, 1525, established an inde- 
pendent principality which embraced the whole Lake of 
Como. On the left are Dongo and the large village of 
Gravedona. Those who are interested in ecclesiastical anti- 
quities should not fail to make an excursion to the latter 
place. It has a basilica dedicated to S. Vincenzo, which 
contains in its sacristy a most glorious 15th-century proces- 
sional cross of silver inlaid with gems, a beautiful chalice, 
and other precious ornaments of the same date. Close by, 
beautifully situated, is a very curious ancient Baptistery, built 
of alternate courses of white marble and black limestone. It 
is only 40 ft in length, and retains its ancient frescoes in the 
interior. A large villa here was built by Cardinal Gallio. 

Colico {Inn. Albergo Piazza Garibaldi — very indifferent) 
is in the low land at the head of the lake. From hence 
there are diligences to Chiavenna {Inn. Hotel Conradi, 
excellent), the ancient Clavenna, — from its being the key of 
the Alpine passes — most beautifully situated, with pic- 
turesque campaniles and an old castle of the De Salis 
family. The beer of Chiavenna is delicious, and justly cele- 
brated. Here the ascent of the Splugen begins, through 
beautiful vineyards and chestnut forests. The Swiss frontier 
is entered after passing the thoroughly Italian village of 
Campo Dolcino. 

Those who do not purpose crossing the Splugen, may 
make a most pleasant excursion from Bellaggio or Menaggio 
by sleeping one night at Chiavenna, and it is well worth 
while, for the sake of the lovely chestnut forests, which are 
more beautiful than anywhere else in Italy. 

"Chiavenna is certainly amongst the most extraordinary places I ever 



198 ITALIAN CITIES. 

beheld. Its situation resembles that of Aosta and Bellinzona, and I 
think, if possible, it surpasses them both. The mountains by which it 
is enclosed are formed of that hard dark rock which is so predominant 
in the lower parts of the Alps on the Italian side, and which gives them 
so decided a character. Above Chiavenna their height is unusually 
great, and their magnificence, both in the ruggedness of their forms and 
the steepness of their cliffs, as in the gigantic size of the fragments which 
they have thrown down into the valley, and in the luxuriance of their 
chestnut woods, is of the very highest degree. The effect, too, is greater, 
because the valley is so much narrower than that of the Ticino at Bellin- 
zona, or of the Dorea Baltea at Aosta ; in fact the stream is rather a 
torrent than a river, but full and impetuous, and surprisingly clear, 
although the snowy Alps from which it takes its source rise at veiy little 
distance ; but their substance apparently is harder than that of the Alps 
about Mont Blanc, and the torrents therefore are far purer than the 
Dorea or the Arve. In the very midst of the town of Chiavenna, now 
covered with terrace walls and vineyards to its very summit, stands an 
enormous fragment of rock, once detached from the neighbouring moun- 
tains, and rising to the height, I suppose, of seventy or eighty feet. It 
was formerly occupied by a fortress built on its top by the Spaniards, in 
their wars in the north of Italy ; but it all looks quiet and peaceful 
now. ... It is impossible to picture anything more beautiful than a 
scramble about these mountains. You are in a wood of the most mag- 
nificent trees, shaded from the sun, yet not treading on mouldering 
leaves or damp earth, but on a carpet of the freshest spring turf, rich 
with all sorts of flowers. You have the softness of an upland meadow 
and the richness of an English park, yet you are in the midst of masses of 
rock, now rearing their steep sides in bare cliffs, now hung with the 
senna and the broom, now carpeted with turf, and only showing their 
existence by the infinitely-varied form which they give to the ground, 
the numberless deep dells, and green amphitheatres, and deliciously 
smooth platforms, all caused by the ruins of the mountains which have 
thus broken and studded its surface, and are yet so mellowed by the rich 
vegetation which time has given them, that they now only soften its 
character. 

" We drove a little way up the valley of Chiavenna to see a waterfall, 
which was beautiful in itself as all waterfalls must be, but its peculiar 
charm was this, that instead of falling amidst copsewood, as the fails in 
Wales and England generally do, or amidst mere shattered rocks, like 
that fine one in the Valais near Martigny — here, on the contrarj', the 
water fell over a cliff of black rock into a deep rocky basin, and then as 
it flowed down in its torrent it ran beneath a platform of the most 



I 



A 



LAGO DI LUGANO. 199 

delicious grass, on which the great chestnut trees stood about as finely 
as in an English park, and rose almost to a level with the top of the fall, 
while the turf underneath them was steeped in a perpetual dew from the 
spray. 

' ' The unrivalled beauty of the chestnut woods was again remarkable on 
the road to Isola, on the way to the Splugen, in the valley of the Lima. 
It is rather a gorge than a valley, so closely do the mountains approach 
one another, while the torrent is one succession of falls. Yet just in one 
place, where the road by a succession of zigzags had wound up to the 
level of the top of the falls, and where the stream was running for a 
short space as gentle and as limpid as one of the clear rapid chalk 
streams of the south of Hampshire, the turf sloped down gently from the 
road to the stream, the great chestnut trees spread their branches over 
it, and just on its smooth margin was a little chapel, with those fresco 
paintings on its walls which are so constant a remembrance of Italy. 
Across the stream there was the same green turf and the same chestnut 
shade, and if you did not lift your eyes high into the sky, to notice the 
barrier of insurmountable cliff and mountain which surrounded you on 
each side, you would have had no other images before you than those of 
the softest and most delicate repose, and of almost luxuriant enjoyment." 
— Dr. Arnold's yournals. 



Most travellers cross at once from Bellaggio to Menaggio. 
Inn. Vittoria. 

(Tickets to Lugano may be taken on board the boat (including the 
omnibus to Porlezza and the boat from thence), which will save trouble. 
A small addition is paid for the difference between Swiss and Italian 
money. Omnibuses with Coupe (l fr. extra) start soon after the arrival 
of the boat.) 

It is a drive of about 2 hrs, over a richly wooded ridge 
of hills, from Menaggio to Porlezza. The road descends 
upon the tiny Lake of Piano, then to Porlezza {Inn. Hotel 
del Lago), the harbour at the eastern end of the Lake of 
Lugano. 

The Lake of Lugano, taken as a whole, is inferior in beauty 
to the other lakes. In the Porlezza arm the hills at the 
sides, which rise abruptly from the water, have rounded 




200 ITALIAN CITIES. 

forms, and only attain the dignity of mountains at the two 
ends of the reach. The Monte S. Salvadore above Lugano 
is always a striking feature. On the right bank is the very 
picturesque village of Sandria, with houses rising directly 
from the water. On turning the promontory beyond this, 
we come in sight of Lugano. 

Inns. Hotel du Pare, an old monastery converted into a comfortable, 
reasonable, and excellent hotel, with a pleasant garden. It has a more 
delightful Siicairsak in the Villa Bean Sejotir (close by), with lovely 
gardens and terraces upon the lake. Other hotels are the Washington, 
Bdlevue, and Couronne. 

Lugano is pretty, but has little special attraction, so that 
travellers pressed for time will proceed at once to Luino or 
Varese, only stopping to visit the Church of S. Maria degli 
Angeli (joining the Hotel du Pare — the steamer for Varese 
stays long enough to allow of seeing this), which contains 
glorious frescoes of Bernardino Luini, 1529, interesting as 
being the most northern frescoes of any importance. 

Over the Chancel Arch. The Passion. The immense crowd of figures 
which tell the whole story of the Crucifixion are grouped below the three 
crosses, which divide the whole composition. Behind are seen, the 
Trial, the Bearing of the Cross, the Burial, and the Unbelief of Thomas. 
Still beyond, as in vision, are seen, behind the Trial, the Agony in the 
Garden ; behind the picture of the Unbelief, the Ascension. Beneath 
are SS. Sebastian and Roch — saints of whose repetition Italian travellers 
going south will weary before they leave the country. 

Right, 1st Chapel. Madonna and Child, with S. John the Baptist 
and a lamb — most beautiful. 

Bight (on pillar). The dead Christ supported by two monks. 

Left. The Last Supper, in three fragments. 

In front of this church is a Statue of William Tell bj 
Vincenzo Vela, surmounting a fountain. Beyond the Beau 
Sejour, near the shore, is a bust of Washington, " magnum 



VARESE. 201 

sseculorum decus." In the Giardini Ciani is the statue 
called " La Desolazione," by Vela. 

The ascent of Monte S. Salvadore is frequently made from 
Lugano. It is perfectly easy (no guide needed), monotonous, 
and fatiguing, and occupies about 2\ hrs to the top. There 
is little to be seen till you reach the chapel on the summit, 
whence the view is glorious. 

It is a drive of about z\ hrs from Lugano to Luino 
(Diligence 2\ frs. ; carriage with 2 horses, 20 frs. ; with i 
horse, 10 frs.). The road passes the little Lake of Muzzano, 
and, entering the Italian frontier at Fornasette, descends to 
Luino {Inn. Hotel du Simplon). Here Bernardo Luini was 
bom, 1460. In the principal church are some of his frescoes. 



The steamer from Lugano to Porto (i fr. 50 c.) follows 
the southern arm of the lake and passes under the railway 
bridge of Bissone. Beyond this a gulf of the lake opens on 
the left to Capolago. On the right is the picturesque village 
of Morcate, with a church and Lombard campanile well 
placed high on the rocks. Here the last arm of the lake, 
hitherto quite concealed, turns to the north-west. At the 
end of the bay is Porta. At the landing-place is the Italian 
Custom House, and here a public carriage (i| fr. — or 2 frs. 
to the Grand Hotel) is waiting to take passengers to 
Varese. It ascends by a pleasant road into wooded up- 
lands, passes through the villages of Bisuschio and Arcisate 
and, in about 2 hrs, reaches Varese, a handsome dull town. 
{Inns. Europa, Corona, Stella; or, i m. outside the town, the 
excellent Grand Hotel de Varese, where there is English 
Church-Service during summer.) The older part of the town 
has cool, pleasant arcades, but there is not much to see. The 



202 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Church of S. Vittore, which has a campanile by Pellegrino 
(1516), contains a S. George by Crespi, and a Magdalen by 
Morazzone. But it is worth while to visit Varese, if you stay 
at the Grand Hotel, and have the magnificent sunset view. 
In the day one often seems only to look down over richly 
planted country to the Lake of Varese, which is embosomed 
in low wooded hills, between which glimpses may be caught 
of the further miniature Lakes of Monate and Cottiabbio. 
The country seems comparatively featureless, though of the 
rich character described by Henry Taylor — 

" I stood beside Varese's Lake, 

Mid that redundant growth 
Of vines and maize and bower and brake 

Which Nature, kind to sloth, 
And scarce solicited by human toil, 
Pours from the riches of the teeming soil." 

But on fine evenings, as the sun sinks, there is a most 
glorious revelation. The whole Alpine range stands out 
behind the lake against the crimson sky — Monte Rosa, 
Mont Blanc, Mont Cervin, and a hundred other peaks, 
ending with Monte Viso. 

Two excursions should be made from Varese, which 
(though in opposite directions) may easily be taken in one 
long morning by any one who is pressed for time. 

It is a drive of about \ hr. (carriage from Grand Hotel 3^ 
frs.) to the foot of the Sacro Monte, about 2\ miles north 
of the town. Hence a steep path paved with pebbles leads 
up the hill (horse i fr. 50 c. — but it is better to walk, as 
you must constantly dismount to see the chapels), pleasantly 
shaded by chestnut trees. At every turn of the road is a 
chapel, all different, and often of great architectural merit, 



f 



i 



I 



SACRO MONTE DI VARESE. 203 

containing a terra-cotta group, with life-size figures illustra- 
tive of some event of the Sacred History connected with 
the different Mysteries of the Rosary. The whole is a sort 
of terra-cotta Ober Ammergau, The events occur in the 
following order : — 

1. The Conception. 

2. The Annunciation. The homely details of the cottage interior, the 

rush-bottomed chairs, pots and pans, &c., give great reality to 
this scene. 

3. The Visitation. The donkey and dog, and other by-play in- 

troduced, is very effective. 

4. The Nativity. 

5. The Circumcision. This chapel is an architectural gem. 

6. Christ amid the Doctors. Some of the figures are wonderfully full 

of character. 

7. The Agony in the Garden. 

8. The Sepulchre. This is introduced here by the same principle 

of "anticipation" which makes the Roman Catholic Church 
celebrate the Burial of Our Lord on Holy Thursday, before the 
Crucifixion. 

9. The Flagellation. 

10. The Crowning with Thorns — some of the faces of the mockers 

are quite horrible. 

11. The Bearing of the Cross, and the Coming of Scholastica. 

12. The Crucifixion. 

13. The Resurrection. 

14. The Ascension. 

15. The Day of Pentecost. 

16. The Assumption. 

There is a fountain with a colossal statue of Moses, by 
Gaetano Monti, at the entrance of the little village for the 
sale of medals and other relics. At the summit of the hill 
is a picturesque church — La Madonna del Monte, rich in 
stucco and colour, and containing terra-cotta groups of the 
Adoration of the Magi and the Purification. 

"Over the first of the chapels on the ascent is written, ' Her founda- 



204 ITALIAN CITIES. 

tions are upon the holy hills,' and other passages of Scripture upon the 
succeeding ones. I confess, the figures in the chapels seemed to me 
anything but absurd ; from the solemnity of the place altogether, and 
from the goodness of the execution, I looked on them with no disposition 
to laugh or to criticize. But what I did not expect was the exceeding 
depth and richness of the chestnut shade, through which the road 
partially ran, only coming out at every turning to the extreme edge of 
the mountain, and so commanding the view on every side. But when we 
got to the summit we saw a path leading up to the green edge of a cliflf 
on the mountain above, and we thought if we could get there we should 
probably see Lugano. Accordingly, on we walked ; till just at sunset we 
got out to the crown of the ridge, the brow of an almost precipitous cliff, 
looking down the whole mountain of S. Maria del Monte, which on this 
side presented nothing but a large mass of rock and cliff, a perfect contrast 
to the rich wood of its other side. But neither S. Maria del Monte, 
nor the magnificent view of the plain of Lombardy, one mass of rich 
verdure, enlivened with its thousand white houses and church towers, were 
the objects which we most gazed upon. We looked westward full upon 
the whole range of mountains, behind which, in a cloudless sky, the 
sun had just descended. It is utterly idle to attempt the description of 
such a scene. I counted twelve successive mountain outlines between 
us and the farthest horizon ; and the most remote of all, the high peaks 
of the Alps, were brought out strong and dark in the glowing sky 
behind them, so that their edge seemed actually to cut it. Immediately 
below, our eyes plunged into a depth of chestnut forest, varied as usual 
with meadows and villages, and beyond, embosomed amidst the nearer 
mountains, lay the Lake of Lugano. As if everything combined to 
make the scene perfect, the mountain on which we stood was covered 
with the Daphne Cneorum." — Dr. Arnold's yournals. 

It is about I hour's drive (carriage 8 frs.) from Varese to 
Castiglione di Olona, a pleasant village, beautifully situated 
in a wooded valley with a clear stream running through it. 
Opposite the Piazza del Padre Eterno (!) is an old palace 
with terra-cotta ornaments. The pretty little renaissance 
Chiesa di Villa is adorned outside with gigantic stone 
statues of SS. Anthony and Christopher. Hence, a steep 
path paved with pebbles ascends to the Parrochia, a noble 
brick church, with stone and terra-cotta ornaments. Ovec 



i 



CASTIGLIONE UOLONA. 205 

the west door, of 1428, is a relief of the Madonna throned, 
with four saints and the founder Cardinal Branda, who 
was Cardinal of S. Clemente at Rome. On the left of the 
choir is his beautiful tomb (ob. 1443), a sarcophagus with 
his statue, supported by four crowned figures. The frescoes 
of the choir are noble works of Masolino, the pupil of 
Masaccio. The six compartments of the roof are occupied 
by the Story of the Madonna — The Annunciation, Corona- 
tion, Marriage, Adoration of the Magi, Assumption, Nativity. 
In the central medallion is the Saviour in benediction. On 
the left wall is the Story of S. Laurence — his almsgiving, 
administration of baptism, death. On the right wall is the 
Story of S. Stephen, but it has almost perished. 

In the Sacristy is an interesting collection of old church 
plate, illuminated choir-books, an ivory casket, and a small 
Annunciation by Masolino. 

The Chapel on the right of the choir contains a curious 
15th-century altar, with figures of the Saviour and the twelve 
Apostles. 

The Baptistery is separated from the church, at the other 
end of its little enclosure. It is covered with ,frescoes by 
Masolino, telling the Story of the Baptist, some of them 
most beautiful. 

Right Wall. The Feast of Herod. The Daughter of Herodias 
bringing the head to her mother. 

On the arch. Six Saints. 

Tribune. The Imprisonment. The Preaching. The Baptism of the 
Saviour. "Behold the Lamb of God" — in this the 
figure of the Saviour is of exquisite beauty. 

On the vault of the Tribune is God the Father. 

On the vault of the Baptistery. The Four Evangelists, with the Lamb. 

Varese is connected with Milan by a branch from Galla- 



2o6 ITALIAN CITIES. 

rate on the line which goes by Rho in 3 hours to Arona, the 
pleasantest place at the lower end of the Lago Maggiore. 



The Lago Maggiore (the Langensee of the Germans) is 
the Lacus Verbanus of the Romans. It is 54 m. long, and 
3 m. broad at its greatest breadth. Many will consider this 
lake even more delightful than that of Como. Its most beau- 
tiful point probably is Baveno. Those who wish to explore 
it thoroughly, will stay at Arona, Baveno, and Locarno, 
and it is only in this way that the lake can be enjoyed, for 
the voyage part of the Italian lakes is certainly pleasanter in 
recollection than reality ; then you can forget the smoke and 
the blacks, the people who ate the greasy cutlets, and the 
horrible smells. 

Arona {Inns. Albergo Reale, most excellent and reason- 
able. Italia, better view) is a dirty little town with narrow 
streets, but the hotels are charmingly situated and the neigh- 
bourhood lovely. Though at the flat end of the lake, Arona 
has a beautiful view towards the mountains, and of the fine 
old Castle of Angera, a fief of the Borromei, which crowns a 
wood-crested rock on the other side of the water. In the 
Church of S. Maria is a beautiful altar-piece of the Madonna 
and Child with saints, by Gaiidenzio Vinci. 

About i^ mile from the town is the colossal Statue of S. 
Carlo Borromeo, modelled by Cera?io, from designs of Crespi, 
and erected in 1697 at the expense of the inhabitants and 
the Borromeo family. The statue is 66 feet high on a 
pedestal of 40 ft. The head, hands, and feet are of bronze, 
the rest of copper. Visitors sometimes commit the folly of 
ascending into the head. 



I 

I 



I 



STRESA, IS OLA BELLA. 207 

Carlo Borromeo, bom in 1537, was the second son of Count Borromeo, 
the representative of one of the noblest families in Lombardy. Dedi- 
cated to the Church from infancy, he was created Cardinal and Arch- 
bishop of Milan by his uncle Pope Pius IV. when he was only in his 
23rd year. His life at the papal court was without reproach. In 
his 26th year, on the death of his elder brother Federigo, he inherited 
the Borromeo estates, but only made use of their revenues, as well as of 
those of the diocese, for charity, living upon bread and water himself, and 
sleeping upon straw. He travelled as a missionary through all parts of 
his bishopric, penetrating even to the remotest villages and knots of shep- 
herds' huts amongst the mountains. His regard for Church discipline, 
and the severity with which he enforced morality upon his priesthood, 
made him many enemies, and a Franciscan monk fired at him in his 
chapel, strangely enough just as he was singing the evening anthem — 
*' Non turbetur cor meum neque formidet." The bullet glanced aside 
from the stiff gold embroidery on his cope, and he lived to show the most 
wonderful personal devotion to his people during the plague at Milan in 
'575> besides selling his great property of Oria for 40,000 crowns, for 
the benefit of the poor and suffering at that time. Though he constantly 
exposed his life for others, he failed to take the infection, but died, 
Nov. 4, 1584, in his 46th year — breathing out, in a sort of dying rapture, 
the words " Ecce Venio." He was canonized in 1610 by Paul V., and 
is still revered throughout his diocese as "II buon santo." 

Steamers leave Arona for the ascent of the lake three 
times daily, calling at all the principal stations. We may- 
notice : — 

Left, JBelgirate, where is the large Hotel Borromeo, in a 
very unattractive situation. 

Left, Stresa. Hotel des lies Borromees, excellent, im- 
mense, and a very good centre, but the situation is inferior 
to Baveno. 

Nearly opposite Stresa is the Lsola Bella {Hotel Delfino, 
very good), the first of the three Borromean Isles, which 
should certainly be visited, though every succeeding traveller 
will form a different impression as to its beauties, which are 
entirely artificial — the earth which covers the slate rock 
having all been brought from a distance. Burnet, for in- 



2o8 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Stance, calls it " an enchanted island " and " the finest sum- 
mer residence in the world." South ey, writing to Landor, 
says, " Isola Bella is at once the most costly and the most 
absurd effort of bad taste that has ever been produced by 
wealth and extravagance," while Saussure describes it " un 
magnifique caprice, une pensee grandiose, une espece de 
creation." 

There are two points to be visited (i fr.) — the Palace, and 
the Gardens. Those who have seen few other palaces, may 
be amused by walking through the rooms, where the old 
carved frames are much finer than the pictures, which, for 
the most part, are mere daubs, and where the real attraction 
lies in the lovely views of the lake from the windows. Imme- 
diately beneath the walls, perfect shoals of fish may be seen 
swimming in the deep clear water. In the chapel are some 
magnificent tombs of the Borromeo family, removed from 
the conventual church of S. Francesco at Milan, suppressed 



"Two very important monuments by Omodeo (1447 — 1520) may be 
seen in the family chapel of the Borromei. One is that of Giovanni 
Borromeo, the other that of an unknown member of the family. Both 
were originally erected in the church of S. Pietro in Gessate at 
Milan. The knightly statues are dignified and noble, while the bas- 
reliefs show the usual skill of Omodeo in composition and delicate chisel- 
ling." — PerkirCs Italian Sculptors. 

The present owners of the palace are five brothers, Counts 
Borromeo, who only reside here in the autumn. 

The Gardens consist of a pyramidal succession of ten 
terraces, raised one above another, terminating in a square. 
They all have gravel walks, shaded by orange and lemon 
trees, and adorned with all the statues and grottoes which 
were beloved in the 17 th century, and to which age has 



I 



ISOLA MADRE, ISOLA DEI PESCA TORE. 209 

given a sort of quaint beauty. The wonders of the vegeta- 
tion here have been greatly exaggerated. There is a fine 
camphor tree, but of the cameUias, bamboos, and almost 
all the other plants, better specimens may be seen in the 
gardens near Penzance, or even at Torquay, and here, 
nearly everything requires protection in the winter. There 
is a graceful group of Aleppo pines, and some of the views 
are charming. 

It is about 20 min. in a boat from hence to the Isola 
Madre — which contains another palace, but unfinished and 
uninhabited — of which the grounds are more park-like, and 
where Nature has been allowed to help herself. 

"On debarque; sur les parois du rebord, des aloes aux feuilles 
massives, des figuiers d'Inde aux larges raquettes, chauffent au soleil 
leur vegetation tropicale ; des allees de citronniers toument le long des 
murailles, et leurs fruits verts ou jaunes se collent contre les quartiers 
de roche. Quatre etages d'assises vont ainsi se superposant sous leur 
parure de plantes precieuses. Au sommet, I'ile est une touffe de ver- 
dure qui bombe au-dessus de I'eau ses massifs de feuillage, lauriers, 
I chenes-verts, platanes, grenadiers, arbres exotiques, glycines en fleur, 
buissons d'azaleas epanouis. On marche enveloppe de fraicheur et de 
parfums ; personne, sauf un gardien ; I'ile est deserte et semble attendre 
;un jeune prince et une jeune fee pour abriter leur fian9ailles ; toute 
jtapissee de fins gazons et d'arbres fleuris, elle n'est plus qu'un beau bou- 
Iquet matinal, rose, blanc, violet, autour duquel voltigent les abeilles ; 
ses prairies immaculees sont constellees de primeveres et d'anemones ; 
les paons et les faisans y promenent pacifiquement leurs robes d'or- 
Stoilees d'yeux ou vemissees de pourpre, souverains incontestes dans un 
ieuple de petits oiseaux qui sautillent et se repondent." — Taine. 

The third Island, Isola dei Pescatori, is the most picturesque 
ature in all the views, and contains a crowded knot of 
shermen's houses. Lodgings may sometimes be obtained 
ore in summer. The islands may all be visited by boat 
1 one morning, if the visitor is dropped by one steamer 

Isola Bella, and goes on by the next to — 
VOL. I. 14 



2 TO ITALIAN CITIES. 

Baveno. {Inn. Hotel Bellevue, excellent, with pleasant 
garden and lovely views ; La Fosta.)* This is altogether the 
best point on the lake for a long halt. There is an English 
Church here. The walks behind the old church and its 
painted cloister into the chestnut woods, are delightful. A 
pleasant excursion may be made by water to the Convent of 
S. Caterina, overhanging the lake on the opposite shore. jf 

(Nearly opposite the Borromean Islands an arm of the 
lake opens towards the west, admitting a view of Monte Rosa. 
At the end of this gulf is Gravellona, whence the Simplon 
road runs up to Domo d'Ossola {Inn. Fosta), a thoroughly 
Italian town to those just coming from Switzerland, and de- 
voted with frantic enthusiasm to the worship of S. Filo- 
mena, a purely imaginary saint of the Catacomb of S, 
Priscilla, formed out of the discovery of the fragmentary in- 
scription — lumena pax te cum fi — near the skeleton of a 
female figure. 

On the way to Domo d'Ossola, at Vogogna, a road 
diverges upon the left to the Val Anzasca, perhaps the 
most beautiful mountain valley either in Switzerland or 
Italy. The richest foregrounds of walnuts, chestnuts, and 
vines, combine with the most glorious view of Monte Rosa. 
Artists will find their most attractive subjects at Castiglione, 
at Fonte-Grande, and at Macugnaga, which is 4389 ft. above 
the sea, and very close beneath the magnificent mass of 
Monte Rosa. This may be reached in four or five hours from 
Vogogna. At Ponte Grande and Macugnaga are excellent 
country inns.) 

Opposite Baveno is — 



n\ 



• Pension, lo frs. The charges for carriages, of 8 frs. the ist hour, and $ fr5. e»ety 
hour afterwards, are quite ludicrously extortionate for Italy, and should be made the 
subject of constant remonstrance. 



PALLANZA, LUINO. 211 

Left, Pallanza, an ugly town, very hot, and with a view 
very much inferior to that from Baveno. The Hottl 
Pallanza is a vast new building opposite a small island. 
Continuing to ascend the lake, we pass — 

Left, Lntni {Lnn. Leone (fOro), a large, dull town. The 
Marchese Pallavicini has a beautiful garden here. 

Right, Laveno (the steamers only stop here twice daily. 
bin. Posta). There is a view from hence of Monte Rosa, 

Right, Luino {Inns. Simplon, Vittoria). The birth-place 
(1460) of the painter Bernardo Luini, by whom there is a 
fresco in the church. The place has no especial beauty. 

Right, Macagno Inferiore, an exceedingly picturesque 
village. 

At the head of the lake is — 

Left, Locarno {Inns. Corona, Svizzero). This is the ter- 







La Madonna del Sasso. 



313 ITALIAN CITIES. 

minus of the S. Gothard railway (buffet at Station). There 
is nothing to see in the place itself, but good walkers should 
not fail to ascend the hill behind to the Convent of La 
Madonna del Sasso, founded in 1487. The convent is not 
remarkable, but by scrambling round some of the little 
paths behind it, a point may be reached — well-kno"v\Ti to 
our water-colouf artists — in which it combines with the cliffs 
and the deep wooded gorges in the foreground, and the 
mountains and still lake behind, in a manner which is truly 
enchanting. 

It is not generally known that Locarno was one of the first 
places to join the Reformation in Italy. Its inhabitants 
were required to embrace the Romish faith or submit to 
banishment, and as they preferred the latter, 200 families were 
driven from their homes, March 3, 1555, and forced through 
the ice-laden Alps, to take refuge in the Orisons. The papal 
nuncio had sent officers to seize the principal lady of 
Locarno, Barbara di Montalto, on a charge of blaspheming 
the mass, but she escaped by a secret door leading to the 
lake, while her pursuers were in the house. 



The beautiful Lake of Orta, the " Lacus Ubartus," is di- 
vided from the Lago Maggiore by the Monte Monterone which 
rises behind Baveno. It is about 6 m. long by i| m. broad. 
At the upper end of the lake is the picturesque but dirty 
town of Omegna ; at the lower end, on the eastern shore, is 
the charming little town of Orta. 

(Orta may be reached by carriage— (12 frs. with I horse) in about 
2j hours from Arona — and in about 2| hours, from Baveno, by Gravel- 
lona. It is a walk of some 7 hours from Baveno to Orta over the Monte 
Monterone. 

Travellers coming from Milan or Turin may take the branch-line of 
railway from Novara to Gozzano, whence there is an omnibus (i fr. 25 c ; 



ORTA. ?I3 

coupe I fr. 50 c. ) — by Bolzano, which has a castle of the bishops, and 
Buccione, which has an old castle — to Orta. 

Diligence from Gozzano to Omegna 2 frs. 50 c. Coupe 3 frs. ) 

Orta {hms. Ronchetti and Leone d' Oro, both good and de- 
lightfully situated) is a delightful little place, full of colour and 
beauty. The lovely lake laps in close under the windows, 
and the gardens are smothered in flowers. Close by rises the 
Sacro Monte, with its ascent by 22 chapels, with groups in 
terra-cotta, a minature of those at Varallo and Varese. 
Opposite Orta is the marvellously picturesque Isola di San 
Giulio, throwing bright reflections upon the water. It con- 
tains a very curious church with a grand old pulpit, and the 
grave of S. Giulio, who died here in 379. He is said to have 
delivered the island from a monstrous serpent, and the 
vertebra of a whale are shown in proof of it. 

Immediately opposite Orta, on the western shore of the 

lake (20 min.), is Fella, a village where mules (6 frs.) may be 

obtained for crossing the mountain ridge to Varallo, an 

excursion of about four hours. The path leads chiefly 

through woods, and has some good views of Monte Rosa, 

but the scenery has been rather too enthusiastically praised. 

Varallo may also be reached by carriage via Gozzano, Borgomanero, 
land Romagnano (where Chevalier Bayard fell, 1524). Those who 
come from Milan or Turin would leave the railway at the Borgomanero 
station on the No vara- Gozzano line. 

Varallo {Inns. Posta, Italia) is a most beautiful place, in 

ithe romantic valley of the Sesia, which rises near the foot of 

jMonte Rosa, and enters the Po near Vercelli. The town is 

embosomed in delicious chestnut woods, and has a lofty 

bridge of three arches, and several old churches, in one of 

vhich, J?. Gaudenzio, is an altar-piece, by Gaudenzio Ferrari, 

n six compartments.* On the wall dividing the nave from the 

* For an account of Gaudenzio Ferrari see chap. vii. 



214 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



choir of S. Maria delle Grazie, near the foot of the Sacro 
Monte, is a series of beautiful frescoes by the same master, 
executed 1510 — 15 13, illustrating the principal events in the 
life of our Saviour. 

Varallo is chiefly visited for the sake of ascending the 
extraordinary pilgrimage hill of the Sacro Monte, with its 50 
chapels. The design of this sanctuary first originated Avith 
the monk Bernardino Caimo, who died in 1496. The visits 
of S. Carlo in 1578 and 1584 afterwards gave zest to the 
work, and he sent to it Pellegrino Tibaldi by whom the 



'••f-^ 



r-^ 



Sr^^fer, 




Varallo. 

outer gate and the chapel of Adam and Eve were built. 
Many of the terra-cotta groups in the chapels are simply 
fantastic, others are really beautiful as works of art ; all are 
wonderfully vivid, and of a nature which lays hold of the 
imagination of the peasants who visit them, and fixes an 
impression for ever. Up to the representation of the Agony 
in the Garden, most of the groups are attributed to Giovm 



1 



VARALLO. 215 

<f Enrico, and the frescoes to Melchiorre Gilandini, bu 
Giovanni died in 1644, and other hands continued his work. 
The principal subjects are : — 

Adam and Eve — the Fall — as the need for the Coming of Christ. 

The Annunciation, 

The Visitation. 

The Nativity. 

The Circumcision. 

The Flight into Egypt. 

The Massacre of the Innocents (by Giacomo Bargnola di Valsolda). 

The Baptism in Jordan, 

The Temptation. 

The Woman of Samaria. 

The Healing of the Paralytic. 

The Widow of Nain. 

The Transfiguration. 

The Raising of Lazarus. 

The Entry into Jerusalem. 

The Last Supper. _ 

The Agony in the Garden. 

The Betrayal. 

The Trial before Caiaphas. 

The Trial before Pilate. 

The Trial before Herod. 

The Buffetting. 

The Flagellation. 

The Condemnation. 

The Cross-Bearing. 

The Nailing to the Cross. 

The Crucifixion (the beautiful frescoes here are by Gaudenzio 
Ferrari). 

The Deposition, 

The Burial. 
Between these, other minor subjects, and figures of saints, are occasionally 
introduced. 

(An excursion may be made from Varallo to Gressoney S. 
yean in the Val de Lys, an admirable starting-point for many 
mountain excursions, and where very tolerable accommoda- 
tion may be found.) 



CHAPTER XII. 
BERGAMO AND THE LAGO DTSEO. 

(By the quick train (8 frs. 35 c. ; 6 frs. 55 c.) it is only an hour's 
journey from Milan to Bergamo. There is nothing to remark upon the 
way.) 

BERGAMO is a most beautiful place, and must on no 
account be unvisited. It consists of an upper and 
lower town ; the former, the Cittd,, being the aristocratic 
quarter, surrounded by bastions and gates ; while the latter, 
called Borgo and Sottoborgo, are full of gay shops, chiefly 
jewellery, and possess some thriving silk-factories. 

(The Albergo d'ltalia is the best hotel, Albergo di Venezia is toler- 
able — both in the lower town. ) 

Bergamo occupies the site of the ancient Bergonum. Under the 
Lombards it was the seat of a Duchy. In the Middle Ages it espoused 
the Ghibelline cause and fought on the side of Milan against Lodi 
(1335) and Brescia (1337). 

In the 14th century it was ruled by the Visconti, in the beginning of 
the 15th by the Suardi, who sold the government to Pandolfo Malatesta, 
from whom it passed into the hands of Venice in 1428. After 1814 it 
shared the fate of the Austro-Lombardic kingdom. 

The painter most represented in the churches of Bergamo is Lorenzo 
Lotto, one of the leading disciples of Giorgione, wholly Venetian in his 
manner. Donizetti, the composer, was born at Bergamo in 1797. 

There is an old proverb which says ; — " II Bergamesco ha il parlare 
grosso e I'ingegno sottile." 

As early as 1370, Fazio degli Uberti wrote of the Bergamaschi as a 
people — " che grosso parla, ed ha sottil il senno." 



BERGAMO. 217 

It is half-an-hour's drive from the lower town to the upper, 
where all the principal objects of interest are collected in a 
small space around the Cathedral. 

The Lower Town consists chiefly of a long old-fashioned 
street, filled with gay shops, and ending in an open space 
called the Prato, where a famous fair is held, called the 
Fiera di Sant' Alessandro, which begins in the middle of 
August, and lasts for a month. It has existed ever since 
the loth century, and is greatly resorted to. Close to the 
church of S. Chiara is a tall column, evidently once broken 
to pieces, and the remnant of a pagan temple. An inscrip- 
tion on the base records the tradition that it was miracul- 
ously broken to pieces by S. Alessandro, the standard-bearer 
of the Theban legion, to confound the idolaters, and that it 
was afterwards set up again in his honour. An ancient basilica, 
dedicated to S. Alessandro, stood on this spot. A steep 
road leads from hence to the Cittk, which is entered on this 
side by the Porta S. Giacomo. The bastions, which are very 
handsome, are over-grown by snap-dragon and scarlet 
valerian and are planted with chestnuts, forming a most 
delightful promenade all round the walls, with grand 
views, on one side over the mountains, on the others over 
the immense Lombardic plain, which is like a great green 
sea from its masses of closely-planted mulberries, and an 
bntire flat — only the tower of Cremona breaking the long line 
^f faint distance. 

Within the Upper Town, the streets are narrow and very 
landsome, of tall stately houses. Here and there a spray of 
jine clambers over a terraced pergola, or some bright 
lowers relieve a dark balcony, or a bit of sculpture marks a 
eserted convent or oratory. Almost all the streets lead in 



2lS 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



time to the old Piazza Maggiore (now absurdly called 
Piazza Garibaldi), which is wonderfully bright and gay in 
its old age. It is a broad space paved with brick, between 
which stone pathlets lead up to a fine old fountain sur- 
rounded by lions. On one side is the unfinished Doric 
Palazzo della Ragione, begun from designs of Scamozzi, on 
the front of whose left wing is a figure of Bartolommeo 
CoUeoni. On the other side is the stately old Broletto, with 
arches and Gothic windows of grey stone, like an English 
abbey. In front of one of its pillars stands a statue of 
Tasso, who always regarded Bergamo as his native place,* 
and spoke of it as " patria " in his sonnets : his father was 
bom here. The upper floor of the Broletto contains the 
town library. A grand Ghibelline tower rises beside it. 




Piazza Maggiore, Bergamo, 



• "Terra che 1' Sevio lagna." — Rime, ii. 448. 
Also Lett. Ined. Ixxxii. Ixxxvi. cxxxi. When Tasso was imprisoned in S- Anna, 
Hergamo sent to the Duke of Este a lapidary inscription they bad long desired, witn 
a petition for his release. 



BERGAMO. 219 

"The very position of the Broletto teaches us a lesson. Forming on 
one side the boundary of the Piazza Pubblico, on the other it faces, 
within a few feet only, the church of S. Maria Maggiore, and abuts at 
one end upon the west front of the Duomo ; and to this singularly close 
— even huddled— grouping, much of the exquisite beauty of the whole is 
owing. No doubt S. Maria and the original cathedral were built fiist, 
and then the architect of the Broletto, not fearing— as one would fear 
now — to damage what has been done before, boldly throws his work 
across in front of them, but upon lofty open arches, through which 
glimpses just obtained of the beauties in store beyond make the gazer 
even more delighted with the churches when he reaches them than he 
would have been had they all been seen from the first. It is, in fact, 
a notable example of the difference between ancient grouping and 
modern, and one instance only out of hundreds that might be adduced 
from our own country and from the Continent of the principle upon 
which old architects worked ; and yet people, ignorant of real principles 
in art, talk as though somewhat would be gained if we could pull down 
St. Margaret's in order to let Westminster Abbey be seen ; whereas, in 
truth, the certain result would be, in the first place, a great loss of scale 
in the Abbey seen without another building to compare it with and 
measure it by ; and in the next, the loss of that kind of intricacy and 
mystery which is one of the chief evidences of the Gothic spirit. Let 
us learn from such examples as this at Bergamo, that buildings do not 
always require a large open space in front of them in order to give them 
real dignity."— ^V/r^^j- Brick and Marble in the Middle -Ages. 

Passing through the arches of the Broletto, we come at 
once upon S. Maria Maggiore, the CoUeoni Chapel, and 
the Duomo. 

S. Maria Maggiore is a grand Romanesque church of 
black and white marble. It was begun in 1134. The 
southern transept was added in 1360. On the north is a 
splendid porch, removed hither from the Church of S. 
Alessandro in the lower town, and consisting of three stages. 
In the lower, the red Verona pillars which support the wide 
portico, rise from magnificent lions, around which their 
whelps are playing. In the second tier is the figure of S. 
Alessandro on horseback between two other saints. In the 



220 » ITALIAN CITIES. 

upper story, which ends in a pyramid, are the Virgin and 
Child and two saints. The whole effect is most gorgeous 
and quite unique. 

" All the shafts except those in the upper division are of red marble : 
the highest stage of all is entirely of grey marble : in the middle stage 
all the moulded parts are of red, and the trefoiled arches and their span- 
drels of grey marble : the space at the back of the open divisions and 
the wall over the main arches of the porch are built in courses of red 
and white marble. All the groining is divided into diamond-shaped 
panels, composed alternately of black, red, and white marble, and all 
the cusping of grey. The construction of the whole is very weak, and 
depends altogether for its stability upon iron ties in every direction. 

"The approach to the porch, by seven steps formed alternately of 
black and white marble, increases the impressiveness of the grand door- 
way in front of which it is built, the whole of which is of whitish marble, 
whose carved surfaces and richly moulded and traceried work have 
obtained a soft yellow colour by their exposure to the changing atmo- 
sphere, and are relieved by one — the central — shaft being executed in 
purest red marble. There are three shafts in each jamb, cars'ed, 
twisted, and moulded very beautifully. These shafts are set in square 
recesses, ornamented, not with mouldings, but with elaborate flat 
carvings, in one place of saints, in another of animals, and with foliage 
very flat in its character, and mainly founded on the acanthus. 

"To the English eye these columns in the doorways are some of the 
most charming features of Italian architecture ; but they must be always 
looked at as simply ornamental and not as constructional features ; and 
perhaps in all doorways the shafts, being really incapable of supporting 
any considerable weight, would be better if, by their twisting and 
moulding, they were clearly shown by their architect to be meant to be 
ornamental only. In the Bergamo doorway the spaces between the 
shafts are so strong in their effect, though carved all over their surface, 
that any lightness in the shaft is amply atoned for. Such a porch as 
this northern porch at Bergamo is indeed a great treat to an ecclesiolo- 
gist, teeming as it does with ideas so fresh and new, and in a small 
compass giving so much of the radical points of difference between 
northern and southern Gothic, and at the same time offering so beautiful 
a study of constructional colouring, that it is impossible to tire of gazing 
at it." — Streefs Brick and Marble Architecture. 

The Southern Porch is of the same character as this, bi 

simpler in its details. 



S. MARIA MAGGIORE. 221 

The Interior has been greatly modernized, but is very- 
handsome. In the apse is a picture of the Assumption — the 
upper part with the Virgin and Angels, by Cavagna; the 
lower, of the apostles looking into the empty tomb, by 
Ercole Procaccini. The inlaid stall-work, begun 1520, is 
perhaps the most beautiful known anywhere, and approaches 
high pictorial art. The allegorical figures usually displayed, 
the arabesques, and the frieze of classical subjects, are by 
Alessandro Belli. Outer coverings are removed by the 
sacristan, who displays with just pride the wonderful work 
within, by Francesco Capo di Ferro da Bergamo. The sculp- 
tures in the choir represent the stories of Noah, Abraham, 
Lot, Samson, Joab, Amasa, &c. Beneath these, the Washing 
of the Feet, the Last Supper, and the Agony in the Garden, 
are by Alessandro Belli, from designs of Lorenzo Lotto. The 
four large subjects outside the screen, — the Deluge — the 
Crossing of the Red Sea— Judith and Holofernes (a won- 
derful effect of moonlight) — and the Story of David, are by 
Capo di Ferro. The picturesque effect of the choir is greatly 
enhanced by old tapestries suspended from the music 
galleries. A chapel on right of the high-altar has a beautiful 
picture of Christ in glory, with two choirs of adoring angels, 
and saints beneath, by Antotiio Buselli da Bergamo. The 
pulpit stair, by Camillo del Capo, 1603, is a splendid specimen 
of wrought-iron work. On the north wall is an immense 
resco of the tree of St. Francis, of 1347. Near the west end 

f the church, is the beautiful tomb of the excellent Cardinal 
Longo degli Alessandri, who died at Avignon in the reign of 
fohn XXI L, removed here from S. Francesco, with a modem 
Inscription in honour of his numerous benefactions to the 

own. Near this is the fine tomb of Donizetti, the musician, 



222 ITALIAN CITIES. 

ob. 1855, by the Swiss sculptor Vela of Lugano — Music is 
represented weeping for her loss. Opposite, is the tomb of 
another musician, Mayr of Bergamo, ob. 1845. 

Adjoining S. Maria is the Cappella Colleoni, with a 
beautiful front of coloured marbles, delicately wrought in 
arabesques, towards the piazza. Pagan and Christian orna- 
ments are strangely mingled. Julius Caesar and Trajan are 
among the busts : that of Faustina comes next to S. John. 
The little reliefs around the windows with scenes from 
Genesis, are perfectly lovely, and among the best works of 
Antonio Omodeo. The interior is much modernized, and 
I adorned with frescoes by Tiepoli. Opposite the entrance is 

I the grand tomb of Bartolommeo Colleoni, the great com- 
mander, who served the Venetian Republic, and whose famous I 
statue stands outside the church of SS. Giovanni e Paolo at ' 
Venice. His chief residence was near this, at Malpaga, 
where the old castle, in which he lived with the utmost splen- 
dour, still remains and may be visited. He died in 1475. His 
tomb, by Giovanni-Antonio Amadeo, or Omodeo, is absolutely 
magnificent. It consists of two sarcophagi, of which the 
lower rests on pillars supported by lions, and is adorned with 
statuettes of the sons-in-law of the hero as Hercules, Mars, &c. 
Above it are five heroes as watchers. The second sarcopha- 
gus, adorned with statuettes of the sons and daughters of 
Colleoni, supports the gilt statue of the knight. On the 
lower sarcophagus are beautiful bas-reliefs of the Annuncia- 
tion, the Nativity, and the Coming of the Magi ; on ihe 
upper, the Bearing of the Cross, the Crucifixion, and the 
Deposition. ^|| ' 

" Bartolommeo Colleoni was born, 1400, at Solza, in the district of 
Bergamo. His father, an eminent Guelph, having been driven out of 



i< 



CAPPELLA COLLEONI. 223 

Beigamo by Galeazzo Visconti, lord of Milan, took refuge with his 
family in the Rocca di P'rezzo, a castle on the banks of the river Adda, 
where he and his eldest son Antonio were murdered by four of his poor 
and exiled kinsmen, to whom he had given hospitality ; while his wife 
Riccardona, and his second son Bartolommeo, were detained as prisoners, 
and succeeded in escaping, only to be seized by Benzone, tyrant of 
Cremona, who imprisoned them for Antonio's debts which they were 
unable to pay. When Bartolommeo was at last set free, he became the 
page of Filippo d'Arcello, tyrant of Piacenza, and at the age of twenty 
commenced his military education under the famous Perugian captain, 
Braccio di Montone, and completed it under Jacopo Caldara, Carmag- 
nola, and Francesco Gonzaga. His wisdom in council and boldness in 
action enabled him to defeat the famous Condottiere Piccinino in a series 
of strategic operations, and gained him the reputation of rendering in- 
vincible those whom he led to battle, in consequence of which he was 
appointed leader of 800 horse by the Venetian Senate, and made com- 
mander of Brescia after the death of Gattamelata. Taken prisoner by 
Filippo Maria Visconti, and confined at Monza, he effected his escape 
to Landriano, where his soldiers received him with the wildest joy, and 
served with him in the Milanese army, under Ludovico Sforza, until he 
was recalled to Venice on the conclusion of peace. The last eighteen 
years of his life were spent at Bergamo, and in his castles of Malpaga, 
Romano, and Martinengo, guarded by six hundred veterans who had 
grown grey in his service, and surrounded by a company of ' savans ' 
and artists in whose society he delighted. The latest biographer * of 
this model Condottiere, who is not surpassed by Comazzaro or Spina in 
admiration for his hero, shows him to have been a pattern of every 
Christian and knightly virtue, truthful and disinterested, and though 
passionate and impetuous, ever ready to forgive his enemies and to 
j recognize their good qualities. He proves his piety by enumerating the 
chapels, churches, and convents which he built ; and by telling us how 
he ' transformed Romano into an Escurial, where he divided his time be- 
tween pious and military exercises, in the midst of his double troop of 
■warriors and monks, his young and old guard, which represented to 
I him his memories and his hopes.' " — PerkiiCs Tuscan Sculptors. 

Against the left wall is the beautiful tomb (also by 
Omodeo) of Medea CoUeoni, ob. 1470, only child of the 
[Commander, brought hither from the church of Basella on 
Ithe Sevio in 1842. 

• Rio, Art Chretien, vol. ii. 



224 ITALIAN CITIES. 

" This tomb is one of the most charming works of its kind in Italy. 
The simply-disposed recumbent figure of Medea, draped in the folds of 
a richly-embroidered robe, lies upon a sarcophagus whose front is 
adorned with an Ecce Homo and two mourning angels in relief, above 
which are placed statuettes of the Madonna, the Magdalen, and S. 
Catherine. A delicate string of jewels encircles her head, which lies 
straight upon an ornamented pillow, and a necklace is clasped about her 
slender neck. Her face is turned upwards, her eyes are serenely 
closed, and her arms peacefully folded upon her bosom." — Perkin^s 
Italian Sculptors, 

There is a pretty picture by Angelica Kauffmann in this 
chapel, of the Holy Family. 

The Duomo, originally built from designs of Antonio 
Filarete, was much altered in the 1 7th century. In the 3rd 
chapel on the left is a Madonna with saints, by Moretto. It 
is quite a secondary church to S. Maria Maggiore. 

Near this principal group is the richly gilt Church of S. 
Grata, with some good mosaic work. 

The pedestrian may vary his descent to the lower town by 
taking the charming road shaded by horse-chestnuts, which 
leads by the Porta S. Agostino. On the hill-side above this 
gate is the Church of S. Andrea, where, over the altar con- 
taining the relics of S. Domneoni, S. Domnoni, and S. 
Eusebia, is a fine picture of the Virgin and Child, with these 
saints, by Moretto. Outside the church is a curious rude 
stone pedestal with a metal canopy like a crown ; on the 
stone is a head, placed there, says the inscription, in 1623, to 
incite people to more fervent devotion to S. Domneone, who, 
after his head was cut off, carried it, and deposited it here 
with his own hands ! 

The ruined Church of S. Agostino, with its adjoining 
monastery, now used as a barrack, stand on a lofty terrace, 
backed by mountains of exquisite form and colour. The 



f 



ACCADEMIA CARRARA. 225 

front of the church has long Gothic windows filled with rich 
tracery. 

Turning left, beyond the Porta S. Agostino, and passing a 
pretty tavern-garden, we reach the Accademia Carrara, open 
from 12 to 3. It contains two collections of pictures : the 
first bequeathed by Conte Giacomo Carrara in 1796, the 
other by Conte Lochis. The pictures are, for the most part, 
more curious than beautiful, and they are ill-arranged and 
numbered. In the Carrara collection the best are — 

Sala II. 

70. Loi-enzo Lotto. Marriage of S. Catherine. 

92. 

93- 

loS- ) Moroni. Portraits. 
106. 
107. 
1 1 7. Girolamo Colleoni. Virgin and Child, with saints. 

120. Moroni. St. Jerome. 

121. Gaudenzio Ferrari. Virgin and Child. 

150. Palma Vecchio. Virgin and Child, with saints. 

151. Marco Basaiti. The Resurrection. 

In the room opening out of this — 

195. Beato Giustiniani. Portrait. 

198. Bartolomeo Vivaiini. St. Peter. 

199. Id. Virgin and Child (1422). 

200. /</. St. Michael. 

In the adjoining I^ochis collection are— 

ala I. 

3. Cesare da Sesto. The Four Maries . 

4. Giovanni Bellini. The Dead Christ. 
8. Galeazzo Rivelli da Cremona. Three Saints. 

10. Cima da Conegliano. Madonna and Child. 

11. Filippo Lippi. Virgin and Child. 
14. Cottignola. Madonna. 

VOL. I. 15 ■ 



226 ITALIAN CITIES. 

17. yacobello da Fiore. Madonna and Child, and six small pictures 
of the Life of Christ. 

25. Gentile da Fabriana, Virgin and Child. 

26. Sebastiano Lazzaro. Coronation of the Virgin. 

Sala II. M 

85. Vittore Belliniano. Male figure before a Crucifix. • ai 

95. Moretto. Holy Family. 
224. Francesco da Ponte, Nativity, and Christ crowned with thorns. 

Sala III. 

104. Franda. Christ bearing his cross. 
117. Girolamo Genga. Early Christian Baptism. 
128. Cima da Conegliano. Group of Saints. 
133. Titian. Virgin and Child. 
•135. Raffaelle. S. Sebastian. 
136. Perugino. Nativity. 
144. Moroni. Portrait. 

148. Bernardino Zenale. Virgfin and Child. 

149. Girolamo da Santa Croce. Virgin and Child throned, with saints. 
•154. Lorenzo Lotto. The Virgin and St. Joseph showing the sleeping 

Child to St. Catherine. 
156. Palma Vecchio. Holy Family. 

173. Correggio. Dead Portrait. 

174. Correggio. Madonna. 

183. Vittore Carpaccio. S. Roch. 
,* 184. Girolamo Giovenone da Vercelli (signed 1527). Virgin and Child, 
with the donors presented by angels. 

187. Giorgione. Portrait. 

189. Titian. Portrait. 
' .191. Sebastian del Piombo. Portrait. 

192. Andrea Mantegna. Portrait. 

193. Gentile Bellini. Portrait of a Doge. 
195. Perugino. Virgin and Child. 

200. Mantegna. Resurrection. 

Those who wish to continue their pictorial studies had 
better go on from here to visit the three churches of S. Ber- 
nardino, S. Spirito, and S. Bartolomen, all near together and 
rear this. In each there is a good work of Lorenzo Lotto 
the especial painter of Brescia. These churches are all in 



S. TOMMASO IN LIMINE. 227 

the Sottoborgo di S. Caterina, which is a mile distant from 
the Cittk, and also from the Borgo, where the principal 
shops and hotels are situated. 

" In the Lorenzo Lotto of S. Bartolomirieo, he has bestowed upon the 
Virgin and Infant Jesus such varied and contrasted movement, that they 
appear to be conversing with the holy bystanders, the one on the right, 
and the other on the left. And in that of S. Spirito, sparkling as it is 
with grace, we find the figure of S. John the Baptist, represented as a 
child, standing at the foot of the throne embracing a Iamb, and express- 
ing such natural and lively happiness, at once so innocent and so simple, 
and with a smile so beautiful, that, as we gaze upon it, we can scarcely 
believe that it could have been excelled by Raphael or Correggio." — 
Lanzi. 



Several churches should be visited from Bergamo by those 
who are interested in architecture and painting. About 
7 miles N., on the top of a hill, is the very curious little 
round church of S. Tommaso in Limine, supposed to be of 
;the 7th century. It has a cupola resting on the walls them- 
selves, and is surrounded by pillars with fantastically carved 
capitals. 

About 5 miles N.E. is Alzano Maggiore, where, in the 

parish church, is a very fine picture of the Death of S. Peter 

vlartyr, attributed to Lorenzo Lotto, but doubtful,* and in 

he sacristy, some good sculpture by Andrea Fantoni. In 

le church of Olera, about 5 kils. further on, is an altar-piece 

y Cima da Conegliano. 

At Trascorre, 14 kils. E. of Bergamo, is a chapel covered 

ith frescoes by Lorenzo Lotto. 



From Bergamo all travellers should proceed to the Lago 

* Rumohr. Drei Reisen, p. 320. 



228 ITALIAN CITIES. 

d'Jseo, which is much less known than the other lakes of Italy, 
but which, from the extreme variety of its mountain forms, 
and perhaps also from its narrowness, is in many respects 
the most beautiful of all. 

A small branch line (opened 1875) leads from Falazzolo, 
a station about 40 minutes from Bergamo, through an en- 
vineyarded country, to Sarnico, a pretty village at the foot 
of the lake, with an old wooden bridge where the river Oglio 
emerges from "it. The steamer starts on the arrival of the 
first train from Milan, and returns to Sarnico in time for the 
last train to Milan, which gives the Milanese from six to eight 
hours at Lovere. Any waiting time at Sarnico may be spent 
at the little Albergo Leone (TOro, which is much better than 
it looks outside. 

The water of the Lago d'lseo (Lacus Sebinus) is wonder- 
fully clear. At Sarnico you see all the fish swimming be- 
tween you and the white sand at the bottom, and, as you 
proceed, all the mountains are reflected in the deep-blue. 
On the right is Iseo {Inn. Albergo del Leone). Then we pass the 
Mezz^-Isola, an island, two miles long, very near the eastern 
shore, and occupied by a mountain, at the foot of which lie 
the two fishing villages of Peschiera d'Lseo and Siviano. The 
view is most beautiful at Tavernola (left bank), with its vine- 
hung pergolas and gaily-painted houses, beyond which the 
lake winds like a gulf between great purple precipices. On 
the eastern bank a road is cleverly engineered through a j 
succession of little tunnels under the rock. Passing Riva, 
we enter a wide bay, steam to the right to Fisogne, and then 
cross to Lovere, a most picturesque town, with the over 
hanging wooden roofs of Switzerland, united with the heav}- 
stone arcades of Italy, and beautiful mountain forms all 



J 



LOVE RE. 



229 



around. The walks and drives in this neighbourhood are 
quite lovely, and were the accommodation better, it would 
soon become a favourite resort, but the Inns {S. Antonio — 
Leone cTOro) are very indifferent. The principal church is 




Lovere. 

handsome, but its pictures second-rate. In the Palazzo 
Tadini is a gallery of indifferent pictures, and in its chapel 
. monument by Canova. It was at Lovere that Lady Mary 
Vortley lived from 1746 to 1757, and of which she wrote— 
I It is the most romantically beautiful place I ever saw in 
U life." 



CHAPTER XIII. 
CREMONA. 



I 



CREMONA may be reached from Milan by the branch- 
line from Treviglio (12 frs. 85 c. ; 9 frs. 70 c. ; 6 frs. 
15 c), or by other branch-lines of railway from Brescia or 
Piacenza. 

Cremona {Inns. Albergo del Sole, good, though of unpre- 
possessing exterior ; Italia) may easily be seen in a day, 
but should not be omitted. A hurried traveller may visit 
the town by taking a carriage at the station (i fr. 50 c. per 
hour) and driving, m turn, to S. Luca, S. Agata, S. Mar- 
gherita, S. Agostino, the Cathedral and Torrazzo, and S. 
Sigismondo. If he is not especially interested in the works 
of the brothers Campi, S. Agostino is the only church much 
worth seeing besides the Cathedral ; if he is devoted to that 
especial school, he may also visit S. Abbondio and S. Pietro 
al Po. The Cathedral and its surroundings form a most in- 
teresting and striking group, and are close to the Albergo del 
Sole. Tolemaco Biazzi has a capital curiosity-shop in the 
Contrada Corsi. 

Ancient Cremona was destroyed in four days by the soldiers of Vespa- 
sian. * The town was rebuilt in the 7th century by order of the Lombard 
King Agilulf. In the Middle Ages it was continually decimated either 
by civil wars or wars with its neighbours, Guelfs and Ghibellines making 



* Tacitus, Hist. iii. 30. 



i 



' CREMONA. 231 

its streets a perpetual battle-ground, till, in 1323, it was united by 
Galeazzo Visconti with the duchy of Milan, the city to which up to that 
time it had been most opposed. 

Cremona has gained a great reputation from the Cremona 
Violins, the manufacture of fiddles having been raised here 
to the highest pitch of perfection by members of the fami- 
lies of Amati, Guarnerius, and Stradivarius. A Stradivarius 
violin is often worth 10,000 frs, 

Cremona has its own School of Painting, which was at the 
I height of its fame in the i6th century under the brothers 
i Campi and their disciples. 

The family of Campi consisted of four individuals, who devoted them- 
selves without ceasing to art until they reached extreme old age. Giulio 
Campi (1500 — 1572), who may be considered as the head of the 
I Cremonese school, studied chiefly under Giulio Romano. He educated 
I his brothers Antonio and Vincenzio, who were considerably his inferiors, 
and his cousin Bernardino, who in a short time rivalled, and, in the 
opinion of many, surpassed his master. 

Even the greatest admirers of the Campi will be oppressed 
by the infinite multitude of their works in Cremona, and will 
turn with a sense of relief to the charming fragments of 
mediaeval architecture which may be found in its streets. 

"The rich array of buildings in elaborate brickwork is very striking ; 
ind the campanile of the cathedral, towering up high above the many 
3ther steeples, combines well with them in the general view, and helps to 
;onvert into a fine-looking city what is, perhaps, in its streets and houses 
generally, very far from being anything of the kind." — Streefs Brick and 
warble in the Middle Ages. 

Cremona rises out of the great green plain of Lombardy, 
ntersected by dykes and often flooded in winter, and 
lothed with white mulberries, whose leaves are picked early 
^ the season for the silk-worms, leaving the trees prema- 
-irely bare. The streets are very wide, but have a forlorn 



13* ITALIAN CITIES. 

aspect — in spite of the handsome palaces which frequently 
line them — and they are often grass-grown. Here and there 
a tall rich tower varies the monotonous outline. Once there 
were 87 churches, and there are still 44. 

On entering the town from the railway-station by the Porta 
Milano, we immediately pass on the left the Church of S. 
Luca, with a beautiful porch resting on pillars and lions of 
red Verona marble, and a handsome eight-sided baptistery. 
Just beyond is the handsome Palazzo Maggi, with a splen- 
did cinque-cento portal by Bramante Sacchi da Cremona. 
The whole front of this palace is very rich : under the roof 
are curious griffins as water-spouts. On the same side of the 
street is the ugly Grecian portico of 6'. Agata, concealing 
a fine brick church and tower of 1495. The interior is 
modernized. On the walls of the choir are the Martyrdom 
and Burial of S. Agata by Giulio Cajnpi (1537). 

"These are the first works of Giulio, executed in his youth, and are 
of such merit, that a practised artist could scarcely have done them 
better. ' ' — Vasari. 

Diverging from hence to the right, we reach on the left S. 
Margherita, filled with some of the last paintings of Giulio 
Campi, which were executed when Mario Girolamo Vida, 
Bishop of Alba, was prior of the adjoining monastery. The 
best are, Christ amongst the doctors, and the Circumcision. 
A little further, in a square of its own, is the stately Gothic 
brick church of S. Agostino, sometimes called ^. Giacomo 
in Breda, of 1558. The modernized interior is covered with 
Campi decorations. 

Right Aisle, 2nd CkapH. Barbatini da Como. Curious stucco 
figures of the Passion and Death of Christ. 

5M Altar. A beautiful 15th-century picture of the Madoniu and 
Child throned, an orange hanging above. 



I 



S. ABBONDIO, S. PELAGIA. 233 

tth Altar. P. Perugino. Madonna throned between SS. Peter and 
Antonio Abbate, with the inscription, ' Petrus Perusianus pinxit, 1494." 
This picture was carried off by the French and restored. 

High Altar. A. Mainardi, 1590. The Saviour with S. Augustine 
and other Saints. 

Left Aisle, ith Chapel. Gervasio Gatti, 1589. The Nativity. 

ind Chapel. Malosso. The Vision of S. Anthony. 

Between ^rd and ^th Chapels. Bonifazio Bembo. Very interesting 
fresco portraits of Francesco Sforza and his wife Bianca Maria Visconti, 
both kneeling. 

Among the other minor churches the most noticeable is 
S. Abbondio, sometimes called S. Nazzaro, which has a 
cupola painted by Giulio Catnpi and Malosso. In an ante- 
chapel is a copy of the Holy House of Loreto : the walls 
round it are covered with votive offerings. 

The Church of S. Pietro di Po (sometimes called 6*. 
Giorgio'), on the other side of the city, built 1549 — 1570, is 
perfectly filled with pictures of the Campi school, none very 
remarkable, also : — 

Left Aisle, 2nd Altar. Bernardino Gatti, 1569. A Nativity, with S. 

Peter present in his episcopal robes. 
Left Aisle, End. An enormous picture of the Murder of S. Thomas \ 
Becket, in Canterbury Cathedral — very unlike. 

The Church of S. Pelagia contains the monument of 
Girolamo Vida the Poet, celebrated by Ariosto : — 

" II Vida Cremonese, 
D'alta facondia inessiccabil vena," 

and by Pope :. 

" A Raphael painted, and a Vida sung : 
Immortal Vida, on whose honour'd brow 
The poet's bays and critic's ivy grow : 
Cremona now shall ever boast thy name, 
As next in place to Mantua, next in fame." 

Vida composed a hymn in honour of S. Pelagia. 



234 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



The Cathedral was begun in 1107, consecrated in 
1 1 90. The transepts were added 1342, the choir in 
1479. The magnificent fa9ade towards the piazza was 
begun in 1274, at which time the great porch and the rose 
window were built under Giacomo Porata da Cremona, but 
the other decorations of red Verona marble were not added 
till 1491. The statues and the great marble lions are by 
Sebastiano da Nani, 1560, The general effect is most 
picturesque. On the left of the entrance stands the Tor- 
razzo, on the right the Baptistery. Behind the Baptistery 
is the Bishop's Palace, of brick Gothic. The other side 
of the piazza is occupied by the Palazzo Pubblico, and 
another Gothic building of moulded brick used as a college. 




Porch of Cremona. 



The interior of the cathedral is greatly wanting in archi- 
tectural splendour, and the effect of the lofty transepts is 



I 



i 



CATHEDRAL OF CREMONA. 



^35 



entirely destroyed by the low arches which separate them 
from the rest of the church. The building, however, makes 
up in colour for what it wants in form, and is so entirely 
covered with frescoes and pictures as to form a perfect 
gallery of Cremonese Art. Lanzi considers it as a rival to 
the Sistine Chapel in its pictorial magnificence. The 
frescoes occur in the following order, beginning on the left 
of the nave : — 



The Meeting of Joachim and Anna. 

The Birth of the Virgin. 

The Annunciation. 

The Salutation. 

The Birth of Christ. 

The Circumcision. 

The Coming of the Magi. 
The Purification. 

The Massacre of the Innocents. 
The Fhght into Egypt 

Christ disputing in the Temple. 

The Last Supper. 

The Washing of the Feet. 

The Agony in the Garden. 

The Betrayal. 

Christ before Caiaphas. 

Christ before Pilate. 
Christ bound. 

Christ before Herod. 

Christ bearing the Cross. 
Christ faUing under the Cross. 
Christ nailed to the Cross. 
The great Crucifixion(at the west end). 
The Marys lamenting over the body 
of Christ. 

The Resurrection — very grand. 



Boccaccio Boccaccino, 1 5 1 4 . 



Francesco Bembo, 15 15. 

' Altobello Melone, 15 17. 

Boccaccino (turning to the other 
side of the nave). 



Altobello Melone. 

C. Moretti. 
Romanino. 

Pordenone. 
Bernardino Gatti. 



236 ITALIAN CITIES. 

On the vault of the Tribune is a grand figure of the Saviour between 
the four patron saints of the city (Imerio, Omobuono, Marcellino, and 
Pietro, by Boccaccino), 1506. On the side walls are the Triumphal 
Entry to Jerusalem by Bernardino Campi, and the Healing of the Cen- 
tunon's son by Antonio Campi — the painter is introduced in the fore- 
ground. The four modern frescoes are the work of Diotti. Over the 
high altar is the Assumption, the last work of Gatti (il Sojaro) ; he had 
intended to paint the 12 apostles beneath, but had a paralytic seizure 
when he had only completed three figures. After this he sketched in 
three more with his left hand, and then he died. 

Following the Chapels, beginning with the left aisle, are — 
2,nd Chape}. Holy Family, sculptured in wood, by Bertesi da Cre- 
mona, 1670. 
^rd Chapel. Gregory XIV. before the Virgin. Luca Cattapane. 

At the end of the transept, is a beautiful Madonna by Bernardino 
Ricca, of the school of Perugino : S. Dominic and S. Jerome stand 
before her, S. Anna is behind in shadow. Near this is a curious old 
tabernacle, with Christ rising from the grave and three saints. Close 
to the adjoining door, used as a holy-water bason, is a stone vase 
in which it is said that S. Albert used to knead bread for the poor. 
Beyond the door is a Pieta by Antonio Campi, Then, S. Michael by 
Giulio Campi, 1 5 66. 

The Chapel on the left of the High Altar contains a kneeling statue of 
Bishop Antonio Novasoni — " chiamato in cielo, 1867 ; " also — 

The Ascension. Malosso. 

{Over it) The Baptist. Antonio Campi. 

Baptism of Christ. Giulio Campi. 

{Over it) Birth of the Baptist. Giulio Campi. 

Herodias and her daughter and the Baptist. Antonio Campi. 

( Over it) Salome with the head of the Baptist. Giulio Campi. 

The Pentecost. Malosso. 

The crypt is fine : the pillars in the tribune are twisted. Here are 
shrines of all the local saints, and over the high altar that of SS. Mar- 
cellino e Pietro, with beautiful bas-reliefs by pupils of the famous 
Omodeo. 

In the Chapel on the right of the High Altar are — 
The Supper at Emmaus. Borroni. 



THE TORRAZZO. 



237 



The Washing of the Feet and (in 

lunettes) the Multiplication of 

Loaves. \ Giulio Campi. 

The Repentance of the Magdalen. 
The Raising of Lazarus. 



The Last Supper. 

The Magdalen in the Garden. 



Antonio Campi. 



Near this, in the Sacristy, is a wonderful picture of the Descent into 
Hades, by Altobcllo—K<lz.va. and Eve are the first to meet the Saviour 
and kneel at his feet. 

Entering the South Transept, we have, on the left, an Annunciation of 
Malosso. On the south wall, a fine fresco of Christ bound, Malosso. 
The Magdalene at the foot of the Cross, Boccaccino — the figure of Arch- 
bishop Sfondrato, the donor, is introduced. On the right wall, the 
Salutation, a very fine picture, signed " Gei^vasius de Gattis, dictus 
Solianus, 1583." 

Over the entrance of this transept is a triple picture representing the 
Triumph of Mordecai, the Petition of Esther, and the Death of Haman, 
by Antonio Campi. Turning to the right aisle of the nave, in the yd 
Chapel, are S. Fermo and S. Jerome before the Cross, by Luca Cattapane, 
1593. In the ind Chapel, St. Eusebius raising a person dead of the 
plague to life ; a sculpture in wood by Arighi da Cremona ; and, lastly, 
in the 1st Chapel, a most beautiful Pordenone of the Madonna, and saints 
who are presenting the donor. 



The Baptistery was built in 1 167. It is a very remarkable 
brick edifice, surrounded by ranges of narrow Lombard 
arches, and having an unadorned eight-sided cupola. The 
porch rests on lions. The font is of red marble. 

The Torrazzo was begun in 1283 to celebrate a peace 
between Cremona, Brescia, Milan, and Piacenza. It is 
396 ft high, and is said to be the tallest tower in Italy. "Its 
design is much like that of all the other brick campaniles in 
this district — a succession of stages of nearly equal height, 
divided by arcaded string-courses and marked with per- 
pendicular lines by small pilasters, and almost without 



238 ITALIAN CITIES. 

windows until near the summit." * It is celebrated in the 
distich : 

Unus Petrus est in Roma , 

Una Turns in Cremona. 

"The Emperor Sigismund and Pope John XXIII. went together in 
seeming amity to Cremona. There an incident had nearly taken place, 
which, by preventing the Council of Constance, might have changed 
the fortunes of the world. Gabrino Fondoli, from Podesta, had become 
tyrant of Cremona. He entertained his distinguished guests with 
sumptuous hospitality. He led them to the top of the tower to survey 
the rich and spacious plains of Lombardy. On his death-bed Fondoli 
confessed the sin of which he deeply repented, that he resisted the 
temptation, and had not hurled Pope and Emperor down, and so secured 
himself an immortal name." — Milinan^s Hist, of Latin Chistianity. 

Behind the Baptistery, a door (No. lo) admits one to a 
court-yard below, where, in a place called the Campo-Santo, 
is an extraordinary mosaic pavement, with allegorical figures 
of a Centaur, Faith, Cruelty, Piety, and Pity. 

The Palazzo Pubblico, of 1245, is supported by arches and 
adorned with two towers. In the interior is a chimney- 
piece, brought hither from the Palazzo Raimondi, — a work 
of Giov. Gasp. Pedoni (in 1502), of whom Cicognara 
says that "he treated the marble like soft wax. It has 
richly decorated Corinthian columns. A small medallion on 
one side encloses the likeness of Gian. Giacomo Trivulzio, 
governor of Milan. In the great hall two grand pictures of 

The Descent of Manna. Grassio Casaglio, 1 589. 

The Multiplication of Loaves. Luigi Miradori il Genovese. 

The best of the other pictures here is a Salutation oi Antonio Campi. 
In another chamber is a S. Lorenzo of Gatti, and a curious fresco of 
Platina kneeling before Sixtus IV., from the Vatican. 

In the plain beyond the walls, 1 mile from the Porta 

• Street. 



S. SIGISMONDO. 239 

Romana, are the deserted convent and the great Church of 
S. Sigismondo, built by Francesco Sforza, as a token of 
affection to his wife Beatrice, heiress of Cremona, daughter 
of Fihppo Maria Visconti, on the site of the old church in 
which he received his bride, Oct. 25, 1441. Those who are 
not utterly wearied by the Campi school within the walls may 
obtain a surfeit here. The walls are entirely covered with 
paintings by the brothers and their disciples. The most 
interesting picture is that by Giulio Campi, in which 
Francesco Sforza and Bianca Maria Visconti are presented 
to the Virgin and Child by S. Sigismund and S. Chry- 
santhus. The likeness of the artist is introduced under the 
figure of the last saint, and that of his mistress as S. Daria. 
The paintings round the high altar are by Camillo Boc- 
caccmo. 

"The Cremonese artists, painting as it were in competition, rendered 
S. Sigismondo a noble school for the fine arts. We may here study a 
.sort of series of these artists, their various merit, their prevailing tastes 
in the Correggio manner, their different style of adapting it, and their 
peculiar skill in fresco compositions. Camillo Boccaccino was the lead- 
ing genius of the school. His most remarkable works are the four Evan- 
gelists, seated, with the exception of S. John, who is standing up in a 
bending attitude with an expression of surprise, forming a curved outline 
which is opposed to the arch of the ceiling, a figure no less celebrated 
for its perspective than its design. It is truly astonishing how a young 
artist who had never frequented the school of Correggio, could so well 
emulate his taste, and carry it even further within so short a period ; this 
work, displaying such a knowledge of perspective and fore-shortening, 
having been executed as early as 1537. The two side pictures are also 
highly celebrated, representing the Raising of Lazarus, and the Woman 
taken in Adultery. In these histories, as well as in their decorations, 
the figures are arranged and turned in such a way, as scarcely to leave a 
single eye in the figures visible, for Camillo was desirous of thus proving 
to his rivals that his figures were not, as they asserted, indebted for their 
merit to the animated expression of their eyes lut to the whole com- 
position. 



240 ITALIAN CITIES. 

"The chapels of S. Sigismondo were all completed by Giulio Campi 
and his family. They contain almost every variation of the art, large 
pictures, small histories, cameos, stuccos, chiaroscuros, grotesques, fes- 
toons of flowers, pilasters, with gold recesses, from which cherubs of the 
most graceful form seem to rise with symbols adapted to the saint of that 
altar ; in a word, the whole of the paintings and their decorations are the 
work of the same genius, and sometimes of the same hand. This adds 
greatly to their harmony, and in consequence to their beauty, nothing in 
fact being truly beautiful that has not perfect unity. 

"As to Bernardino Campi, the church of S. Sigismondo inspires us 
with the loftiest ideas of his power. Nothing can be conceived more 
simply beautiful, and more consistent with the genius of the best age, 
than his picture of S. Cecilia playing upon the organ, while S. Cathe- 
rine stands near her, and above them is a group of angels, apparently 
engaged, with the two innocent virgins, in pouring forth strains worthy of 
Paradise. This painting, with its surrounding decoration of cherub 
figures, displays his mastery in grace. Still he appears to no less advan- 
tage in point of strength in his figures of the Prophets, grandly designed, 
for the same place ; although he seems more anxious to invest them with 
dignity of feature and of action, than to give strength and muscle to their 
proportions. Above all, he shone with most advantage in the grand 
cupola, with which few in Italy will bear a comparison, and still fewer 
can be preferred for the abundance, variety, distribution, grandeur, and 
gradation of the figures, and for the harmony and grand effect of the 
whole. In this empyrean, the vast concourse of the blessed, belonging to 
the Old and New Testament, there is no figure that may not be recog- 
nized by its symbols, and that is not seen in perfection from its own 
point of view, whence all appear of the natural proportion, though they 
are on a scale of seven braccia in height. Such a work is one of those 
rare monuments which serve to prove, that it is possible for a great 
genius to execute rapidly and well, for it was wholly conducted by Ber- 
nardino in seven months." — Lanzi. 

The fortress called Fizzigheitone, on the Po, is interesting 
as having been the first prison of Francis I. after his defeat 
at Pavia. 



241 



CHAPTER XIV. 
BRESCIA. 

(It takes % hr. by the quick train from Bergamo to Brescia (7 frs 
15 c; 5 frs. 20 c.). 
Jnns. Albergo d" Italia, very good ; Albergo Reale ; Gambero. 
Carriages. The course, 85 c. ; the hour, I fr. 25 c.) 

BRESCIA can be seen in a day, but it is a pleasant 
place to linger in. The traveller who wishes only to 
see the best may take a carriage from the station, and visit, 
between two trains, in the following order— S. Maria dei 
Miracoli, S. Francesco (for the picture of S. Margarita), 
the Palazzo del Municipio, Piazza del Duomo (for an idea 
of the two cathedrals — which recall the two cathedrals of 
Salamanca), the temple in the Museo Patrio, S. Clemente, 
the Raphael in the Museo Civico, and S. Afra. This can 
only be done before 12 o'clock. All the churches in 
Brescia are closed from 12 to 5, and after that there is no 
good light for the pictures. There is scarcely anything ex- 
cept pictures to be seen in Brescia. Travellers coming 
from the south will observe that all streets here are 
" Contradas," not " Stradas." Living is exceedingly cheap 
in Brescia. Pleasant excursions may be made thence to the 
Lake of Iseo. 

Brescia was the ancient Brixia, and as such is spoken of by Catullus 
VOL. I. 16 



242 ITALIAN CITIES. 

as the mother- town of Veronae (Veronae mater amatameas). In the 
Middle Ages, Brescia was repeatedly taken and retaken by the different 
Italian tyrants. In 1258 it fell into the hands of Ezzelino, who punished 
those citizens who opposed him by chaining them to a block of stone 
{pietra del gallo) in the open field and leaving them to perish of hunger. 
The tyrant himself died from a wound given by the sword of a Brescian, 
1259, at the battle of the bridge of Cassano. After the fall of the 
Scalas, Brescia fell into the hands of the Visconti, and through them be- 
came the most prosperous province of Venice. After the town was 
given up to the French at Cambray, the people rose and expelled the 
garrison. It was re-taken by Chevalier Bayard (who was wounded in 
the assault) and Gaston de Foix. The memoirs of Bayard speak of 
22,000 slain. In 15 16 Brescia returned to the Republic of Venice and 
remained united to it till 1797. In 1849, a rising of Brescia against the 
Austrians was cruelly punished by Marshal Haynau. 

The whole town of Brescia is like a picture-gallery for its 
native artists ; of these the chief were Moretto and Ro- 
manino. The churches are lined with their works, and 
depend entirely upon them for their interest, as they have 
scarcely any architectural beauty whatever. 

" Alessandro Buonvicino of Brescia, commonly called II Moretto di 
Brescia (1500 — 1547) has a style of his own. He adhered at first closely 
to Titian's manner, but afterwards adopted much of the Roman school, 
and by this means formed a mode of representation distinguished for a 
simple dignity, and tranquil grace and stateliness, which occasionally 
developed itself in compositions of the very highest character. In such 
cases he evinces so much beauty and purity in his motives, and so much 
nobility and sentiment in his characters, that it is unaccountable how 
this master should, till within the last few years, have obtained little 
more than a local celebrity. His colouring is colder than that of most 
Venetian painters, but not less harmonious. He is most successful in 
tranquil altar-pieces ; his talents not being adapted to the animation 
requisite for historical painting. . , . Moretto was distinguished by a 
child-like piety ; when painting the Holy Virgin he is said to have pre- 
pared himself by prayer and fasting. 

" Contemporary with Moretto, in Brescia, flourished Girolamo, called 
II Romanino, an artist who likewise confined himself principally to the 
style of the Venetian school, but who modified it in a peculiar manner. 
While Moretto distinguished himself by simplicity and repose, Girolamo] 



PALAZZO DEL MUNLCIPIO. 243 

displays in his compositions a fantastic and lively imagination ; occasion- 
ally also a certain grandeur of pathos, the more striking from the simple 
and almost slight treatment of his details. " — Kugler. 

"It cannot be denied that in loftiness of idea in his subject and 
nobleness of conception Moretto excels all the Venetians, except certain 
first-rate works of Titian. His glories are more dignified and majestic, 
his Madonnas grander in form and attitude, his saints, too, at times, 
very grand in character." — Burckhardt. 

An arcaded street at the end of the Corso del Teatro, 
which contains the principal hotels, will lead to the Palazzo 
del Municipio, where sight-seeing may begin. It was designed 
by Bramante, and begun in 1492 by Tommaso Formentone, 
who built the first story; Sansoimio executed the second story, 
and the finishing touches were given by Palladia. It is a 
beautiful specimen of cinque-cento. The council-chamber 
projects over open arches. The decorations are most 
delicately finished, the medallions of Roman emperors are 
by Gasparo di Milano and Antonio della Porta. 

On the opposite side of the '^\zz2jx is the Torre delF Orologio 
with a clock marking the 24 hours of Italian reckoning, made 
by Lod. Barcella in 1522. Two bronze figures above strike 
the hours. 

Hence we reach the Piazza del Duomo. The ancient 
building at the upper end is the Broletto, the palace of the 
Republic, begun in 1187 and finished in 1227. The terra- 
cotta mouldings under the cornice are very beautiful. 

"A large quadrangle is formed by the buildings, which has a cloister 
on two sides, and traces of another cloister on a third side now built up. 
The cloister still remaining on the east side is ancient and on a large 
scale : it opens to the quadrangle with simple pointed arches resting upon 
heavy piers, and a row of piers running down the centre divides it into 
two portions, so that it will be seen that its size is very considerable. The 
groining has transverse and diagonal ribs, the former being very remark- 
able, and, as not unfrequently seen in good Italian work, slightly ogeed ; 
not, that is to say, regular ogee arches, but ordinary arches with the 



244 ITALIAN CITIES. 

slightest suggestion only of an ogee curve in the centre. Of the external 
portion of the building the west front is the most perfect, and must always 
have been the most striking ; it consists of a building containing in the 
upper story five windows, the centre being the largest and probably once 
the Ringhiera ; to the south of which rises the great belfry of rough stone 
('Torre del Popolo '), and beyond that a wide building with traces — 
but no more — of original windows throughout ; north of the building 
with the five windows is a very beautiful composition executed almost 
entirely in finely-moulded bricks ; it has an exquisite door with some 
traces of fresco in its tympanum, executed mainly in stone, and a mag- 
nificent rose-window, above which is a brick cornice, which continues 
over the remainder of the west front and along the whole of the north 
side." — Street. 

The Duomo Nuovo was begun from designs of Giov. 
Baitista Lantana in 1604. The dome is the third in Italy 
as to size, only coming after St. Peter's and the cathedral 
at Florence. There is little to see in the interior. Over the 
3rd altar of the right aisle is a beautiful marble shrine con- 
taining the relics of the two Brescian bishops ApoUonius and 
Filastrius, removed hither from the crypt of the old 
cathedral. The picture over the high-altar is an Assumption 
by Zoboli. 

Close beside the new building rises the quaint Duomo 
Vecchio, a round church, dating from the 7th century. It is 
greatly below the present level of the soil, and is reached 
by two lateral staircases. The interior is much modernized. 
Near the 2nd altar on the right is the monument of Bishop 
Lambertus de Bohonia, 1349. At the end of the N. 
transept is the red marble tomb of Bishop Berandi, 1308. 
Over the high-altar is an Assumption of Moretto, 1526. In 
the Chapel of the Sacrament are five pictures by Moretto, 
three from the Old and two from the New Testament. 

Beneath this church, deep as it is, is another, now a crypt, 
the Basilica di S. Filastro, with three apses. The old 



MUSEO PA TRIO. 245 

cathedral is used for the six winter months, and the Duomo 
Nuovo is closed ; at Pentecost the reign of the new cathedral 
begins, 

"The new cathedral by the side of the old one is a building of no 
importance ; but it is at the least to the credit of its builders that they 
left the old one standing. But if the round church has not been de- 
stroyed, a vast deal of labour has been spent on the characteristic work 
of spoiling it. The upper round, the clerestory, has not been seriously 
meddled with, and it still keeps the majesty of its circular outline, 
having a far greater effect of spreading massiveness — the proper effect of 
a round building— than any of the round churches of England. But the 
lower range has been sadly tampered with, and the interior has been 
bedaubed to resemble Renaissance architecture. This makes the 
general look of the inside sadly disappointing. But the disappointment 
begins to vanish as soon as we make our way under-ground, and see the 
spacious crypt, with the endless variety of its columns and capitals of all 
manner of forms, some of them clearly classical ones used up again. 
This crypt proves that the round church of Brescia had, as all our round 
English churches have at present, a choir projecting to the east, but the 
choir to which the crypt belonged has made way to a late building on a 
much larger scale." — Freeman. 

In the "^xzzza. before the church is a fountain with an 
allegorical statue of the city — " Brescia arraata " — by 
Caligari. 

Close to the new cathedral is the Biblioteca Quiriniana, 
founded by Cardinal Quirini in 1750. It contains a 
number of beautiful illuminated manuscripts, some curious 
ivories, and the Cross of Galla Placidia, on which there are 
miniatures of the Empress and of her children Valentinian 
III. and Honoria. 

Passing through the Broletto and going straight on, one 
reaches, on the left, the 

Museo Patrio, arranged as an Antiquarian Museum, to 
enclose the remains of a Temple of Hercules, supposed to 
have been erected by Vespasian, a, d. 72. 



246 ITALlA^r CITIES. 

(The Museo is supposed to be open free from II to 3, but there are 
two Custodes, who each expect a small fee.) 

The Temple was excavated in 1820, up to which time 
only one Corinthian column, still the only perfect one, was 
above-ground. Now, the pediment and portions of many 
other columns are laid bare. The inner cella of the temple 
is enclosed as a Museum. The central chamber is occupied 
by all the Roman inscriptions (some are copies) found within 
the province of Brescia, and form an interesting collection. 
The right-hand room has mediaeval antiquities, some good 
specimens of majolica, and the tomb of Niccolo Orsini, 
Count of Pitigliano, a general under the Venetian Republic, 
who commanded the Venetian forces during the war which 
followed the league of Cambray, and died in consequence 
of his fatigues in defending Padua against the imperial 
troops. His sarcophagus bears a noble recumbent effigy, 
brought hither from his neighbouring castle of Ghedi. 
In the left-hand chamber are objects found among the 
ruins, six busts, fragments of friezes, &c., and the beautiful 
bronze winged Statue of Victory, the noblest ancient statue 
in Italy north of Florence. It was found in 1826 ; the shield 
and helmet are restorations. 

Descending in a direct line from the Museo Patrio, the 
fourth street on the left leads to 

S. Clemente (closed after 9 a.m.), which may rightly be 
looked upon as a gallery for the works of Moretto, of which 
it contains five of the finest specimens : — 

Right, 2nd Chapel. The five great virgins of the church. Cecilia 
stands on the middle with her organ, and leans over to address Lucia, 
who stands on her right, with her eyes in a dish ; on her left is the stately 
figure of Barbara looking out of the picture : behind are Agata with her 
breasts, and Agnes with her lamb. 



S. MARIA CALCHERA, S. GIULIA. 247 

L'ft, 1st Chapel. S. Ursula and her companions ; the central figure, 
holding a banner in either hand, is most stately and beautiful. 

2nd Chapel. S. Paul and S Jerome adoring the Virgin and Child. 
The infant Saviour is espousing S. Catherine, who kneels on the right ; 
on the left is S. Chiara. 

Tyvd Chapel. Melchizedek bringing bread and wine to Abraham. 

High Altar. The Assumption, with S. Dominic, S. Florian, S. Cle- 
ment, S . Catherine, and S. M. Magdalen looking on. The painter Moretto 
is buried amid his great works in this church. The bust over his tomb 
is by San Giorgio. 

A Street on the left, towards Porta Torlunga, leads to 
S. Maria Calchera, which contains — 

Lift, 1st Chapel. Moretto. The Magdalen anointing the feet of the 
Saviour. 

High Altar. Calisto da Lodi. Salutation. 

*Next Altar (right). Romanino. S. Apollonius, Bishop of Brescia, 
administering the Sacrament to a group of kneeling and most reverent 
recipients. 

Little Chapel under pulpit. Moretto. Christ rising from the tomb, 
with SS. Jerome and Dorotea. 

Very near the Porta Torlunga is S. Giulia. 

"Within the range of extensive buildings which go by the common 
name of S. Giulia -a suppressed monastery, now put, it would seem, to 
various uses, military and municipal — are three churches. One of these, 
Santa Maria in Solario, a square Romanesque building with an octagon 
top, shows itself in the street, but, unlike the usual rule of Brescia, the 
inside, except the crypt, hardly fulfils the promise of the outside. In 
truth, a small building of this kind, where there can hardly be any 
columns, allows of but little scope for display within, unless, like the 
buildings of its class at Ravenna, it is covered with mosaics. Far more 
important than this is another of the same group, San Salvatore, attached 
at a lower level to the worthless church of S. Giulia proper. Here, 
when we penetrate to it, we come to a genuine church of the basilican 
type. Two ranges of columns above and a crypt below exhibit the usual 
features of buildings of this class, columns with capitals of various 
kinds, classical and other, ranged as happened to be convenient." — 
Freeman, 

At the entrance of the Via Tosio is the Museo Civico, 



248 ITALIAN CITIES. 

occupying a palace lately bequeathed to the town by Count 
Paul Tosio. It contains a precious little Raffaelle and a 
few other good pictures, amid many inferior works. Among 
the best are — 

Entrance chamber. Romanino. Two frescoes — Mary in the rich 
man's house, and the Supper at Emmaus. 

Sala I. 

5. Vincenzo Viverchio, c. 1480. Angels crowning S. Niccolo da 
Tolentino, S. Roch and S. Sebastian at the sides. 
8. Calisto da Lodi. Holy Family. 

Sala II. 

14. Moretto. Herodias' daughter. 

16. Moretto. Supper at Emmaus. 

17. Romanino. Christ bearing^his cross. 
38. Moretto. Holy Family. 

Sala III. 

18. Moretto. The Pentecost, 
20. Cesare da Sesto. A Portrait. 

•22. Raffaelle. " Pax vobis." 

" The small so-called Pieta, belonging to Count Tosi at Brescia, repre- 
senting the risen Saviour with the crown of thorns, and in the act of 
benediction, appears to belong to the year 1505. The picture is charm- 
ingly executed, and in good preservation. " — KUgler. 

A passage lined with old prints and etchings, some of 
them very curious, leads from these rooms to a gallery of 
modern pictures. They are of little importance. There is 
a landscape of Massimo d'Azeglio. Among the sculptures 
are " Night and Morning," and " Ganymede giving drink to 
the Swan," by Thonvaldsen. 

In a room opening out of the court below are two fine 
pictures, removed from churches where they were ill seen. 
Moretto, The Virgin and Child in the clouds, with four saints 



S. AFKA. M9 

below, once in S. Eufemia; and Romanino, S. Paul with 
S. Jerome, S. John Baptist, S. Catherine, and S. Justina, 
brought hither from S. Giuseppe. 

Turning at once to the left from the Museum and descend- 
ing the street on the left, one passes (left) the closed church 
of S. Barnaba, then (left) one reaches 

S. Afra, which is one of the oldest ecclesiastical founda- 
tions in the town, on the site of a temple of Saturn, but was 
entirely rebuilt about 1600, and is very ugly. The frescoes 
are by Pietro Maria Bagnadore and Girolamo Rossi da 
Brescia, 1583. 

Beginning from the right, the \st Chapel contains, Cesare Areiusio, 
the Birth of the Virgin. 

2nd Chapel. Bassano, 1530, the Baptism of S. Afra by S. Apollo- 
nius, while SS. Faustinus and Jovita administer the Sacrament. 

^rd Chapel. Passerotto, Assumption. 

Chapel at the end of the aisle. Cesare Proccaccini, the Virgin with S. 
Carlo Borromeo and S. Latinus. 

Over the High Altar. Tintoretto, the Transfiguration. At the sides, 
Palma Giovane, SS. Faustinus and Jovita. 

Over the door at the end of the left aisle, 

* Titian. The Woman taken in Adultery — (there are several replicas 
in England) — the sacristan draws a curtain. 

" La figure du Christ est pleine de majeste ; elle exprime au plus 
haut degre la sagesse divine, incree, si superieure a la raison humaine 
et pourtant en si parfaite harmonic avec elle. La femme est de la plus 
grande beaute et d' an coloris oti le Titien parait s'etre surpasse lui-meme. 
Sa contenance est modeste, mais n'exprime ni confusion, ni repentir ; ce 
sont ses juges qui Font entrainee devant le Sauveur, et non pas le cri de 
sa conscience. A I'expression de ce visage, on sent que I'admirable 
pardon n'a point ete prononce, et que le miracle de la conversion attend 
encore le miracle de la misericorde. — Madame Sioetchine. 

2nd Chapel left. Paolo Veronese. Martyrdom of St. Afra, SS. Faus- 
tinus and Jovita lie with their heads severed in the foreground. The 
portrait of Paul Veronese is introduced. The picture bears the signature, 
" Paolo Cagliari, V.F." 



2SO ITALIAN CITIES. 

Returning a few steps, the first street on the left leads to 
S. Alessandro, which once contained a beautiful Annunci- 
ation of Fra Angelico. This is gone, but over the 2nd altar 
on the right is a beautiful picture of saints grouped around 
the dead Christ, by some early Umbrian artist unknown ; 
the predella, with five scenes from the life of the Virgin, 
is by Civerchio. 
Proceeding some distance, on the left is the large church of 
La Madonna, delle Grazie, now generally closed, and 
many of its pictures sold and dispersed. 

Reaching the Corso Vittorio Emanuele and turning to 
the right, the first side-street on the left leads to 
6'5. Nazaro e Celso, which contains : — ■ 

Over the Side Entrances. Foppa. The Martyrdoms of the patron 
saints. 

Right Aisle, \st Chapel. Moretto. The Transfiguration, with Moses 
and Elias. 

High Altar. A great work of Titian in five compartments. In the 
centre is the Resurrection ; on the left SS. Nazaro e Celso present Bishop 
Altobello Averoldi to the risen Saviour ; above is the Annunciation in 
two compartments ; on the right are S. Sebastian and S. Roch ; at the 
foot of the column to which the former is bound is the signature, 
"Ticianus faciebat, mdxxii." 

"The action of the divine Saviour is light, as becomes one who for 
his own virtue ascends from earth to heaven. Shining with an immortal 
radiance, he is seen illuminating a sky, loaded with dark clouds, which 
opening here and there, discover some traces of country faintly lighted by 
the rising sun. In an attitude becoming people who are awakening 
from being struck by sudden fear, are seen near the open sepulchre some 
soldiers in black armour, one of whom, placed in front of the picture, is 
admirably foreshortened, to make way for others more behind. The 
figures in this compartment are of the size of life, and rather less than 
those of the two sides, in one of which is S. Sebastian, bound like 
Marsyas to the trunk of a tree ; and the rope which ties the right arm 
cuts the flesh of it deeply, so tender and delicate is it." — Northcote's Life 
of Titian. 



LA MADONNA DEI MIRACOLI. 251 

Ltft Aisle, ^h Chapel. Moretto. The Nativity, with SS. Nazaro 
e Celso. 

2,nd Chapel. Moretto. The Coronation of the Virgin, with three 
saints and the archangel Michael beneath. 

Returning to the Corso Vittorio Emanuele, on the left 
is the rich cinque-cento portico of 

La Madonna dei Miracoli, built in 1480, and the richest 
church in Brescia. The decorations of the fa9ade are by 
Lod. Beretta. The church has five cupolas. The internal 
decorations are quite Venetian in character. 

* Right, 1st Altar. Moretto. S. Nicolas presenting two school-boys 
to the Virgin — a most beautiful picture. 

" This is an application of the religious character of this saint to por- 
traiture and common life, which is highly beautiful and poetical. St. 
Nicholas is presenting to the Virgin two orphans, while she looks down 
upon them from her throne with a benign air, pointing them out to the 
notice of the Infant Saviour, who is seated in her lap. The two boys, 
orphans of the noble family of Roncaglia, are richly dressed : one holds 
the mitre of the good bishop ; the other, the three balls. " — Jameson's 
Sacred Art, ii . 460. 

The next side-street on the left leads to 
.S". Francesco, founded in 1254, and retaining a Gothic front 
at the west-end, with a good rose-window. 

Right Aisle (between the 2nd and 3^^/ Chapels). An interesting 14th- 
century fresco (under glass) of the Lamentation over the dead Christ. 

*lrd Altar. Moretto, 1 530. S. Margaret between S. Francis and S. 
Jerome. 

High Altar. Romanino. S. Francis, S. Anthony of Padua, S. 
Buonaventura, and S. Louis adoring the Virgin and Child. 

Left Aisle, 1st Altar. Fraruesco da Prato di Caravaggio, 1547 (a very 
rare painter). Marriage of the Virgin. 

On the left is S. Domenico, full of pictures ; over the high 
altar the Presentation in the Temple, by Romanino. 
Just beyond, on the right, is the Torre della Falata, a fine 



252 ITALIAN CITIES. 

machicolated tower, built 1253. At its foot is a fountain, 
from designs oi Bagnadore, 1596. 

Turning right, the ist street on the left, leads to S. Gio- 
vanni Evangeiista, which, in its foundation, is the oldest 
church in Brescia, having been built by S. Gaudentius in the 
4th century, but rebuilt about 1600. It retains a Gothic 
front, and has a projecting porch; the interior is quite 
modem. It is filled with pictures. 

Right Aisle, ■^rd Altar. Moretto. The Massacre of the Innocents — 
the saved Saviour-Child appears in the clouds above. 

High Altar. Moretto. Madonna with SS. John the Evangelist, 
John the Baptist, Augustine, and Agnes. 

The Chapel of the Sacrament at the end of the left aisle is covered with 
frescoes of Moretto and Romanino. On the right are by Moretto : the 
Manna in the Wilderness and the prophet Elijah, — at the angles, Mark 
and Luke, — in the lunette above, the I-ast Supper, — in the arcades, 
half-figures of prophets. On the left, by Romanino, are : Jesus at the 
Pharisee's house, the Raising of Lazarus, — at the angles, Matthew and 
John, — in the lunette above, the Institution of the Sacrament, — in the 
arcades, Prophets. The little picture over the altar, of the three Mar)rs 
lamenting over the dead Christ, is by Giovanni Bellini. 

Baptistery. I*". Francia. Saints adoring the Trinity. 

Turning to the right, a broad street leads to S. Faiistino 
Maggiore. 

Right Aisle. Gambara. The Nativity. 

High Altar. The black and white 17th-century marble tomb by 
Carra of SS. Faustinus and Jovita, whose bodies were removed here in 

843- 

Cloister. A curious fi-esco by Cossale, of Faustinus and Jovita 
defending Brescia by flinging back the cannon-balls, when the town 
was besi^ed by Niccol6 Piccinino. 

Returning to the Broletto, a path (inaccessible for 
carriages) runs up the heights, immediately below the 
Castello, whence Haynau bombarded the town in 1849, ^^'^ 
leads to the fine convent and half-ruined church of iS. 



CASTLE OF BRESCIA. 253 

Pietro in Oliveto. The pictures described by Murray, and 
even by the usually accurate Gsell-fels, as existing in this 
church, were all removed to the Vescovado in 1848, and 
have never been here since. There is a picturesque wall 
in the cloister. In the view over the plain the great tower 
of Cremona is the most conspicuous feature. 

' ' The view from the castle of Brescia is indeed a noble one. And it is 
not a mere noble view ; it is a view on which the characteristic history 
of Italy is legibly written. It may almost remind us of the famous letter 
of Sulpicius to Cicero. With a single glance of the eye we look down 
on a crowd of cities, each of which was once an independent common- 
wealth, with its name and place in history. On one side are the spurs 
of the Alps on which we are standing, reminding us that there is a land 
beyond, from which Emperors came down to demand the crowns of 
Italy and of Rome. To the far east we get a glimpse of smaller hills 
on the same horizon, suggesting that the natural ramparts of Verona are 
not beyond our sight. But to the south the eye ranges over the bound- 
less plain of Lombardy, spreading like a sea, with a tall tower here and 
there, like the mast of a solitary vessel. Each of those towers marks a 
city, a city which once ranked alongside of princes, a city making war 
and peace, and containing within their walls the full life of a nation. 
The map seems to show that one of them is the mighty tower of Pia- 
cenza, and that another is the yet mightier tower of Cremona, the 
fellow-worker of Brescia in the great work of restoring Milan. We look 
out on even more than this. We have vividly brought home to us how 
near the great cities of Northern Italy lie to the Alpine barrier, the 
barrier which was so often found helpless to shelter them against the 
Northern invader. We think of all the conquerors who have crossed 
the mountains from Hannibal to our own day. And we go back to 
times earlier still, when the land which became the truest Italy was not 
yet Italy at all, when the Po was as truly a Gaulish river as the Seine. 
If the Alps themselves proved so feeble a barrier for the shelter of Italy, 
how far more feeble was the barrier which sheltered Etruria and Rome, 
when what is now Northern Italy was still Gaul within the Alps ! PVom 
such a point we may well run over the shifting fates of the land before 
us from Brennus to either Buonaparte. And, as our thoughts flit on 
beyond Po and Macra and Arno to the seven hills by the Tiber, we may 
feel thankful that the dominion of the last invader has become as much 
a thing of the past as the dominion of the earliest. 



254 ITALIAN CITIES. 

" Yet, though the great historic view of Brescia lies to the south, it may 
be well for him who stands on that height to turn his eyes to the north 
also. There is an aspect in the history, if not of Brescia, yet of the 
most renowiied man of Brescia, which makes us look alike northward and 
southward, which makes us span the space which lies between the Tiber 
and the Limmat. If Como looks beyond the Alps for her own deliverer, 
Brescia too looks beyond the Alps, not for a deliverer for herself, but 
for a place of shelter for the citizen she sent forth to deliver others. In 
the life of the Brescian Arnold his native city seems like a halting-place 
between his city of refuge at Zurich and his city of glory and martyrdom 
at Rome. We need not be harsh on either Pope or Emperor, in whose 
eyes a republican reformer could hardly fail to bear the guise of a heretic 
and a traitor. On the heights of Brescia we feel, as we look Romeward, 
a regret that it was at Swabian and English hands that he met his doom. 
But, as we look northward, we may feel comfort that it was a Teutonic 
and Imperial city which sheltered the man who, if he took his memories 
for hopes, could yet call back for a moment the days when Rome had 
not to seek her master either in a German King or in an English Pontiff. " 
— Freeman. 

The Brescians, not content with the innumerable works 
of their native artists in the churches, frequently employed 
them to paint the outsides of their houses in fresco. In 
the Strada del Gambaro, Romanino was employed in this 
way, but resigned the commission to Gambara when he gave 
him his daughter in marriage. The subjects are classical. 
In the Corso Palestra, a number of wall paintings of this 
kind remain, attributed to the Cavaliere Sabatti, but time 
and dirt have almost effaced the detail, and few will have 
patience to make out the subjects, though the general effect 
is agreeable and picturesque. 



I 
I 



CHAPTER XV. 
THE LAGO DI GARDA. 

(The Lago di Garda is not so often visited as the other Italian Lakes, 
yet the upper end of it possesses some magnificent scenery. Once or twice 
a week (the day changes) a morning steamer leaves Peschiera early, 
when visitors may ascend the lake in the day and return, as an excursion 
from Verona ; but, for those who are not pressed for time, the pleasantest 
way is to take the afternoon steamer at 4. 15 from Desenzano to Riva, 
sleep I or 2 nights at Riva, and return from thence to Peschiera, 
which will enable the traveller to see both shores of the lake. 

It is ^ hr. by rail, quick train (4 frs. 5 c. ; 2 frs. 95 c. ), from Brescia 
to Desenzano (omnibus 50 c, luggage 25 c). Hotel Mayer.) 

J~\ ESENZANO is a rather dismal-looking village in 

the low ground at the end of the lake. Those who 

sleep here will employ their time very well in making an 

excursion by boat to the promontory of Sermione, the Sirmio 

of Catullus. 

" Paene insularum, Sirmio, insularumque 
Ocelle, quascumque in liquentibus stagnis 
Marique vasto fert uterque Neptunus, 
Quam te libenter quamque laetus inviso, 
Vix mi ipse credens Thyniam atque Bithynos 
Liquisse campos et videre te in tuto ! 
O quid solutis est beatius curis. 
Cum mens onus reponit, ac peregrino 
Lahore fessi venimus larem ad nostrum 
Desideratoque adquiescimus lecto. 
Hoc est quod unum est pro laboribus tantis. 
Salve, o venusta Sirmio, atque hero gaude : 



2S6 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Gaudete vosque, O L'buae lacus undae 

Ridete, quidquid est domi cachinnorum. " — xxxi. 

Just where the almost-island of Sermione is connected 
with the main-land, is the fine old Castel Nuovo, built in the 
14th century by Alboino della Scala, and a famous subject 
artistically. Near the centre of the promontory, which is 
almost covered with olive-gardens, is the old Church of S. 
Pietro, with 14th-century frescoes ; at the northern end, 
whence there is a grand view down the lake, and in a most 
charming situation, are the Roman walls and vaults called 
Le Grotte di Catullo. 

A second excursion may be made from Desenzano to the 
Battle-field of Solferino (carriages with 2 horses to go and 
return, 15 to 20 frs. At the Inn at Solferino there is a Guide 
for the battle-field), marked from a great distance by the high 
Scaligeran tower called " Za Spia d^ Italia.'' The battle began 
at about 5 a. m. on the 24th of June, 1859, and was fought 
with varying success till 4 p. m., when the French succeeded 
in carrying Solferino, and repulsing the Austrians under 
Marshal Benedek. 

The Lago di Garda is the Benacus of the Romans, and 
marbles are still found on its shores on which one may read 
the word " Benacenses." It is the largest of the Italian 
lakes, being 37 m. long, and nearly 14 m. wide at its widest 
point. Its water is beautifully clear. The river Mincio 
passes through it, now called the Sarca before it enters the 
lake. 

" Hinc quoque quingentos in se Mezentius armat, 
Quos patre Benaco, velatus arundine glauca, 
Mincius infesta ducebat in asquora pinu." 

Virgil, .-^n. x. 204. 



LAGO DI CARD A. ' 257 

" Undique concurrunt volucres qusecunque frementem 
Permulcent Athesim cantu, quas Larius audit, 
Quas Benacus alit, quas excipit amne quieto 
Mincius. " Claudian, EpitJi. Pal. et Cel. 

On account of its straight course from N.N.E. to S.S.W. 
the lake has always been notorious for its storms, which rise 
and abate with equal suddenness, sweeping down it from the 
Alps with unbroken force, and often imparting the miseries 
of a sea-voyage to those upon the lake. One of its promon- 
tories is called " delle tempeste." 

"Anne lacus tantos? Te Lari maxime ; teque 
Fluctibus et fremitu assurgens, Benace, marine." * 

Georg. ii. 158. 

An old Italian proverb says — " Lago di Garda e Bocca di 
Calina porta spesso la rovina." 

The lake abounds in fish. According to their Italian 
names those found here include, Anguila, Aola, Barbio, 
Boza, Bulbero, Carpione, Cavazzino, Dorata, Faraguada, 
Gambero, Luzzo, Majarone, Majella, Roncone, Sardella, 
Scardova, Strega, Ternalo, Tinea, Trotta, Varone. 

The residents on the Lago di Garda have their own names 
for the winds. That which blows from Riva to Desenzano is 
called Sover, as coming from above ; that which blows from 
Desenzano to Riva, Ander, as coming from below. The 
winds which are most beneficial to the vegetation are the 
Montese. The Vinezza (a corruption of Venezia) is a damp 
injurious wind. 

In ascending the lake from Desenzano, we pass the little 
island of Lecchio, generally called Isola del Frati, where S. 

• " Here vex'd by winter storms Benacus raves, 

Confused with working sands and rolling waves ; 

Rough and tumultuous like a sea it lies, 

So loud the tempest roars, so high the billows rise." — Addison. 

VOL. I. 17 



258 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Frands founded a convent in 1220 on the site of a temple 
of Jupiter. It now belongs to the March ese Scotti of 
Bergamo. This is at the entrance of the beautiful bay of 
Salo {Inn. Gambero, good), which is charmingly situated at 
the foot of Monte Pennino. In the Church of the Annun- 
ziata are frescoes by Pietro Vecchio. Here we begin to skirt 
gardens of orange and lemon trees, which are more luxuriant 
than anything of the kind short of Sorrento. The pergolas 
which fringe the lake near the villages are covered with 
perfect cascades of roses, and brilliant scarlet geraniums 
cover the whole face of the houses, while large tufts of 
oleander wave their pink plumes near the water's edge. The 
ranges of tall whit; pillars of brick, often 20 ft high, which 
are used to support a protection for the lemons in winter, 
have a strange effect. The fruit here is more bitter than 
that of the south, but keeps longer. Its price varies, accord- 
ing to the season, from 3 to 10 frs. per hundred. Many of the 
villages are exceedin'^ly picturesque. Mademo (Matemum) 
nestles at the foot of Monte Pizzocolo, with the ruins of a 
castle ; Campione is buried in lemon-groves. In the church 
of Toscolano (Tusculanum) are pictures by Celesti, 1668, and, 
in its sacristy, a fine work of Dom. Brusasorzi. It is here 
that most ancient inscriptions have been found. CVrev is a 
large fishing village. 

After passing Gargnano {Albergo del Cervd) the character 
of the lake changes. The space between the mountains and 
the shore disappears, and the mountains themselves, no 
longer clothed with olives, descend in savage precipices to 
the water, only opening to admit the lovely lemon-gardens 
of Limone. As we approach in the evening, the lamps of 



I 



R/VA. 



259 



Riva cast long streams of light upon the dark water, and the 
precipices are unspeakably grand. 




Riva. 

Riva {Inns. Sole d'Oro, charmingly situated, but rather 
dear ; Giardino) is in Austria, so that a little custom-house 
awaits travellers on landing, and if they are only going 
thither for a day or two and returning, it may be as well for 
them to leave their luggage at the other end of the lake. It 
is also as well to take a little money in gold, as there is a 
loss on Italian notes here. It is a very picturesque little 
town, with open colonnades and an old clock-tower, and has 
a wonderfully mild winter-climate, in spite of the brief pre- 
sence of the sun, which disappears behind the mountains 
at 2 p. M. The little garden of the Sole d'Oro, with its 
meals al fresco, is very bewitching. 

No one should visit Riva without walking or driving 
along the western shore of the lake to the Ponal-bnicke 
(about I hr.). A wonderful road winds along the face of 



26o ITALIAN CITIES. 

the mountains, and hangs in mid-air amid the tremendous 
precipices over the lake. The flowers are most beautiful, 
and many very rare plants are found here. The Bridge 
itself only spans a small mountain brook, but there is a 
delightfully wild walk above it, and the gorge should be 
followed for some distance by the road which leads to Brescia, 
and passes the little Lago d'Idro. 

Other excursions may be made to the little Ledrosee in 
the Ledrothal, and Gmdicaria; the Castle of Tenno; the 
Tennosee and the Falls of Stenico ; the Toblinosee ; and Arco, 
with the old castle of its counts. 

(It is a drive of lo m. from Riva to the station of Mori, 
on the line from Verona to the Tyrol, and those who dread 
the lake voyage may take this way of seeing Riva. There 
is an omnibus twice daily by the harbour of the Torbole, 
the heights of Nago, and the Lake of Loppio. Those who go 
as far as Mori will miss much if they fail to visit Trent 
(Austrian), a most picturesque place, and of great historic 
interest from the Council of 1545 — 1563.) 

In descending the lake to Peschiera, artists will long to 
stop at Malcesine, where there is an intensely picturesque 
old castle upon an overhanging rock, said to have been 
built by Charlemagne. Goethe narrates how, while sketching 
here, he was nearly arrested as a spy by the Austrian govern- 
ment. In the church is a Deposition by Giolfino. On the 
two islands of Isolotto and Tremellone, there are ruins. 

Garda has a picture of S. Stephen by Farinati in the 
Church of S. Stefano, and the palace and garden of Count 
Albertini of Verona. It was in the castle called La Rocca 
di Garda that Adelaida da Savoia was imprisoned by 
Berengarius II., because she refused to marry his son 



PESCHIERA. 261 

Adalbert. With the help of a priest she escaped in a man's 
dress, and eventually married the Emperor Otho I. 

Peschiera (several small and very poor Inns in the town, 
nothing but coffee at the station buffet) is almost invisible 
until we enter the bastions which protect its harbour. 
Partly situated on an island formed by the Mincio where it 
issues from the lake, it has been strongly fortified by each 
succeeding government in Lombardy. In 1848 it was taken 
by the Piedmontese after a brave defence by the Austrian 
general Rath. Two-thirds of the buildings in the miserable 
town are barracks. There is no beauty in Peschiera. 

" Siede Peschiera, bello e forte arnese 
Da fronteggiar Bresciani e Bergamaschi 
Ove la riva intorno piii disease. " 

Inferno, xx. 70. 

(Near Fozzolengo, the station between Desenzano and 
Peschiera, is the Battle-field of S. Martina, where the Pied- 
montese routed the right wing of the Austrian army, June 
24, 1859.) 



V 



CHAPTER XVI. 
VERONA. 

ERONA is reached by rail in little more than I hr. 
from Peschiera. — 3 frs. 75 c. : 2 frs. 45 c. 



(Inns. Due Torri. Piazza S. Anastasia, admirably situated. Torre 
di Londra, Corso, also very near S. Anastasia. Aquila Nera, Piazza 
delle Erbe. Rainier, or Gran Farigi. Colomba dOro. 

Carriages, To or from the stations, 65 c, each piece of luggage 20 c. 
(Omnibus 30 c.) Course of not more than /4 hr., 60 c. ; night, 75 c. ; 
1 hr., ij fr. ; each following hour, i fr. 25 c. 

Stations. There are two stations at Verona, at which all the trains 
stop. Poiia Nuffva is on the side of Mantua and Milan ; Porta Vesco- 
vile on the side of Botzen (Germany) and Venice. It is therefore 
necessary not to leave luggage at the station at Verona, unless you mean 
to depart from the same station.) 

" Come, go with me. Go, sirrah, trudge about 
Through fair Y cxona." —Pomeo andyuliet, i. 2. 

The situation of Verona is most beautiful, and the 
cypresses and tall campaniles which rise amid the lower 
buildings, give it a southern aspect. 

'* I remember a city, more nobly placed even than Edinburgh, which 
instead of the valley now filled by lines of railroad, has a broad and 
rushing river of blue water sweeping through the heart of it ; which, 
for the dark and solitary rock which bears the castle, has an amphi- 
theatre of cliffs crested with cypresses and olive ; which, for the two 
masses of Arthur's Seat and the ranges of the Pentlands, has a chain of 



CHARACTERISTICS OF VERONA. 263 

blue mountains higher than the haughtiest peaks of the Highlands ; and 
which, for the far-away Ben Lodi and Ben More, has the great central 
chain of the St. Gothard Alps ; and yet as you go out of the gates, 
and walk in the suburban streets of that city — I mean Verona — the eye 
never seeks to rest on that external scenery, however gorgeous ; it does 
not look for the gaps between the houses : it may for a few moments 
follow the broken line of the great Alpine battlements ; but it is only 
when they form a back-ground for other battlements, built by the hand 
of man. There is no necessity felt to dwell on the blue river or the burn- 
ing hills. The heart and eye have enough to do in the streets of the city 
itself ; they are contented there ; nay, they sometimes turn from the 
natural scenery, as if too savage and solitary, to dwell with a deeper 
interest on the palace walls that cast their shade upon the streets, and 
the crowd of towers that rise out of that shadow, into the depths of the 
sky. That is a city to be proud of indeed." — Ruskin, Lectures on 
Architecture and Painting. 

"Pleasant Verona! With its beautiful old palaces, and charming 
country in the distance, seen from terrace walks, and stately balustraded 
galleries. With its Roman gates, still spanning the fair street, and 
casting on the sunlight of to-day the shade of fifteen hundred years ago. 
With its marble-faced churches, lofty towers, rich architecture, and quaint 
old quiet thoroughfares, where shouts of Montagues and Capulets once 
resounded, 

And made Verona's ancient citizens 

Cast by their grave, beseeming ornaments. 

To wield old partizans. 

With its fast-rushing river, picturesque old bridge, great castle, waving 
cjrpresses, and prospect so delightful, and so cheerful ! Pleasant 
Verona ! " — Dickens. 

Verona was an important town of Gallia Transpadana, 
and belonged either to the Cenomani or the Euganei, but 
very little is known of its early history. It has always pre- 
served its ancient name unchanged. Of the Roman period 
ihe amphitheatre and the gateways remain. It was here 
that Theodoric gained his victory over Odoacer, and for a 
time Theodoric made it his residence ; his palace is de- 
stroyed, but memorials of him remain in the reliefs in 
the facade of S. Zeno, while the rock-chapel behind 



264 ITALIAN CITIES. 

SS. Nazzaro and Celso dates from the time of the Ostro- 
goths, In the palace of Theodoric afterwards lived Alboin, 
the founder of the Lombard kingdom, who was murdered in 
574. Here also the famous Theodolinda was married to 
her first husband Autharis. In the beginning of the 13th 
century, the contests of the house of Este with the Ezzelini 
and Montecchi began at Verona the wars of the Guelphs 
and Ghibellines. As the Ghibellines gained the upper hand, 
Ezzelino da Romano became almost absolute sovereign of 
Verona, Vicenza, and Treviso, and maintained his power by 
wholesale murder and cruelty. Being wounded in battle at 
the bridge of Casciano, he was imprisoned at Castel Solano, 
where he hastened his death by tearing the bandages from 
his wounds. After the fall of the Hohenstaufens, Mastino 
della Scala * was chosen Podesta of Verona, and became 
so popular, that in 1262 he was made "Signore perpetuo." 
From this time, for 127 years, the condition of Verona re- 
flected the virtues and vices of the Scaligers. They were 
succeeded for a short time by Giovanni Galeazzo Visconti, 
Duke of Milan, after whose death, in 1405, Verona was 
united to Venice, and has since shared its fate. 

Verona is a place to linger at, and there are few places in 
Italy where so many different periods of history are still 
illustrated, or where more various branches of study may be 
pursued. 

" There is at once the classic Verona, the Verona of Catullus and 
Pliny ; there is the Verona of the Nibelungen, the Bern of Theodoric ; 
there is the mediaeval Verona, the Verona of commonwealths and 
tyrants, the Verona of Eccelino and Can Grande ; and there is the 
Verona of later times, under Venetian, French, and Austrian bondage, 

• The family name was originally Villani — they obtained the name of Scala from 
the fortune made by one of their family, a merchant of Montagna, who sold ladders. 



HISTORY OF VERONA. 265 

the Verona of Congresses and fortifications. Verona, like Le Mans, is 
an Ecbatana, spreading, circle beyond circle, each range having its own 
history and its own monuments. Of one of these ranges it is at first 
disappointing to find so little to remind us. When we think of the fame 
of Verona in Teutonic romance — how the city and the hero have each 
taken the name of the other, and how they have been fused together on 
Teutonic lips— we are inclined to wonder that ' Dietrich von Bern ' 
should have left such slight traces of himself in his own Dietrichsbern. 
But it is perhaps well that the surviving monuments of Theodoric and 
his age should be gathered together round the one spot which stands by 
itself in the whole world, and that the city which boasts of his church, 
his palace, and his tomb should not be exposed to rivalry from another 
city which, though it has come to bear his name, was, after all, only his 
occasional sojourn. It is perhaps well that, as Ravenna has no share 
in the earlier and later glories of other cities, as it boasts no arches or 
amphitheatres of heathen days, no palaces and churches of the later 
Christian ages, it should have its own intermediate age wholly to itself, 
and that neither Verona nor any other city should intrude on its special 
privilege as the bridge which joins together the two worlds which else- 
where are parted by so yawning a gap. Certain it is that, while Verona 
is so rich in remains of earlier and later times, it has not a single perfect 
building, nothing beyond doubtful portions of wall, which even pretends 
to belong to the age of Theodoric or to the ages immediately before and 
after him. Of his palace on the further side of the river, looking down 
on the city and surrounding lands, a contrast indeed to the site of his 
own home among the canals and marshes of Ravenna, the history 
can be traced down to our own century. But all traces both of the 
palace itself and of the many successive buildings which have succeeded 
it have vanished before the necessities of modern warfare and defence. 
As far as the great monuments of the city go, we leap from Gallienus 
and Diocletian to Henry the Third. The intermediate space is filled 
only by some fragments of wall, which, truly or falsely, bear the name 
of the great Charles, and by the single strange structure under the 
shadow of St. Zeno's minster, which calls itself the tomb of his son, the 
youngest Pippin, the first of the Frankish House who reigned over Italy 
as a separate kingdom. The series is not an uninstructive one ; Diocle- 
tian, Charles, and Henry each mark stages in the history of the Empire ; 
each was a restorer after a time in which its power and glory had fallen. 
It is well that the series should be formed by them, while Theodoric, 
with all the splendour and happiness of his Italian reign, stands rather 
as a break than as a link in the Imperial series. And when we reach 
the reign of Henry the Third, we cannot point with certainty to any 



266 ITALIAN CITIES. 

monument of his reign, except the unadorned lower stage of the great 
campanile of St. Zeno. All that gives that noble tower the character 
which is impressed on all the towers of the city for so many centuries is 
due to the stages which were carried up perhaps a hundred and thirty 
years later. Among the great buildings of Verona there is in truth a 
gap which spreads from the third century to the twelfth, and carries us 
at a bound from the amphitheatre in the days of Diocletian to the church 
of St. Zeno in the days of Frederick Barbarossa. To the architectural 
student indeed that church, the great example of what, in contrast to 
Pisa and Lucca, we may be tempted to call the barbaric form of Italian 
Romanesque, is alone worth a pilgrimage. It ranks as an example of 
its own style with Durham and Pisa and Speyer and St. Semin at Tou- 
louse. And far less stately, but hardly less interesting, is the little church of 
St. Stephen on Theodoric's side of theriver. Its main body ruthlessly 
disfigured, but still keeping its central octagon, its pillared crypt, the 
arcades of its upper and its lower apse, and the stone chair of the bishop 
still in its ancient place, it is a monument of the times when St. Stephen's 
disputed with the vaster Duomo on the other side of the river its right 
to hold the first place among the churches of Verona, as the seat of her 
bishops in life and their burying-place in death. 

" No less full of associations in their own way are the later buildings, 
the tall tower of the municipality, the palaces and tombs of the tyrants, 
the house that sheltered Dante, the castle looking forth so proudly on 
the northern mountains, the broad arches of the bridge that stems the 
rushing Adige, the long array of domestic buildings which make Verona 
one of the chief schools of architecture of its own type. For the admirers 
of that type there is the Duomo — containing also parts of earlier and 
better work — and the more striking pile of St. Anastasia, one of those 
vast churches of pointed arches without appropriate detail which we 
should welcome at Palermo in the days of King Roger, but which we 
look on with less respect when we remember that, when they arose, 
Westminster and Koln and Amiens were already risen or rising." — 
Freeman. 

For the benefit however of those who can only give one 
whole day to Verona, we will take the Piazza S. Anastasia 
(near which the traveller is almost certain to have selected 
his hotel) as a centre, and make an excursion from thence 
which will embrace all the principal objects of interest. 

The points which even the most cursory pilgrim must not 



ARTISTS OF VERONA. 267 

omit, are : — S. Anastasia, the Piazza dei Signori, Piazza delle 
Erbe,Tomb of the ScaUgers, Amphitheatre (S. Bernardino?), 
S. Zenone, Porta Borsari (S. Eufemia ?), Duomo, the Giusti 
Gardens — quite enchanting towards sunset, the Pinacoteca, 
and S. Fermo Maggiore. 

The pictures in the Churches and Gallery would not, with 
a few exceptions, be of any great importance out of Verona, 
but are exceedingly interesting here, being almost entirely 
by native artists. Of these, perhaps the most important 
have been Liberale da Verona (1451 — 1536), Girolamo dei 
Libri (1452 — 1555), and Francesco Morone (1474 — 1529) 
of the earlier period; and, following them, Carotto (1470 — 
1546), and Cavazzola. The works of Francesco Torbido, 
called " II Moro," a scholar of Giorgione, of Niccolb Giol- 
fino, and of Domenico Riccio, called II Brusasorci (1494 — 
1567), also always deserve notice. 

"In Verona two painters more particularly represent the golden 
period — Gianfrancesco Carotto, pupil of Mantegna, and Paolo Morandi, 
named Cavazzola, pupil of Francesco Morone ; to whom we may add 
Giolfino. " — Burckhardt. 

More than its pictures, we should study in Verona the 
works of its great architect Michele San Michele (1484 — 
1558) whose palaces and churches are still the chief modem 
ornaments of the city. 

" San Michele was a man of a most orderly and upright life, highly 
honourable in all his actions ; he was of a cheerful disposition, yet grave 
withal ; a man who feared God, and was so rigidly attentive to his 
religious duties, that he would on no account have commenced any work 
in the morning till he had heard mass devoutly, and repeated his prayers. 
On the first beginning any work of importance, moreover, he would 
cause the Mass of the Spirito Santo, or that of the Madonna, to be 
solemnly sung before any other thin^ was attempted. He was of an 
exceedingly liberal disposition, and so obliging towards his friends, that 



268 ITALIAN CITIES. 

they were as much masters of all he possessed as he was himself." — 
Vasari. 

The Corso ends in the fascinating little piazza which is 
closed by the glorious Church of S. Anastasia, one of the 
most perfectly beautiful Gothic buildings in Italy. It was 
built by the Dominicans in the 13th century — the time of 
the Scaligers. The fa9ade is still unfinished, but noble in 
its proportions. 

" The Church of S. Anastasia looks so beautiful at the end of the 
narrow street, whose dark shade contrasts with the bright sunshine which 
plays upon its lofty arched marble doorway and frescoed tympanum, 
and lights up by some kind of magic the rough brickwork with which 
the unfinished church has been left so brightly, that, as you gaze, thoughts 
pass across your mind of portions of some lovely painting or some 
sweeter dream; you feel as though Fra Angelico might have painted 
such a door in Paradise, and as though it were too fair to be real. 
There, however, it is, rich and delicate in colour, shining with all the 
delicate tints of the marbles of Verona, pure and simple in its softly- 
shadowed mouldings, beautiful in its proportions, and on a nearer ap- 
proach revealing through the dark shade of its opening, and over and 
beyond the people who early and late throng in and out, the vague and 
misty forms of the solemn interior. " — Street's Brick and Marble ift the 
Middle Ages. 

On the left of the church, over a gateway, is the beautiful 
Tomb of Count Guglielmo de Castelbarco, who died in 1320. 

" In this case the monument is supported on a large slab of stone 
corbelled forward and balanced upon the top of a thin wall. Four 
shafts with sculptured capitals, resting on the angles of this slab, sup- 
port four trefoiled arches, those at the ends wider than the others, and 
almost destitute of moulding save that the outer line of the arch has a 
broad band of delicate sculpture all round it. The arch terminates in a 
kind of small cross, and above on each side is a very flat pediment, 
moulded and finished on the under side with one of the favourite Italian 
arcaded corbel-tables ; the finish is a heavy pyramidal mass of stone 
riiing from behind the pediments. The four bearing-shafts are of white 
marble, all the rest of the monument of red. Within the four supporting 



S. AXASTASIA. 



269 



shafts stands a kind of sarcophagus, supported on the backs of couchant 
lions, very plain, but ornamented at the angles in very classic fashion 
and bearing a recumi^ent effigy." — Street. 




Tomb of the Count of Castelbarco. 



Within the Httle court, over the entrance of which rests the 
Count of Castelbarco, are three other beautiful mediaeval 
tombs. 

Close by is the little Gothic Church of S. Pietro Martire, 
of 1350. 

The Interior of S. Anastasia is 300 ft. long and 75 ft. wide. 
The colour is subdued and beautiful. The nave is separ- 
ated from narrow aisles by six pointed arches. Near the 
entrance are curious holy-water basons, supported on crouch- 
ing figures — " I Gobbi." They are full of quaint character ; 
that on the left is by Gabriele Cagliari, father of Paul Ve- 
ronese. 

Right, 1st Chapel. The ist altar is also the tomb of Giano Fregoso 
— early Renaissance — by Danese Cataneo, the Tuscan poet and sculptor. 



270 ITALIAN CITIES. 

^h Altar (Pindemonte), Francesco Caroto. S. Martin — quite mag- 
nificent in colour. 

Right Transept. Gir. dei Libri (also attributed to Fr. Morone). 
^Iadonna between SS. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas, with the donors 
— a very beautiful picture. 

•' Has strong reminiscences of Mantegna's altar-picture in S. Zeno." 
—Kugler. 

Right of Choir, 1st Chapel. Tomb of Federigo de Caballis, and 
above it, in fresco, by an unknown master, an excellent votive picture. 

2nd Chapel. Tombs of the Pellegrini Family, and two good frescoes 
— Madonnas enthroned. 

High Altar. Francesco Torelli. S. Peter Martyr. The splendid 
tomb of Cortesia Serego, 1432, brother-in-law and general of Antonio 
della Scala. The frescoes are by Pisanello. 

Left of Choir. Tomb of the Lavagnoli family, with frescoes probably 
by Pisanello, 1452 — 1455. 

Sacristy (Outside, over door). Falcieri. The Council of Trent — 
curious as almost contemporary. 

{Inside) Cavazzola. S. Paul and other saints. The Madonna carried 
up by angels. 

Cappella del Rosario. In the altar-piece Mastino II. della Scala, and 
his wife Taddea Carrara, kneel before the Virgin. 

Left Aisle, 2nd Chapel. Giolfino. The Saviour in glory, with saints 
below ; — S. George, standing in armour, points upwards with one hand, 
and in the other holds an inscription — " Quid bono retribua Dfio." 

Tomb of Gerardo Bolderio, 1500. 

A short distance down the Corso (left, behind the Hotel 
Torre di Londra) is the Piazza dei Signori, with a statue ot 
Dante by Zannoni (1865) in the centre, and surrounded by 
the most interesting mediaeval buildings. The Piazza is 
entered from the west, on which side are the Palazzo del 
Consiglio and the remains of the Palaces of Mastino I. and 
Alberto della Scala. At the south-west corner is the passage 
towards the Piazza delle Erbe, called II Volto Barbaro, 
where Mastino I. was assassinated by one Scaramello, above 
which there is now a statue of Scipione Maffei, the historian 
of Verona. From the east of the Piazza a street leads to the 



PIAZZA DEI SIGNORI. 271 

V\dJLi2^ Navona, having on the right the Palazzo della 
Ragione, on the left the Cortile Tribunale, From the north 
a passage leads to the Tombs of the Scaligers. 

The Palazzo del Co?isiglio, of the 15 th century, is attri- 
buted to Fra Giocondo (ob. 15 14). The bronze Annuncia- 
tion in the front is by Giova?iJii Campagna. The parapet 
is surmounted by statues of those whom Verona boasts as 
her citizens : — Pliny the younger, Cornelius Nepos, Emilius 
Macer, L. Vetruvius Cerdo, and Catullus, the especial poet 
of Verona as Virgil was of Mantua, 

"Mantua Virgilio gaudet, Verona Catullo." 

Ovid. Amor. iii. el. 15. I. 7- 

"Tantum magna suo debet Verona Catullo, 
Quantum parva suo Mantua Virgilio." 

Maj-tial, xiv. ep. 195. 

Modern times are represented by the poet Fracastoro, 
and the historian Scipione Maffei. Over the entrance are 
the words — " Pro summa fide sumus amor mdxcii " — an 
encomium of Venice upon Verona. 

In the palace are preserved several pictures illustrative of 
Veronese history, especially : — 

Titian. The recognition of the Lordship of Venice by Verona on 
the Piazza S. Marco, 1505 — most of the heads probably by Bonifaziv. 

" The Doge is represented on a throne, on each side of which are the 
Senators in red costume ; on the right, the Sclavonian guard ; on the 
left, in white silk habiliments, the councillors of Verona, delivering up 
the banner and keys of their city to the Doge. Above, in the clouds, is 
the Virgin, with S. Mark, and S. Zeno, the patron saint of Venice and 
Verona. In some parts of the picture (the figures of the saints, for in- 
stance) the hand of an inferior artist is easily to be recognized. The 
portrait-heads are, however, very excellent, and full of life." — Kiigler. 

The Palazzo della Ragione encloses the court-yard of the 
Mercato Vecchio, surrounded by Lombard arcades, and 



272 ITALIAN CITIES. 

with 'one of the most beautiful Gothic outside staircases 
imaginable. 

The magnificent brick Campanile is nearly 300 ft. high. 

" This wonderfully simple and grand erection rises out of a large 
pile of buildings, and for a short distance above their roofs is built in 
alternate courses of brick and a very warm-coloured stone, and then 
entirely in brick, pierced with only one or two small openings, and ter- 
minating with a most gloriously simple belfry stage ; the belfry windows, 
with their arches formed without mouldings and with the sharp edges 
only of brick and stone used alternately, are divided into three lights 
by coupled shafts of shining marble ; the shafts, being coupled one 
behind the other, and thus giving strength with great lightness, are veiy 
striking in their effect. They have, too, remarkably large balconies, but 
without balustrading of any kind. The upper and octangular stage of 
the campanile is I think comparatively modem, but perhaps rather 
improves the whole effect." — Streefs Brick and Marble in the Middle 
Ages. 

Passing under the arch at the north of the piazza we 
reach the Church of S. Maria Antica, the court -chapel 
of the Scaligers, now only remarkable for its tiny grave-yard 
surrounded by an exquisite trellis of wrought-iron, which 
contains their tombs. The Scaligers or Delia Scalas existed 
in Verona as early as 1035. In 1257 the brothers Bonifazio 
and Federigo della Scala were beheaded by Eccelino da 
Romano. Upon the death of Eccelino, Mastino della 
Scala was chosen as " Capitano del Popolo." After a wise 
and prosperous rule of 15 years, he was murdered 1277, in 
the archway called // Volto Barbara, on the other side of the 
Piazza dei Signori. His tomb is the first which we find 
here, — a plain sarcophagus with a cross ; it once had a 
canopy which has been removed. 

Mastino I. was succeeded by his brother Alberto I., ob. 
1301, who ruled wisely for 24 years and was gready beloved. 
His remains are believed to rest in a sarcophagus which 



TOMBS OF THE SCALIGERS. 273 

Stands on the ground, decorated with his figure, riding, with 
his sword in his hand. 

He was succeeded by his son Bartolommeo, who also ruled 
wisely for three years and died in 1304. His was the time 
of Romeo (dei Montecchi) and Juliet (Giulietta de' CapeUi). 
A nameless sarcophagus is attributed to Bartolommeo. 

Bartolommeo was succeeded in 1304 by Alboino, who 
shared the government with his more celebrated brother 
Francesco, the famous Ghibelline Can Grande (the Great 
Dog) della Scala, With these two chieftains Dante 
sought a refuge, and in the Divina Comedia he represents 
Cacciaguida as foretelling his retreat : — 

" Lo primo tuo rifugio, e il primo ostello 

Sara la cortesia del gran Lombardo 
Che in su la Scala porta il santo uccello ; 

Ch'avra in te si benigno riguardo, 
Che del fare e del chieder, tra voi due, 
Fia primo quel che tra gli altri e pifi tardo, 

Con lui vedrai colui che impresso fue 
Nascendo, si da questa Stella forte, 
Che notabili fien I'opere sue. 

Non se ne sono ancor le genti accorte. 
Per la novella eta ; che pur nove anni 
Son queste ruote intorno di lui torte. 

Ma pria che'l Guasco I'alto Arrigo inganni, 
Parran faville della sua virtute 
In non curar d'argento, ne d'affanni. 

Le sue magnificenze conosciute 
Saranno ancora si, che i suoi nemici 
Non ne potran tener le lingue mute. 

A lui t'aspetta ed a suoi benefici ; 
Per lui fia trasmutata molta gente, 
Cambiando condizion ricchi a mendici." 

" Can Grande, le plus illustre des Scaliger, faisait de son palais un 
refuge et un asile pour tous ceux que les revolutions politiques avaient 
bannis de leur patrie. Soignant les imaginations des proscrits dont il 

VOL. I. 18 



274 ITALIAN CITIES. 

recueillait I'infortune, il avait fait representer dans les divers apparte- 
ments qui leur etaient reserves divers syraboles analogues a leur destinee : 
pour les poetes les Muses, Mercure pour les artistes, le paradis pour les 
predicateurs, pour tous I'inconstante Fortune. 

" Une courtoisie aussi delicate en vers le malheur et le talent fait hon- 
neur i cette famille heroique et barbare, dont I'histoire est pleine de 
crimes et de gfrandes actions, comme celle des autres petits souverains 
italiens de la meme epoque. Les noms singulierement vulgaires des 
Scaliger semblent annoncer des moeurs brutales et sauvages. II est 
curieux de trouver une recherche d'hospitalite pareille chez des princes 
qui s'appellent Matin premier, Matin second, le Grand Chien (Can 
Grande). Ces Matins de Verone, comme les Mauvaises-Tetes (Ma- 
latesta) de Rimini, devangaient glorieusement le role dont on a trop 
exclusivement fait honneur aux Medicis. " — Ampire, Voyage Dantesque. 

Can Grande died in 1329, and his tomb surmounts the 
entrance to the church. 

"As early as about the year 1335, the consummate form of the 
Gothic tomb occurs in the monument of Can Grande della Scala. It 
is set over the portal of the chapel anciently belonging to the family. 
The sarcophagus is sculptured with shallow bas-reliefs, representing the 
principal achievements of the warrior's life, especially the siege of 
Vicenza and battle of Piacenza ; these sculptures, however, form little 
more than a chased and roughened groundwork for the fully relieved 
statues representing the Annunciation, projecting boldly from the front 
of the sarcophagus. Above, the Lord of Verona is laid in his long robe 
of civic dignity, wearing the simple bonnet, consisting merely of a fillet 
bound round the brow, knotted and falling on the shoulder. He is laid 
as asleep, his arms crossed upon his body, and his sword by his side. 
Above him, a bold arched canopy is sustained by two projecting shafts, 
and on the pinnacle of its roof is the statue of the knight on his war- 
horse : his helmet, dragon-winged and crested with the dog's head, 
tossed back behind his shoulders, and the broad and blazoned drapery 
floating back from his horse's breast, — so truly drawn by the old work- 
man from the life, that it seems to wave in the wind, and the knight's 
spear to shake, and -his marble horse to be evermore quickening its 
pace, and starting with heavier and hastier charge, as the silver clouds 
float past behind it in the sky. 

" . ... Though beautiful, the tomb is so little conspicuous or in- 
trusive, that it serves only to decorate the portal of tlie little chapel, and 
is hardly regarded by the traveller as he enters. When it is examined, 



I 



TOMBS OF TflE SCALIGERS. 275 

the history of the acts of the dead is found subdued into dim and minute 
ornament upon his coffin ; and the principal aim of the monument is to 
direct the thoughts to his image as it lies in death, and to the expression 
of his hope of resurrection ; while, as seen by the memory, far away, 
diminished in the brightness of the sky, there is set the likeness of his 
armed youth, stately, as it stood of old in the front of battle, and meet 
to be thus recorded for us, that we may now be able to remember the 
dignity of the frame, of which those who once looked upon it hardly 
remembered that it was dust." — Ruskin, Stones of Venice, iii. 72. 

The successor of Can Grande was his nephew Alberto II., 
who was succeeded by Mastino II. In his reign Parma, 
Reggio, Lucca, Bassano, Brescia, Vicenza, Treviso, and 
eventually Padua, acknowledged the rule of the Scaligers, 
yet owing to his vanity and to his abandonment of Ghibel- 
line for Guelphic politics, the decline of his family began 
with him. He died in 135 1, and his tomb occupies one 
corner of the cemetery. 

" The tomb which stands beside that of Can Grande, nearest it in the 
little field of sleep, already shows the traces of erring ambition. It is 
the tomb of Mastino the second, in whose reign began the decline of his 
family. It is altogether exquisite as a work of art ; and the evidence of 
a less wise or noble feeling in its design is found only in this, that the 
image of a virtue. Fortitude, as belonging to the dead, is placed on the 
extremity of the sarcophagus, opposite to the Crucifixion. But for this 
slight circumstance, the monument of Can Mastino would have been as 
perfect as its decoration is refined. It consisted, like that of Can Grande, 
of a raised sarcophagus, bearing the recumbent statue, protected by a 
noble four-square canopy, sculptured with ancient Scripture history. 
On one side of the sarcophagus is Christ enthroned, with Can Mastino 
kneeling before Him ; on the other Christ is represented in the mystical 
form, half-rising from the tomb, meant, I believe, to be at once typical 
of His passion and resurrection. The lateral panels are occupied by 
statues of saints. At one extremity of the sarcophagus is the Crucifixion ; 
at the other, a noble statue of Fortitude, with a lion's skin thrown over 
her shoulders, its head forming a shield upon her breast, her flowing 
hair bound with a narrow fillet, and a three-edged sword in her gaunt- 
leted right hand, drawn back sternly behind her thigh, while, in her left, 
she bears high the shield of the Scalas." 



276 ITALIAN CITIES. 

The successor of Mastino II. was Can Grande II., who 
built the Castel Vecchio and the bridge near it. He died 
in 1359, but it is scarcely likely that he was murdered by 
his brother (as stated by many authorities), as that brother 
was only 11 years old at the time. He was however suc- 
ceeded by his brother Can Signorio, who, on his death-bed 
in 1375, commanded the execution of another brother, Paolo 
Alboino, from fear that he might endanger the succession of 
his o^vn sons. His tomb is by the Milanese sculptor, 
Boninius a Compigliono, or Da Campione. 

''This monument is the stateliest and most sumptuous of the three ; 
it arrests the eye of the stranger, and long detains it, — a many-pinnacled 
pile, surrounded by niches with statues of warrior saints. 

"It is beautiful, for it still belongs to the noble time, the latter part 
of the fourteenth century ; but its work is coarser than that of the other, 
and its pride may well prepare us to learn that it was built for himself, 
in his own lifetime, by the man whose statue crowns it, Can Signorio 
della Scala. Now obsen'e, for this is infinitely significant. Can Mas- 
tino was feeble and wicked, and began the ruin of his house : his sarco- 
phagus is the first which bears upon it the image of a Virtue, but he lays 
claim only to Fortitude. Can Signorio was twice a fratricide, the last 
time when he lay upon his death-bed : his tomb bears upon its gables 
the images of six virtues, — Faith, Hope, Charity, Prudence, and (I 
believe) Justice and Fortitude." — Ruskin. 

Can Signorio was succeeded by his son Bartolommeo II., 
who was also murdered, 1381, by his half-brother, Antonio. 

"After this, the iniquities of the family could no longer be endured, 
Antonio endeavoured to fasten his own crime on the brothers Mala- 
spina and others. The accused fled to Milan, and persuaded its Duke, 
Visconti, to attack Antonio. Antonio was easily defeated, and banished 
from Verona. His son Guglielmo, and his grandson Brunoro, received 
the appointment of Vicar Imperial of Verona from the Emperor, but 
were never able to gain admittance to the city. The virtues of the 
early Scaligers had raised them to power : the vices of their descendants 
terminated their reign. The Veronese, disgusted with the Scaligers, 
voluntarily surrendered themselves to the Venetians in 1405." — Gaily 
Knight. 



TOMBS OF THE SC AUGERS. 277 

Nothing can be more picturesque than the whole group 
of monuments, standing as they do, close together, under 
the open sky, and in the midst of the busy town. 

" Avant de quitter Verone, j'y ai fait le soir une promenade qui me 
laissera un long souvenir. Je suis alle contempler le chateau-fort bati 

par les Scaliger Puis je suis venu de la forteresse des Scaliger 

vers leur tombeau. Les pyramides de sculptures et de colonnes etaient 
plongees dans la nuit, tandis que les figures equestres, blanchies par la 
lune, semblaient planer dans les airs comme le coursier-spectre de 
Lenore ou comme le cheval blanc de la mort dans I'Apocalypse. 

"La tradition sanglante m'est revenue ci la memoire en regardant 
scintiller les etoiles au-dessus de ces cavaliers de marbre ; il m'a semble 
qu'ils se mettaient en mouvement et que le fratricide poursuivait son 
frere a travers les airs dans le silence de la nuit. Bientot 1' illusion a 
cesse, et j'ai senti que tout, dans ce lieu funebre, etait immobile et 
froid, I'image des morts comme leur cendre, la pierre de leur arraure 
comme la pierre de leur tombeau." — Ampire. 

"The small burial-ground of Sta Maria I'Antica is fenced from the 
busy thoroughfares, which on two sides bound it, by an iron railing of 
most exquisite design, divided at intervals by piers of stone on whose sum- 
mits stand gazing upwards as in prayer, or downwards as in warning to 
those who pass below, a beautiful series of saintly figures. Within, a 
glorious assemblage of monuments meets the eye — one over the entrance 
doorway, the others either towering up in picturesque confusion above 
the railing which has been their guardian from all damage for so many 
centuries, or meekly hiding their humility behind the larger masses of 
their companions. 

" The monuments are all to the members of one family — the Scali- 
geri— who seem to have risen to power in the thirteenth century, and 
to have held sway in Verona until almost the end of the fourteenth. In 
this space of time it was, therefore, that these monuments were erected, 
and they are consequently of singular interest, not only for the excessive 
beauty of the group of marble and stone which, in the busiest highway 
of the city, among tall houses and crowds of people, has made this 
churchyard, for some five hundred years, the central point of architectural 
interest, but because they give us dated examples of the last pointed 
work during nearly the whole time of its prevalence in Verona. In the 
monument of the first Duke we see the elements of that beauty which, 
after ascending to perfection in that of another, again descends surely 
and certainly in the monument of Can Signorio, the largest and most 
elaborate of all, and, therefore, I am afraid, the most commonly ad- 



278 ITALIAN CITIES. 

mired, but the one which shows most evidence of the rise of the Re- 
naissance spirit, and the fall of true art. Nor is it, I think, to be for- 
gotten, as an evidence of the kind^of moral turpitude which so often pre- 
cedes or accompanies the fall of art, that this Can Signorio first murdered 
his own brother Can Grande II. that he might obtain his inheritance (?), 
and then, before he died, erected his own monument, and adorned it 
with effigies of SS. Quirinus, Valentine, Martin, George, Sigismund, 
and Louis, together with allegorical figures of the Virtues with whom 
he of all men had least right to associate himself in death, when in life 
he had ever despised them ; and the inscription, which records the name 
of the architect on this monument, does but record the vanity of him 
who was content thus to pander to the wretched Can Signorio's desire 
to excuse the memory of his atrocious life by the sight of an immense 
cenotaph. 

" The situation of the monuments, rather huddled together, with the 
old church behind them, the archway into the Piazza dei Signori on the 
other side, and the beautiful iron grille which surrounds them, the 
number of saintly and warlike figures, and the confused mass of pinnacle 
and shaft, half obscured by the railing, do, I verily believe, make the 
cemetery of Sta Maria I'Antica one of the most striking spots in the 
world for the study of Christian art in perfection. What either Cologne 
Cathedral, or Ratisbon, or the Wiesen Kirche at Soest is to Germany, 
the Choir of Westminster Abbey or the Chapter House at Southwell to 
England, Amiens Cathedral or the Saint Chapelle of Paris to France, 
that is the Cemetery of the Scaligeri in Verona to Italy, — the spot, /. e, 
where at a glance the whole essence of the system of a school of artists 
may be comprehended, lavished on a small but most stately effort of 
their genius. " — Streets Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages. 

Recrossing the Piazza dei Signori, let us enter the 
Piazza delle Erbe, the ancient Forum, now crowded with 
the huge white umbrellas of the market-women. On the 
side towards the Corso, in front of the Palazzo Maffei, 
is a marble Pillar, erected 1524 by the Venetians as a 
pedestal for the lion of S. Mark, which was thrown down 
in 1799, when the Venetian republic came to an end. 
Over the Fountain is a statue of Verona, with a scroll in- 
scribed — " Est justi latrix urbs h?ec et laudis amatrix." This 
is due to Can Signorio (1368), who also built the tower at 



THE AMPHITHEATRE. Vi<i 

the end of the square and adorned it with the first clock (now 
removed) which had been seen in Verona. At the comer 
of the Via Pelleciai is the Casa del Mercanii, built by Alberto 
della Scala in 1301, and adorned with a statue of the Virgin 
by Campagna. The small quadrangular canopied space and 
the Gothic market-cross marks the site of one more ancient, 
where the newly appointed Capitano del Popolo was pub- 
licly invested with his office and then addressed the people. 
The sentences of condemned criminals were delivered from 
hence. Most of the houses in this piazza were decorated 
with frescoes by Liberale and other masters, of which many 
fragments still remain. 

From the east end of the piazza, the Via Nuova (passing 
on the left a good Gothic house — No. 19) leads to the 
Piazza Bra (now Vittorio Emanuele !) which contains 
the famous Amphitheatre, called the Arena (entrance by the 
5th arch marked — " Ingresso all' Anfiteatro dell' Arena"). 

It is believed that the Amphitheatre was built under Dio- 
cletian. It is 106 ft. high, 546 long, 436 wide, and 492 
yards in circumference. The interior is wonderfully perfect, 
and its 45 tiers of seats (18 inches high, 22 wide) have been 
carefully kept in repair by immemorial custom. The num- 
bers sculptured on the outer arches to guide the spectators 
where to present their tickets are still in many cases quite 
legible. The arcades are let as shops to dealers in all kinds 
of wares, but the interior is still often used as an open-air 
theatre. An inscription commemorates the presence of the 
Emperor Joseph II. at one of these displays. 

" In the midst of Verona, in the Piazza di Bra — a spirit of old time 
among the familiar realities of the passing hour — is the great Roman 
Amphitheatre. So well preserved, and carefully maintained, that every 
row of seats is there, unbroken. Over certain of the arches, the old 



28o ITALIAN CITIES. 

Roman numerals may yet be seen, and there are corridors, and staircases, 
and subterranean passages for beasts, and winding ways, above-ground 
and below, as when the fierce thousands hurried in and out, intent upon 
the bloody shows of the arena. Nestling in some of the shadows and 
hollow places of the walls, now, are smiths with their forges, and a few 
small dealers of one kind or other ; and there are green weeds, and 
leaves, and grass, upon the parapet. But little else is greatly changed." 
— Dickens. 

Near the Amphitheatre, in the Piazza Bra, is the Palazzo 
della Guardia, built by Andrea Midano, a pupil of San- 
micheli. On the other side of the Portone della Bra are 
the Accademia Filarmonica and the Museo Lapidario, not 
of much importance. 

Passing these, we come into the end of the Corso, opposite 
the Castel Vecchio, built, together with the noble battlemented 
bridge over the Adige, adjoining it, by Can Grande II. in 
1355. The main arch of the bridge is said to be 160 ft. 
wide, and instead of being in the centre, it is on the side next 
the castle, and from it the other arches slope away to the north 
bank, in a strange down-hill kind of way. 

(The continuation of the Corso leads to the Porta Stuppa 
or del Palio, one of the noblest works of Sanmichele. 

" In this gate and the neighbouring Porta Nuova the Venetian 
Signori may be said, through this architect's genius, to have equalled the 
buildings of the ancient Romans. The gate of the Palio is of the Doric 
order, with columns of immense height and girth, and these columns, 
which are in all eight, are placed in pairs . . . The front is exceedingly 
wide and is entirely of rustic work, deeply cut, and having each projection 
not rough, but polished, the whole enriched moreover with decorations 
of great beauty ; the passage of the gate retaining the quadrangular 
form, but of an architecture which is new, fanciful, and very beautiful. 
On the inner front is a magnificent Doric loggia, and at the summit a 
Doric cornice richly carved. This was the last marvel performed by 
Michele San Michele, for he had only just completed the first range of 
columns, when he finished the course of his life." — Vasan.) 



5. BERNARDINO, S. ZENO. 281 

Close to the Castello, the Via S. Bernardino leads (left) 
to the handsome cloister and brick Church of S. Bernar- 
dino of 1499. Hence opens the celebrated Cappella Pelle- 
grini, the master-piece of Sanmichele. It was begun by 
Margaretta Pellegrini, who died in 1557, before it was com- 
pleted, recommending her heirs to finish the work, but 
they, from avaricious motives, took it out of the hands of 
Sanmicheli, and the details were finished by inferior archi- 
tects in 1793. However, Carlo Pellegrini carried out the full 
design of Sanmichele in 1793. 

" It is a circular building in the manner of our ancient temples of the 
Corinthian order, the material being that hard white stone, which in 
Verona, from the sound rendered by it while in the process of working, 
is called bi-onzo. . . Sanmicheli has given the circular form to the whole 
structure, insomuch that the three altars which are within its circle, with 
their pediments, cornices, &c., all turn in a perfect round, as does the 
opening space of the door. Above the first range of colums, Sanmicheli 
also constructed a gallery which is continued entirely round the chapel, 
the columns and capitals of the same being enriched with exquisite 
carvings, and every part in effect being decorated with foliage, gro- 
tesche, and other ornaments, all sculptured with indescribable care and 
pains. The door, a very beautiful one, has a quadrangular form outside, 
resembling, as Sanmicheli averred, an antique example which he had 
seen in some building at Rome." — Vasari. 

Hence, the Vicolo Lunga S. Bernardino leads to the mag- 
nificent Church of S. Zeno Maggiore or San Zenone. 

The original building on this site was erected in the 9th 
century by Bishop Rotaldus. The present church was built 
1 138 — 1 1 78. Within, it is a simple Latin basilica. The 
western fagade, in the Lombard style, has a single lofty gable, 
with a lean-to on either side. There is only one portal, 
with a canopy resting on pillars supported by lions. Above, 
is a great round window by one Briolottus, evidently in- 



282 ITALIAN CITIES. 

tended as typical of the wheel of fortune, as is evinced by 
the outer inscription : — 

En ego fortuna moderor mortalibus una 
Elevo, depono, bona cunctis, vel mala dono. 

And the inner : — 

Induo niidatos, denudo veste paratos. 
In me confidit si quis, derisus abibit. 

The bas-reliefs at the sides of the door are most curious. 
Below those illustrative of the Old and New Testament, on 
the left, are two warriors charging one another with lances, 
and a figure running another through with a sword. On the 
right is what is called the Chase of King Theodoric — " the 
Dietrich of the Hildebrand-lay and the Helden-buch." The 
dogs have seized upon the stag, and a demon waits for the 
huntsman, probably because he was an Arian. '* In these 
sculptures the character and habitual associations of the 
Lombards may be distinctly read."* Maffei quotes this as 
the first piece of sculpture in which the horseman rides in 
stirrups. The ancient bronze doors themselves are covered 
with reliefs. 

The beautiful Campanile of S. Zenone is quite detached 
from the church. Begun by the Abbot Alberic in 1145, it 
was finished 11 78. It is built of alternate courses of brick 
and marble. 

"The proportions of S. Zeno are so very grand, and its detail gener- 
ally so perfect, that I think it may be regarded as, on the whole, the 
noblest example of its class ; indeed, except the very best Gothic work of 
the best period, I doubt whether any work of the Middle Ages so much 
commands respect and admiration as this Lombard work. There is a 
breadth and simplicity about it, and an expression of such deep thought 
in the arrangement of materials and in the delicate sculpture, which with 

* Lindsay's " Christian Art." 



S. ZENO. 283 

a sparing hand is introduced, that one cannot sufficiently admire the men 
who planned and executed it. Beyond this, the constructive science was 
so excellent and so careful, that with ordinary care such a church as San 
Zenone would seem still likely to last for ages." — Street. 

The Interior, entered by descending 13 steps, is grand in 
its proportions. The nave is separated from the aisles by 
alternate piers and columns. The wooden and painted roof 
is very curious. The choir, which was rebuilt in the 15th 
century, is approached by a lofty flight of steps, which 
allows space for the crypt. On the right of the entrance is 
the ancient font by Briolottus, and opposite it a curious 
vase for holy- water called " Coppa di San Zenone." On the 
choir screen are ancient statues of Christ and the Apos- 
tles, much alike in type, but full of solemn expression. The 
2nd altar on the right has a canopy supported by columns 
banded together, and resting on a lion and a stag. 

" The interior of S. Zenone preserves the basilica form complete, and 
is remarkable for the two triumphal arches which span the nave, a third, 
as usual, admitting to the sanctuary, — as well as for the splendour of the 
crypt, supported by forty-eight slender columns, clustered, round and 
polygonal, surrounding the tomb, and for the three noble flights of steps, 
one of them leading down to the crypt, the other two, to the right and 
left, ascending to the presbytery, — the former occupying the breadth ot 
the nave, the latter that of the aisles. " — Lindsay's Christian Art. 

Aloft, in the choir, is seated the African S. Zeno, Bishop 

of Verona in the 4th century, said to have been martyred 

under Julian the Apostate, April 12, 380. His curious 

wooden statue sits in his episcopal chair, with a fish hanging 

from his rod, referring, not as local tradition says, to his 

passion for fishing in the Adige, but to the Christian symbol 

of baptism. Right of the High-Altar is the great picture 

of— 

Andrea Mantegna. The Madonna and Child throned, between SS. 



284 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Peter, Paul, and John; and SS. John Baptist, Laurence, and Benedict. 
" Rich architecture, adorned in front with festoons of fruit, surrounds the 
composition. The Madonna, on whose lap the infant is standing, is un- 
affected, dignified, and sweet. Some of the saints also have admirable 
heads, and are grandly draped. A lower series of subjects, which, since 
carried off by the French, have never been recovered, contained the 
Mount of Olives, the Crucifixion, and the Ascension." * — Kiigler. 

Of the frescoes scattered over the church, the best per- 
haps is an Annunciation on the triumphal arch, and the 
Virgin and Child, receiving a whole family, presented by 
their patron saints, on one of the walls of the presbytery, 
dated 1490 — probably by Stefano da Verona. 

The Crypt is supported by forty-eight pillars. It contains 
the stone sarcophagus of S. Zeno and many other tombs of 
early bishops of Verona. Through the Sacristy one reaches 
the beautiful brick Cloister. Its arches on the east and west 
sides are pointed, on the north and south are round. The 
coupled columns of red marble which support them are 
banded together at the centre. Amongst the tombs here 
are those of Giuseppe della Scala, and of Ubertino della 
Scala, who was Prior of the adjoining monastery. From the 
northern side of the cloister, the lavatory of the monks pro- 
jects into the court. 

On the right, facing the church, in front of a tomb of one 
of the Vico family, is a stone which is shown as the public 
Measure of Roman times. In the adjoining cemetery is a 
curious vault enclosing a sarcophagus ; a worthless modern 
inscription declares it to be that of King Pepin, who died at 
Milan, 810. The battlemented tower on the left of the 
church dates from the 9th century, and is believed to have 
been part of the palace of Pepin. 

Returning to the Castello by the Rigesta di San Zenone, 

• Copies of these are now here : the originals are at Paris and Tours. 






PORTA DEI BORSARI, S. EUFEMIA. 285 

we pass on the right the picturesque Oratorio di San Zenone, 
a charming "artist's bit." Following the Corso, we shall 
pass several of Sanmicheli's celebrated palaces. Such are, 
on the left, the Palazzo Canossa, built for Ludovico Canossa, 
Bishop of Bayeux ; and, on the right, the facade of the 
Palazzo Bevilacqua. Just beyond the Canossa is the Ionic 
Palazzo Portalupi, of the i8th century. 

A little beyond this, the Corso is spanned by the fine 
double Roman Arch called Porta del Borsari, which is 
believed to have been erected under Gallienus, c. 265. 

" The Greek features are still here, masking the Roman construction; 
over the actual openings, over the windows above them, we get un- 
meaning entablatures and pediments, stone pictures, so to speak, of real 
entablatures and pediments. This gives the front the appearance of a 

confusion of Greek and Roman ideas Still, with all this, the 

Porta dei Borsari is a striking object, the more so from the way in which 
it is hemmed in by modem buildings, which take away somewhat from 
its effect as a work of architecture. One wonders how it has lived 
through so many ages. It is almost more striking than the preservation 
of the gateway itself to see the small inscribed stones, which stand near 
it, remaining there in the crowded street untouched by the changes of 
sixteen hundred years. And it must always be remembered that the 
present gateway is simply one wall of the ancient structure ; the place of 
its fellow may easily be marked some way back, where a small piece of 
the wall, which is still to be seen in the adjoining side street, marks the 
place where the other wall of the gateway spanned the main street." — 
Freeman. 

To the right of the gate is the House of Gioljino, covered 
with faded frescoes by him. 

The next street on the left leads to the Church of S. 
Eufemia, a fine brick building dating from the 13th century, 
but entirely modernized internally. Over the side door is a 
faded fresco of S. Augustine in glory by Stefano da Zevio, c. 
1433, and, near it, a handsome tomb of one of the Veritk 
family, by Sanmichelt. The church contains : 



a86 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Right, yd Altar. Brusasorci. Virgin and Child with Saints. 
{At the end of Right Aisle). Cappella dei Spolverini. Caroto. 

" There is a small side-chapel in Santa Euphemia dedicated to St. 
Raphael. The walls are painted with frescoes from the story of Tobit ; 
and over the altar is that master-piece of Carotto, representing the three 
archangels as three graceful spirit-like figures without wings. The altar 
being dedicated to Raphael, he is here the principal figure ; he alone 
has the glory encircling his head, arid takes precedence of the others ; he 
stands in the centre leading Tobias, and looking down on him with an 
air of such saintly and benign protection, that one feels inclined to say 
or sing in the words of the Litany, ' Sancte Raphael, adolescentium 
pudicitise defensor, ora pro nobis ! ' Even more divine is the St. Michael 
who stands on the right, with one hand gathering up the folds of his 
crimson robe, the other leaning on his great two-handed sword ; but 
such a head, such a countenance looking out upon us — so earnest, power- 
ful, and serious ! — we recognize the Lord of Souls, the Angel of Judg- 
ment. To the left of Raphael stands Gabriel, the Angel of Redemption ; 
he holds the lily, and looks up to heaven adoring : this is the least ex- 
pressive of the three heads, but still beautiful. The colouring in its 
glowing depth is like that of Giorgione. Vasari tells us, that this pic- 
ture, painted when Carotto was young (about A. D. 1495) was criticized 
because the limbs of the angels were too slender ; to which Carotto, 
famous for his repartee, replied, ' Then they will fly the better ! ' — The 
drawing, however, it must be conceded, is not the best part of the pic- 
ture." — yameson^s Sacred Art. 

Left Transept. The fine tomb of Pietro Guarienti, 1404, removed 
from the centre of the pavement. 

Left, 1st Chapel. Moretto. The Virgin and Child, with SS. Ono- 
frio and Anthony. 

The Street at the back of S. Eufemia leads to the Duoftto 
of S. Maria Matricolare, which stands near the Adige be- 
tween the Ponte Garibaldi and the Ponte Pietra. ' 

The Cathedral is said to be founded on the site of a temple 
of Minerva. The original church on this site was repaired 
by the Archdeacon Pacifico, as is shown by his epitaph, 
before 846, which was the year of his death. 

In 806, when the Bishop's palace near S. Zenone was 



CATHEDRAL OF VERONA. 287 

burnt, the episcopal throne was removed hither by Bishop 
Rotaldus.* The existing cathedral was re-consecrated by 
Urban III. in 1187. The vaulting, begun in 1402, was not 
finished till 15 14. 

The magnificent Porch is of the 12th century. Its canopy 
is supported by pillars resting on noble griffins. The figures 
of Roland and Oliver at the entrance commemorate a 
groundless tradition that the church was built by Charle- 
magne, Roland (on the left) holds his famous sword in- 
scribed Du-rin-dar-da, but Oliver holds a staff with a ball 
suspended from it, such as, till lately, was shown as his in the 
monastery of Roncesvalles. Above the door is a relief — 
once coloured — of the Adoration of the Magi, with Faith, 
Hope, and Charity beneath. The small Southern Porch is 
also of great beauty. 

The Interior with its giant-like procession of red Verona 
columns is singularly beautiful and impressive.f Much of 
it was re-arranged by Sanmicheli, the choir by Giulio Ro- 
mano, 

Right, 2nd Altar. Andrea del Fino. Pieta. The Adoration of the 
Magi and saints beneath are by Libcrali. 

End of Right Aisle. The beautiful Gothic shrine and tomb of S. 
Agata, of red and white marble. 

Choir. Francesco Torbido, called 11 Moro. The frescoes' of the Life 
of the Virgin in the semi-dome and on the upper walls. " Not entirely 
due to Torbido, but executed after designs by Giulio Romano, who was 
then under Correggio's influence, and was striving to bring the realiza- 
tion of space of the latter into harmony with his own style in a manner 
worthy to be observed." — Burckhardt. 

Left, 1st Chapel. Titian. The Assumption. — "The way in which 

* The first cathedral was S. Stefano, whence the Bishops were expelled by Theo- 
dorlc, who was an Arian. They then made S. Pietro in Castello the cathedral, but 
returned to S. Stefano in 8oi, and remained there for five years. 

t See Lord Lindsay's Christian Art. 



288 ITALIAN CITIES. 

the single figure of the Virgin is borne up on the clouds without any 
attendant angels is here very beautiful. " - Kiigler. 

" The Apostles at the empty grave look upwards, full of emotion and 
adoration, to her who is soaring aloft alone." — Burckhardt. 

In one of the Apostles Titian has portrayed Michele 
Sanniichele, the Veronese architect, who was a great friend 
of his. 

Opposite the Cathedral is the little Gothic chapel of S. 
Pietro in Cathedra, with his seated statue. 

The Baptistery, or Church of S. Giovanni in Fonte, con- 
tains a huge font of red Verona marble, decorated with rude 
sculptures from the New Testament history. Through the 
Cloister we may enter the Biblioteca Capitolare, which was 
founded by the Archdeacon Pacificus. It contains much 
that is very curious, especially a Palimpsest of a 4th-century 
Virgil, under a Commentary on the Book of Job of the 8th 
century ; and the famous Palimpsest of the " Institutes of 
Caius," which was known to be the foundation of the " In- 
stitutes of Justinian," and which was discovered by Niebuhr, 
in 1816, beneath the Homilies of S. Jerome ! * Among later 
curiosities preserved here is the baptismal certificate of Prince 
Charles Edward Stuart — •' Roma, Ultima Decemb. 1720." 

Adjoining the Baptistery, approached by a cloister with 
quaint capitals, is the Church of S. Elena, which contains 
some curious tombs, and some pictures by early Veronese 
masters, 

IJberali. Madonna and Child. 
Falconetto. Christ at the Tomb. 
Moretto. Madonna and Child. 

The Vescovado (Bishop's Palace) contains a number of 
imaginary portraits of early bishops by Brusasorci, and a large 

* These, with all other known Palimpsests, came from the monastery of Bobbio. 



CASTEL S. PIETRO. 



289 



Crucifixion by J^acopo Bellini. In the court-yard is a statue 
by Alessandro Vittoria. The columns of the portico have 
some curious caoitals. 




Verona, on the Adige. 



We must now cross the Adige by the Ponte Fietra, from 
which a flight of steps leads up the hill to the Castel S. 
Pietro (now a barrack). It occupies the site of the Palace 
of Theodoric, which was a magnificent building surmounted 
by an equestrian statue of the Emperor Zeno, of such size 
that " birds flew in and out of the distended nostrils of the 
horse, and built their nests in his belly." * Theodoric lived 
alternately here and at Ravenna, and while here embellished 
Verona with many noble buildings. In the same palace 
lived afterwards, Alboin, who founded the Lombard king- 
dom, and here he forced his miserable wife Rosmunda to 
drink from the skull of her father whom he had killed with 
his own hand. Alfieri makes Rosmunda say — 



seal. 



Agnelli. Liber Pontificalis, pt. II. ch. ii. The palace is represented on a town 
I. 19 



290 ITALIAN CITIES. 

"e di vivande e vino 

Carco, nol veggio (ahi fera orrida vista !) 

Bere a sorsi lentissimi nel teschio 

Dell'ucciso mio padre ? inde inviarmi 

D'abborrita bevanda ridondante 

L' orrida tazza ? E negli orecchi sempre 

Quel sanguinoso derisor suo invito 

A me non suona? Ampio ei dicea : ' Col padre 

' Bevi, Rosmunda ! '" — Tragedk, Rosmunda. 

Here also, in 905, the Emperor Louis III. was seized by 
the mercenaries of Berengarius, and his eyes were put out. 
Berengarius himself was assassinated here, and his remains 
were said to be preserved in a sarcophagus at the foot of 
the steps leading to the terrace of the new castle. From 
this and from the further fortress — Castel S. Felice, there 
is a very fine view. 

Left of the bridge, is the Church of S. Stefano, once the 
cathedral of Verona. The church dates from the 6th cen- 
tury, but is modernized. The central tower is octagonal. 
In the interior a great flight of steps leading to the choir 
leaves space for the crypt, where many of the early bishops 
were originally buried. In a chapel on the right of the nave 
are two modern tombs to five bishops and forty martyrs ! 
The sarcophagus, once in the crypt, of Placidia, daughter of 
Valentinian III. and Eudoxia, and wife of Olibrius, Em- 
peror of the East, with that attributed to the patrician Mar- 
cian (a. d. 427), are now enclosed in modern altars, for, as 
the custode explains, " In Verona se venerano questi come 
santi." Behind the high altar is the bishop's throne. On 
the left, at the top of the steps, is a curious statue of S. 
Peter, brought hither by the Austrians from the old church 
of S. Pietro in Castello : it is proposed to remove this to the 
Museum. Many curious fragments of frescoes were laid 



^•. GIORGIO IN BRAID A. S. GIOVANNI IN VALLE. 291 

bare in 1848, and if the proposed restoration of S. Stefano 
it carried out by the municipality, much of value will doubt- 
less be discovered. Among the pictures are : — 

Right Transept. Giovanni Caroto. Virgin and Child, with SS. Peter 
and Andrew. 

Left, yrd Chapel. Titian. Virgin and Child, with four saints. 

Beyond S. Stefano is the Church of S. Giorgio in Braida, 
built 1477 by Sanmicheli. It contains : — 

Over Entrance. Tintoretto. Baptism of Christ. 

Right, 2,rd Altar. Id. Descent of the Holy Ghost. 

*4//4 Altar. Brusasorci. The Three Archangels. 

High Altar. Paul Veronese. S. George — a magnificent work of the 
master. 

Left, ^th Altar (under the organ). Romanino Buonvicino, 1540. The 
Glory of the Virgin, with SS. Cecilia, Agnes, Agatha, and Lucy. 

*Lefi, /^th Altar. Girolamo dei Libri. Madonna under a lemon tree, 
between SS. Zeno and Lorenzo Giustiniani — exceedingly beautiful. 

Returning past the Ponte Pietra, on the left, under the 
hill of S. Pietro, is the site of the Roman Theatre. It was 
already so dilapidated in 895 that King Berengarius issued a 
decree allowing any one who pleased to carry off portions of 
the ruins. Enough however remained in the i6th century, 
for the painter Caroto to delight in sketching it. Now 
nothing remains but a few fragments inserted into walls. 
Built apparently out of the Theatre, and in the time of 
Berengarius, but quite modernized, is the little Church of S. 
Siro. An inscription says that the first mass in Verona was 
said here. 

(Beyond this, the Via Redentore leads (left) up the hill 
to the Church of Giovanni in Valle, with a crypt contain- 
ing two curious early Christian sarcophagi. One is decorated 
with the usual subjects from the New Testament, to which 



292 ITALIAN CITIES. 

the figures of two monks (perhaps the discoverers) have been 
added. The other has a husband and wife, ' between SS- 
Peter and Paul.) 

Near the river (right) is the Church of S. Maria in 
Organo, built on the site of an ancient building called the 
Organum, of unknown intention. The church was begun 
1 48 1 by Sanmichele. The campanile, of 1533, is by Fra 
Giovanni da Verona. 

Right Transept. Guercino. S. Francesca Romana. 

Chapel Right of High Altar. Frescoes by Giolfino. 

Chair. Pictures by Paolo Farinati. Stall work of wonderful beauty, 
also a candelabrum in walnut-wood by Fra Giovanni da Verona. 

Sacristy. A beautiful picture of the Virgin and Child with SS. Ste- 
fano and Tecla (?) by Girolanio dei Libri (who has introduced his favour- 
ite lemon-tree). Wood-carving by Fra Giovanni, and frescoes by 
Morone and others. 

"The master-pieces of Francesco Morone are in the sacristy of S. 
Maria in Organo, where the walls and ceiling are filled with incidents 
freely adapted from Mantegna's in the Camera degli Sposi at Mantua. 
The room is quadrangular, and divided into sections with lunettes like 
Peruzzi's in the Famesina ; the centre compartment of the ceiling repre- 
senting a well-opening with a balustrade in perspective from which 
angels look down, whilst the Saviour in benediction floats in the heaven, 
the lunettes and the course beneath them containing half-lengths of 
popes, Olivetan monks, and female saints. This sacristy is one of the 
grand monuments of local art in the Venetian provinces, second only to 
Mantegna's creations in the display of perspective and foreshortening, 
and in the geometrical distribution of the space. There is ground for 
beheving that this beautiful sacristy was finished in the first years of the 
l6th century." — Crowe and Cavalcaselle. 

Left, 2nd Altar. Morone. Madonna, with SS. Agostino and Lorenzo 
Giustiniani. 

Right, from this church, is the Island in the Adige, 
united on the other side to the city by the beautiful bridge 
by Sanmichele called Ponte Nuovo. In the centre of the 
island is the fine brick Church of S. Tommaso Canfuariense, 
which contains the tomb of Giovan' Battista Beket Fabriano, 



GIUSTI GARDENS. SS. NAZZARO E CELSO. 293 

who claimed to be of the family of Thomas k Becket. We 
may also notice : — 

Right, 4/^ Altar, Girolamo del Libri. SS. Roch, Sebastian, and 
Giobbe. a 

* Sacristy. Garofalo, The Virgin and Child with S. John — an ex- 
quisitely lovely picture. The group are seated in a meadow with a 
beautiful distant landscape, backed by a sunset sky. The Virgin looks 
down with graceful sweetness upon the children who are playing with 
the cross of S. John. In the grass, on the right, grows the pink which 
is like the signature of the master. 

In a Reliquary are preserved three teeth and the frontal bone of S. 
Thomas a Becket 

Behind the High Altar. VOrbetto (some say by Carotto). Madonna 
and Child. Infroni, S. Luke painting the Virgin. Right, S. Thomas 
of Villanuova and S. John Baptist. Left, S. Thomas a Becket and S. 
Francis. 

From the Ponte Acqua Morta, which connects the island 
with the left bank of the Adige, a street leads to the Palazzo 
Giusti, behind which are the famous Giusti Gardens, perhaps 
the most beautiful spot in Verona. The main walk is girded 
by gigantic cypresses, and above rise terraces, each present- 
ing a view more beautiful than the last, of Verona, its 
churches .and bridges, and tall campaniles standing out 
against the soft distances of plain and the blue hills. 

" The Giusti garden is beautifully situated, and contains monstrous 
cypresses, pointing like spikes into the air. A tree, whose branches, the 
oldest as well as the youngest, are striving to reach heaven — a tree 
which will last its three hundred years, is well worthy of veneration. 
Judging from the time when this garden was laid out, these trees have 
already attained that venerable age." — Goethe. 

Beyond the Palazzo Giusti, the Via Muro Padre leads to 
the Church of SS. Nazzaro e Celso^ partly designed by San- 
michele. It is rich in pictures : — 

Right, 2nd Altar. Paolo Farinati. The Annunciation. The fresco 



294 ITALIAN CITIES. 

of Adam and Eve in the lunette above, also by Farinati, is considered 
the best work of this master. 

Right Transept, Montagna. Pieti and SS. Biagio and Giuliana. 

Sacristy. Brusasorci. Madonna with SS. Peter and Paul. The 
chamber was designed and adorned in fresco by Gio. Maria Falconetto. 

Choir. Frescoes by Paolo Farinati. 

Left Transept. The Chapel of S. Biagio covered with frescoes. Those 
near the altar are by Montagna ; the Annunciation over the entrance by 
Cavazzola ; the rest by Falconetto. The altar-piece by Fr. Buonsignori 
represents the Martyrdom of SS. Sebastiano and Biagio. The predella, 
with scenes from the lives of SS. Biagio, Sebastiano, and Giuliana, is by 
Gir. dei Libri. On the left is a beautiful Virgin and Child, with saints, 
by Moceto. Beneath this picture, is the entrance to a passage containing 
a fresco of the Baptism of Christ, by Cavaxzola. 

Left Aisle, 1st Chapel. Montagna. Two noble pictures of Saints. 

Behind this church is a private garden (which once be- 
longed to the monastery) backed by abrupt cliffs, in which 
is a most interesting cavemed Chapel of the earliest Chris- 
tian Art in the north, adorned with rude frescoes much like 
those in the Roman catacombs. From the outer cave, a 
roughly-hewn passage leads into this tiny sanctuary ; both 
retain their ancient mosaic pavements. Over the centre of 
the vault is the Saviour in benediction : over the altar, S. 
Michael between SS. Nazaro and Celso ; on the left is a 
tomb which has never been opened. The proprietor kindly 
allows the chapel to be visited on application at the house 
adjoining the church. 

" The most ancient pictorial remains in the Venetian territory, I be- 
lieve to be in a subterraneous part of the nunnery of SS. Nazaro e Celso 
at Verona. In this, which was formerly the Chapel of the Faithful, are 
represented several mysteries of our redemption ; some apostles, some 
holy martyrs, and in particular the transit of righteous souls from this life, 
assisted by S. Michael the Archangel. Here the symbols, the workman- 
ship, the attitudes, the drapery of the figures, united with the characters, 
do not permit us to doubt that the painting must be much earlier than 
the revival of the arts in Italy. " — Lanzi. 



I 



PINACOTECA. >■ 295 

Returning by the Via Porta Vescovo and the Strada 
Vicentina to the river, a Uttle to the left, on the Rigosta 
Porta Vittoria, is the Palazzo Pompei, one of the earliest 
works oi Sanmichele, used since 1854 as the Musto Civico. 
On the ground floor is the clock erected by Can-Signorio in 
the Piazza delle Erbe, On the upper floor is the Pinacoteca, 
which was entirely re-arranged in 1875, owing to Cav. Ber- 
nasconi, a former Conservator io. having bequeathed all his 
collections to it : they occupy the first three rooms, and in- 
clude some of the best pictures. 

(Open daily for a small buono-mano to the Custode.) 

xst Hall. — 

12. M. A. Caravaggio. Joseph's coat brought to Jacob. 

22. Bonifazio. Last Supper. 

28. Schidotie. Adoration of the Shepherds. 

31. Paul Veronese. Baptism of Christ. 

34. Perugino. Holy Family and Angels. 

52. Titian. Holy Family. 

68. Bonifazio. Noah and his sons. 

74. Bassano. Adoration of the Shepherds. 

2nd Hall. — 

86. Giovanni Bellini. Presentation in the Temple. 

87. Raffaelle. (?) Adoration of the Magi. 
138. Fr. Morone. Four pictures of saints. 
141. Parmigianino . Holy Family. 

151. Fr. Francia. Madonna and Child with saints. 

^th Hall— 

351. Francesco Carotto. SS, Francis, Antonio, Bernardino, and 
Chiara. 

The works of this master (1470 — 1546), are rare out of Verona, and 
should be studied here. " Carotto may be compared to Razzi in the 
general tendency of his style, and the success with which he followed it up ; 
like the Veronese painter too, he is less known than he deserves. He was 
educated in the school of Andrea Mantegna, but has little in common 
with him ; he inclines much more to the manner of Leonardo, and must 



296 ITALIAN CITIES. 

have derived his peculiar taste from the influence of that master : in his 
later works, however, there is an evident approach to Raphael's style. 
The warm and well-blended colouring of this artist forms a peculiar con- 
trast to the severe style of his drawing. " — Kilgler. 

351. Giolfino. Madonna and Child. 
364. Girolamo del Libri. Baptism of Christ. 
367. Id. Virgin and Child between S. Sebastian and S. Roch. 
Paul Veronese. Count Pace Guarienti. 

^th Hall.-— 

393. Girolamo-dei Libri. The Virgin with SS. J. Baptist, Jerome, 
and Joseph, adoring the Infant Saviour. Two rabbits in the 
foreground. 

375. Id. Madonna throned. S. Raphael presents the young Tobias. 

376. Id. Madonna and saints. 

392. Id. Madonna and Child, with saints. 

bth Hall.— 

418, 419, 420. Paolo Morando della Cavazzola. The Passion. Tliese 
and a number of pictures of saints in the last room formed one 
large altar-piece in the Convent of S. Chiara. 

" A marvellous transition from the realism of the 15th century to the 
noble free character of the l6th, not to an empty idealism." — Burck- 
hardt. 

428. Carlo Crivelli. Madonna and Child. Children present the 
emblems of the Passion. In the distant landscape the whole 
story of the Passion is prefigured — a very curious picture from 
the Barbini-Braganzi collection. Signed "opus Raroli Cri- 
velli Veneti." 

431. Francesco Benaglio, i^%T. Madonna and Child with two bishops 
and angels, from S. Silvestro. This may be observed as a 
specimen of the master, who lived in a weak period of art at 
Bologna. There are many of his pictures here. 

433. Cimabue (?). Thirty small pictures from the life of Christ 

435. Vittore Pisano or Pisanello (ob. 1451). Madonna seated in a 
garden of flowers with saints and angels. The halo round the 
Virgin's head is adorned with peacock's feathers, a quail hops 
upon her robe, and peacocks strut past. A good specimen 
of Pisanello, whose chief power lay in his birds and quad- 
rupeds, and who painted in such detail that Guerino says he 



S. FERMO MAGGIORE. 297 

"could represent the sweat on a labourer's brow, or the 
neighing of his horses. " 

438. Jacopo Bellini (father of Giovanni and Gentile). The Cruci- 
fixion — tempera. 

446. Giov. Maria Falcondto. Augustus and the sibyl who foretold 
the birth of the Saviour. This picture is often attributed to 
S. Squarcione (probably Turone), 1394 — 1474' 

13/A Hall— 

220. Paolo Farinati. Victory of the Lombards over Frederick Bar- 

barossa, 11 64. 
224. Felice Brusasorci. Victory of the Veronese over the Brescians, 

849. 

We must now cross the bridge opposite the Museo — the 
Ponte delle Navi, which in 1757, when the then bridge was 
destroyed by a flood, was the scene of the vahant deed of 
the " Brave Man of Pojano," who saved, at the peril of his 
Hfe, the toll-keeper, his wife, and child, who lived in a 
cottage on the centre of the bridge. The feat was described 
ten years after in the poems of Gottfried Biirger. A fresco 
on the neighbouring Casa CipoUa shows the original form of 
the bridge. 

On the other side of the bridge is the grand Church of S. 
Fermo Maggiore, founded as early as 751, though the earliest 
part of the existing building, the crypt, only dates from 
1065. The church is of brick with layers of marble intro- 
duced. Against the facade is raised the canopied sarco- 
phagus of Aventino Fracastoro, physician in ordinary of 
Can Grande. The apse is very picturesque, and the north 
porch is very fine ; the jambs of its doorway are of black, 
white, and red marble alternated. 

The Interior (1313 — 1332) has a single wide nave with a 
curious wooden roof. It contains : — 



298 ITALIAiV CITIES. 

Over the Entrance. Turone. (?) A fresco of the Crucifixion with 
saints standing round. 

Right. The pulpit corbelled out of the south wall, and exceedingly 
picturesque, is by Alorani da Modena. • On the sides are heads of pro- 
phets and others in fresco, and the inscription, " Opus Martini." In the 
neighbouring chapel is a beautiful tomb of one of the Morani. 

T^rd Altar. Francesco Torbido. Madonna and saints. 

South Transept. Urns of Pietro and Ludovico Alighieri, erected by 
their brother Francesco, the last male descendant of Dante. His 
daughter married into the Veronese family of Serego, which, as Serego- 
Alighieri, still represents the poet. 

" II n'y a pour I'imagination qu'un Dante Alighieri; pourtant il y en a 
eu plusieurs dans la realite. La famille du poete se fixa k Verone et s'y 
maintint pendant deux ou trois generations. Le dernier rejeton de la 
ligne masculine qui provenait du grand poete a fait elever deux monu- 
ments a deux fils de Dante. Sur I'un des tombeaux on lit : 'A Pierre 
Alighieri Dante III., savant dans le grec et le latin, epoux incomparable : ' 
— sur I'autre : ' A Louis Alighieri, Dante IV. , jurisconsulte ome de 
toutes les vertus.' Malgre ces pompeuses epitaphes, et bien que I'un des 
deux freres fut un epoux incomparable, titre auquel son pere n'eut peut- 
etre ose pretendre, on n'est pas fache de savoir que la famille a fini avec 
ces savants et qu'on n'est pas expose a rencontrer le signore Dante en- 
saignant les racines grecques ou les Institutes. Une seule chose me plait 
dans les inscriptions funeraires que je viens de rapporter, c'est le chiffre 
place apres le nom illustre ; Dante III., Dante IV. ; on dirait une dyn- 
astie. ' ' — A mpire. 

Choir. Bronze Crucifix by Battista da Verona. On the outer wall 
of the choir, a fresco, attributed to Pisanello, introduces the two founders 
of the church, Fra Daniele Guzman and the Count of Castelbarco. 

Chapel left of Choir. Liber ali. S. Anthony. 

Chapel opening from North Transept. Tomb of Girolamo and Marc- 
Antonio della Torre (father and son), decorated with bronzes by Andrea 
Riccio, the architect of S. Giustina of Padua. The best have been 
stolen by the French, and are still at the Louvre, those here being copies. 

Chapel of the Sacrament. Caroto. "The Madonna with S. Anne 
floats on a cloud above four saints in strong action, who are rather given 
like portraits than as ideal figures." — Burckhardt. 

Over the side door, in a Gothic arch, is a Crucifixion of the end of the 
14th century. 

• As colour, this bit of church interior is quite beautiful, and the artist will find no 
better subject in Italy — morning light. 



ROMEO AND JULIET. 299 

Left of principal Entrance. Tomb of the Brenzoni {l5th-cent.) by 
Giovanni Russi. Over this are frescoes by Pisanello — an Annunci- 
ation, &c. 

Left, from S. Fermo, the Via Filippini leads to the Garden 
of the Orfanotrojio (Vicolo delle Franceschine), where is a 
trough of Verona marble, pointed out as the tomb of Juliet. 
It may be visited out of pure sentiment. The tomb which 
was shown here in the last century was all chopped up 
long ago by relic hunters, and French and English ladies 
are wearing it in bracelets. In returning (past S. Fermo 
again) we may observe, in the Via Leone, the picturesque 
Roman fragment called Arco dei Leone, and in the Via S. 
Sebastiano, formerly Cappello, an Inn called the Osteria del 
Cappello, which is supposed to be a remnant of the Palace 
of the Capulets. That these " Cappelletti " were really an 
illustrious and formidable family, we learn from Dante : — 

"Vieni a veder Montecchi e Capelletti \ 
Monaldi e Filippeschi, uom senza cura. 
Color gik tristi, e costor con sospetti." 

Purgatorio, vi. 107. 

The love-story of Romeo and Juliet which has been 
popularized throughout all Italy by Verdi, is said to have 
occurred in 1302, the reign of Bartolommeo della Scala, but 
only one chronicler, Girolamo della Corte, mentions the 
story as a historical fact. Many such may have grown out 
of the contentions of great families who were such close 
neighbours as the Montecchi and Cappelletti. Shakspeare 
tells the story in the introductory lines of his tragedy — 

" Two households, both alike in dignity. 
In fair Verona, where we lay our scene. 
From ancient grudge break to new mutiny, 

Where civil blood makes civil hands unclean. v: 



300 ITALIAN CITIES. 

From forth the fatal loins of these two foes 
A pair of star-cross'd lovers take their life ; 

Whose misadventured piteous overthrows 

Do, with their death, bury their parents' strife." 

"Les Capuletti et les Montecchi pourraient encore se quereller dans 
les rues de Verone, et Tybalt y tuer Mercutio ; la decoration n'est 
pas changee : la tragedie de Shakspeare est merveilleusement exacte. A 
Verone, comme dans une ville espagnole, il n'y a pas une maison sans 
balcon, et I'echelle de soie n'a qu'a choisir. Peu de villes ont mieux 
conserve le cachet moyen age: les arcades ogivales, les fenetres en 
trefles, les balcons decoupes, les maisons 4 piliers, les coins de rue 
sculftes, les grands hotels aux marteaux de bronze, aux grilles ouvrages, 
oil 1' entablement couronne de statues brille de details d'architecture que 
le crayon seul peut rendre, vous reportent aux temps passes, et I'on est 
tout etonne de voir circuler dans les rues des gens habilles k la 
modeme." — Theophile Gautier. 

The fortifications of Verona must not pass unnoticed. 
They are of five different periods, i. The walls of Galli- 
enus, of which only a few vestiges remain — some in the 
Piazza Bra, behind the Amphitheatre. 2. The walls of 
Theodoric. 3. The walls on the left of the Adige, attri- 
buted to Charlemagne. 4. The walls of the Scaligers, built 
in great measure upon those of Theodoric. 5. The walls 
of Sanmicheli, who was the first to introduce triangular 
and pentangular bastions. 

A short distance beyond the Porta Vescovile (near SS. 
Nazaro and Celso), is the village of S. Michele, where the 
famous architect Michele Sanmicheli was born 1484. The 
Church of La Madonna di Campagna was built from his 
designs. Its best pictures have been removed to the Pinaco- 
teca. 

'^ Verona, qui te viderit, 
Et non amarit protinus, 
Amore perditissimo, 



SLOVINO DI S. MARCO. 301 

Is, credo, se ipsum non amat, 
Caretque amandi sensibus, 

Et odit omnes gratias. " — Cotta, 



An excursion should be made from Verona for the day to 
Quinto, where the Church of S. Maria della Stella has a 
most curious crypt, with a clear stream flowing through it. 
In the hills beyond this, at the head of the Val Pantena, is 
the extraordinary natural arch, 150 in span, called Ponte della 
Vej'a, over a small cascade. It is said to have served Dante 
as a model for his bridges in the Inferno. North of this, in 
the Val Lunella, rises the Monte di Bolca, exceedingly in- 
teresting to geologists. 

Lovers of Dante should visit Gargagnano, where he is 
supposed to have written the Purgatorio, and where he 
possessed some property. Also, in the valley of the Adige, 
between Ala and Roveredo (accessible by the railway to 
Trent and visible from the line), the extraordinary chaos of 
rocks and stones called the Slovino di San Marco, said to 
have been an avalanche from the mountain-side, which over- 
whelmed a town on this site in 845, and which is described 
by Dante to give an idea of one of the barriers of hell : — 

"Era lo loco ove a scender la riva 
Venimmo, alpestro, e per quel ch'ivi er'anco, 
Tal, ch'ogni vista ne sarebbe schiva. 
Qual'e quella ruina che nel fianco 
Di qua da Trento I'Adice percosse, 
O per tremuoto o per sostegno manco ; 

Che da ciina del monte, onde si mosse, 
Al piano e si la roccia discoscesa, 
Ch'alcuna via darebbe a chi su fosse." — Inf. xii. 



CHAPTER XVII. 
MANTUA. 

It is 22 miles from Verona to Mantua, and the railway journey occu- 
pies rather more than an hour from the Porta Nutrva Station at Verona. 
I. 4 frs. 40 c. II. 3 frs. 20 c. III. 2 frs. 30 c. We pass : 

jyiLLAFRANCA Station. Here the treaty of Villa- 
franca was concluded, July 11, 1859, between the 
Emperors of France and Austria, by which Lombardy was 
given back to the Italians. The great ruined Castle is of 
the 14th century. In the old church is a Madonna of 
BrusasorcL The new church is a copy of the Redentore at 
Venice. 

A little to the right is Custozza, where Radetzky gained 
(July 25, 1848) his victory over the Piedmontese, and 
where (June 25, 1866) the Archduke Albert also defeated 
the Italians. 

(It is about I hour's drive (carriage 5 frs.) from hence to 
Valeggto, a small town situated beneath one of the finest 
ruined castles in this district, which has five smaller towers 
grouped around its tall keep. The valley beneath the 
castle is crossed by a curious low fortified causeway, built 
by Giov. Galeazzo Visconti in 1393. It is defended by a 



I 



VALEGGIO. 303 

succession of towers now half-buried in shrubs and ivy, and, 
in the centre, are two larger, more massive towers, guarding 
the (now broken) bridge over the (here) swift-flowing Mincio. 
All this sounds like a beautiful artist's subject, but, some- 
how, it fails in the composition.) 

"Was the way to Mantua as beautiful, when Romeo was banished 
thither, I wonder ! Did it wind through pasture land as green, bright 
with the same glancing streams, and dotted with fresh clumps of graceful 
trees ! Those purple mountains lay on the horizon, then, for certain ; 
and the dresses of these peasant girls, who wear a great, knobbed, silver 
pin through their hair behind, can hardly be much changed. Mantua 
itself must have broken on him in the prospect, with its towers, and 
walls, and water, as it does now. He made the same sharp twists and 
turns, perhaps, over the rumbling drawbridges ; passed through the 
like long, covered, wooden bridge ; and leaving the marshy water 
behind, approached the rusty gate of stagnant Mantua," — Dickens. 

{Inns. Aquila d'Oro, best ; Croce Verde. 

Carriages. The course 60 c, the hour i\ fr., each hour after, i fr. ; 
for the afternoon to the Palazzo del Te and S. Maria delle Grazie, 5 frs. ) 

Mantua, of Etruscan origin, became known to the world in very 
early times, through the verses of Virgil, who acknowledges it as his 
fatherland, and says that it derives its name from the prophetic nymph 
Manto, the daughter of Tiresias. 

" Ille etiam patriis agmen ciet Ocnus ab oris, 
Fatidicse Mantus et Tusci filius amnis, 
Qui muros matrisque dedit tibi, Mantua, nomen, 
Mantua, dives avis : sed non genus omnibus unum ; 
Gens ille triplex, populi sub gente quaterni ; 
Ipsa caput populis: Tusco de sanguine vires."— ^«. x. 198. 

After the fall of the Western Empire, Mantua fell into the possess- 
ion of various rulers of Upper Italy. Alboin conquered it in 509. The 
Exarchate took it from Autharis in 590, in 603 Alboin reunited it to the 
Lombard kingdom. Charlemagne is said to have fortified the town. 
The Emperor Otho II. gave it as a fief to Tebaldo, Count of Canossa, 
and thus it came to his granddaughter the famous Matilda of Tuscany. 
When Henry IV. entered Italy it fell into his hands, but was reconquered 
by Matilda after his death. In 1167 it joined the Lombard league and 



304 ITALIAN CITIES. 

was ruled by its own consuls. In 1 183 the two great bridges were built, 
and the 12 mills on the Ponte S. Giorgio were erected. In the thirteenth 
century a succession of rulers of the Buonacolsi family seized the govern- 
ment by force ; under Guido, sumamed Bottigella, the building of the 
afterwards Ducal Palace was begun in 1302. His successor Rinaldo 
Buonacolsi, being a zealous Ghibelline, obtained from Henry VII. the 
title of Imperial Vicar, with Mantua as a fief. His exactions in favour 
of the Emperor led to an insurrection of the people under Luigi Gonzaga, 
who was chosen Signore in his place, and in 1329 received the title of 
Imperial Vicar from the Emperor Louis the Bavarian. He was the 
founder of a dynasty, and of a family whose members intermarried with 
the principal royal families of Europe. In the time of Luigi Gonzaga, 
Mantua had 28,cxx) inhabitants, and an immense jurisdiction. Guido, 
son of Luigi, was a friend of Petrarch. Mantua continued to prosper 
under the rule of the Gonzagas. Under Ludovico (1444 — 1478) called 
*' II Turco " on account of his long beard, S. Andrea was built by the 
celebrated architect Alberti, the Palazzo Belvidere and the Great Hos- 
pital were erected, and a printing press established, where Boccaccio's 
Decameron was published in 1472. Under Luigi Bodomonte, son of 
Lodovico, the friend and companion of Charles V. , the Museum was 
founded. The eighth Gonzaga, Gian-Francesco III. (1484 — 1519) was 
a great patron of literature, and Bembo, Ariosto, and the father of 
Tasso, sent their works to his court, which was the most distinguished 
in Italy after the dissolution of that of Urbino in 15 18. His wife, 
Isabella d'Este, was one of the greatest connoisseurs in art of her time. 
Of his younger sons, Ercole was cardinal and governor of Monferrat, 
and in 1559 President of the Council of Trent ; Ferrante was the founder 
of the line of Guastalla. His successor Federigo (1519 — 1540) was 
created first Duke of Mantua, because of his fidelity to Charles VI., 
who visited the town in 1530. Federigo was the builder of the Palazzo 
del Te, and the great patron of Giulio Romano, but in his reign (1528) 
the plague swept away two-thirds of the population. 

Under the nth Gonzaga the town increased again to 40,00x3 in- 
habitants. He built the costly summer palace. Vincenzo (1589 — 1612) 
squandered the treasures of the state in the utmost extravagance. His 
three sons by Eleonora dei Medici all came to the throne, but left no 
descendants. 

The refusal of the Emperor Francis to recognize the next heir 
Charles, Duke of Nevers, whose cause was espoused by France, led to 
the "war of the succession of Mantua," in which the town was cruelly 
plundered by the Imperial troops. In 1631 Charles at length obtained 
an investiture of Mantua from Ferdinand II., who was in need of his 
troops. The last Gonzaga was Ferdinand X. (1605 — 1707), "whose life 



APPROACH TO MANTUA, 305 

was the most foolish and inglorious of modern times." He fled to 
France during the war of the Spanish succession, and in 1785 the 
Duchy was united with Austrian Lombardy. The town was taken by 
the French in 1797 after a siege of eight months, and retaken in the 
same year by the Austrians, after three months blockade and four days 
bombardment. In the peace of Villafranca (1859) it fell to Venice as a 
river fortress of the first rank, in the celebrated quadrangle of fortresses 
— Peschiera, Mantua, Verona, and Legnano. Mantua became part of 
the kingdom of Victor Emanuel in 1866. 

In art Mantua owed everything to the house of Gonzaga. It did not 
possess any great artists of its own, but Leon Battista Albert! and Andrea 
Mantegna (head of the Paduan school of painters) were drawn into the 
service of Duke Ludovico, and Giulio Romano into that of Duke Fede- 
rigo. The town is full of the works of Giulio, and it is only in Mantua 
that one can become really acquainted with him. The death-blow of 
art in Mantua was given by the death of Giulio (1546), concerning whom 
Cardinal Ercole Gonzaga wrote to his brother : — " We have lost our 
Giulio Romano, so greatly to my grief that I feel as if I had lost my right 
hand. To see the good in the evil, I feel that the death of so rare a 
character will at least cure me of my longing after buildings, plate, 
pictures, &c. , for I shall never have courage to undertake anything with- 
out the guiding power of that great genius." 

The railway to Modena now passes through Mantua, and 
crosses the lagoon just behind the bridge of the Argine del 
Mulino, with a station in the modern town. But the 
romance of the approach is thus totally destroyed, and all 
good pedestrians who have time before them would do well 
to leave the train at the old station of S. Antonio. The ap- 
proach to the town in this way is most picturesque. The 
long lines of grey buildings, broken here and there by a tall 
campanile, rise abruptly from the lagoons which surround 
it. The fishing vessels flap their red sails close beneath 
the windows of the houses. In the shallower parts of the 
marsh masses of reeds rustle and sigh in the wind — the very 
reeds described by Virgil as a characteristic feature of his 
native place : — • 



3o6 ITALIAN CITIES. 

" Hie virides tenera prsetexit arandine ripas 

Mincius." ♦ 

Indeed the scenery constantly reminds one of Virgil, 
especially in the stealthy flow of the winding Mincio : — 

" — tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 
Mincius. "t — Georg. iii. 13. 




Mantua. 

We pass through the fortifications of the Citadel. Here 
Andrew Hofer, the brave chief of the Tyrolese insurgents, 
having been betrayed in his refuge at Passeyr by a priest 
named Douay, was brought to trial, and, though the majority 
of his judges voted against it, was shot in obedience to a 
telegraph from Milan, Feb. 20, 18 10. 

Beyond this we enter the extraordinary covered bridge 
called Argine del Mulino by a fortified gateway. The bridge 
divides the part of the Lagoon (left) called Lago di Mezzo 
from that (right) called Lago Superiore. The water above 
being on a higher level, turns the wheels of the 12 mills 

• " Here wanton Mincius winds along the meads, 

And shades his happy banks with bending reeds." — Dryden. 
t " Where the slow Mincius through the valleys strays." — Dryden. 



I 



MAN7WA LA GLORIOSA. 307 

which join the bridge, and which bear the names of the 12 
apostles. Near the Porta MuHna is a Uttle mill which was 
built in the beginning of the 15th century. 

As you enter Mantua on this side you feel as if you had 
left the outer world altogether. The bridge is a prepara- 
tion — and the vast lagoon with the wind waving its miles 
upon miles of bulrushes. 

But when you tread the deserted and silent streets in the 
older town, and the five squares of the deserted palace, so 
solemn in their utterly decaying and mouldering splendour, 
you feel as if you were dead — as if this was some strange 
intermediate state, in which all things were patiently waiting. 
All is placid stagnant decay. Nothing looks as if it were 
ever put into repair. The buildings seem to stand by their 
own indestructible mightiness and magnitude. Grass grows 
on the parapets, grass grows on the roofs, grass grows 
in the streets. All is damp, and mossy, and mouldy. 
When a human figure comes stealthily round a corner it 
startles you that anything can be living here besides yourself. 
And yet, when the sky is blue, and when the long shadows 
fall crisp and clear on the old brick piazzas, and the vast 
lagoon glistens like a silver mirror, and the endless arches of 
the bridge lengthen out their shadows in the still shallow 
water, Mantua is unspeakably beautiful ! 

The centre of past life and present death in Mantua is the 
Piazza S. Pietro, where nearly all that was once most im- 
portant in Mantova la Gloriosa, stands grouped around a 
desolate square. On the right (as we stand with our backs 
towards the town), is the vast Castello di Corte, the palace 
of the Gonzagas, into which several later palaces have in the 
lapse of centuries been incorporated. On the left is the 



3o8 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



Duomo, the Palazzo Castiglione, and the tall tower called 
Torre della Gabbia with the iron cage hanging from it in 
which criminals used to be exposed for three hours on three 
successive days. Close to this is the Torre del Zuccaro, and 
behind soars the graceful dome of S. Andrea. 




Vhars^ S. Pietro, Manlua. 



Of the ancient Duomo di S. Pietro, there is very little 
remaining except one of the side-walls and the unfinished 
tower. The church, as it now stands, is the work of Giulio 
Romano. The pillars are Corinthian, and the wooden roof 
very richly gilt. The Cappella dell' Incoronata is by L. B- 
Alberti. The only picture which is even worth notice, is 
a fresco in the chapel of the Crocefisso, now covered with 
glass, attributed to Mantegna. At the end of the left aisle 



PALAZZO DUCALE. 309 

is an ancient marble sarcophagus appropriated as the tomb 
of S. Giovanni Boni, 1248. 

The Palazzo Ducale, sadly spoilt by recent white-wash 
(entrance by the 2nd door on the right), was begun in 1302 
by Guido Buonacorsi, third sovereign lord of Mantua. The 
front is of his time, and most of the side towards the Corte 
di Pallone, but the interior was transformed by Giulio 
Romano, and has become quite a museum of the precious 
thoughts, both pictorial and architectural, of that artist and 
his followers. 

"Giulio Romano considered it mere amusement to adorn the Palace 
of Mantua and the great suburban Palazzo del Tfe. So many chambers 
with gilded entablatures ; such a variety of beautiful stucco work ; so 
many stories and capricci finely conceived and connected with one an- 
other, besides such a diversity of colours adapted to different places 
and subjects, altogether form a collection of wonders, the honours of 
which Giulio divided with no other artist. For he himself conceived, 
composed, and completed these vast undertakings." — Lanzi. 

The Ufficio di Custodia, formerly the Scalcheria, has fres- 
coes of Giulio Romano, representing the Chase of Diana ; 
over the chimney-piece is Venus in the Workshop of Vulcan ; 
on the ceiling, Apollo. 

The rest of the apartments are shown in the following 
order : — 

The rooms, with modern decorations, prepared for Maria Louisa, 
widow of Napoleon I. 

The Sala dei Fiume , with frescoes of the rivers in the Mantovan 
territory. 

The Camera del Zodiaco, with paintings of the signs of the Zodiac by 
Lorenzo Costa, who was a native of Mantua. 

The Caniere degli Arazzi, once hung with tapestries from the designs 
of Raphael, — carried off by the Austrians. 

The Galleria dei Quadri, filled with indifferent pictures. Two good 
busts of members of the Pico family. 



3IO ITALIAN CITIES. 

The GaUeria degli Specchi, a very handsome room decorated by the 
pupils of Giulio. 

(Ow right) The Camere V'uereali, prepared for Prince Eugene Beau- 
hamois. The Caniere Ducale, with splendid ceilings, especially that of 
the Labyrinth Room (copied at Ford Castle in England), with the 
inscription, " Forse che si, forse che no," often repeated, put up by 
Duke Vincenzo in time of war, when doubtful of his success. 

The rooms called // Paradiso, prepared for Isabella d'Este, wife of 
Francis III., Marquis of Mantua. 

From the end of the Galleria dei Specchi we pass, by long 
corridors, to the older parts of the palace, and enter the — 

Sala dei Marmi, or di Mantegita, with beautiful arabesque designs 
from his hand, some of them of quite extraordinary loveliness. In the 
medallions of the ceiling are groups of cherubs. 

The adjoining Sala di Troja is painted entirely by Giulio Romano 
himself with scenes from the story of the Trojan war, but they are very 
unequal in execution, and very inferior to his works at the Palazzo 
del Te. 

On leaving the Sala dei Marmi, from a loggia, you look down upon 
a court designed by Giulio. In the time of the Dukes this was almost 
entirely enclosed with glass. 

A number of old rooms succeed, which are in the 
Castello di Corte, the ancient castle of the Gonzagas, built 
by Beriolino Novara for Francesco Gonzaga IV. between 
1393 and 1406. It is the part of the palace nearest the 
Ponte S. Giorgio, and looks out over the Lago di Mezzo. 
These rooms should be especially asked for, otherwise they 
are not shown. They have magnificent decaying ceilings. 
The Sala di Primaticcio has lovely decorations from his 
designs in stucco. In another room is the only perfect fresco 
of Mantegna, representing some of the first Mantuan captains 
taking the oath. One room is filled with portraits of the 
Gonzaga family and of that of Pico, to which they were 
related. The Gabinettini al Raffaellesco have exquisite 
arabesques by Giulio Romano; they look down upon the 



MUSEO. PIAZZA VIRGILIANA. 311 

Corte di Cani, where the Gonzaga dogs were kept. The 
Sala della Storia Naturale has decorations by Primaticcio. 

Opposite the Palazzo Ducale are three Palaces. Nearest 
the cathedral is the Palazzo Bianchi, with a sculptured 
portal ; then the Gothic Palace of Castiglione, who wrote " II 
Cortegiano " : nearest to the Torre della Gabbia, the Palazzo 
Guerrieri. 

The road which passes round the corner of the Palazzo 
Ducale by the Castello di Corte, leads to the Ponte S. 
Giorgio, an immense bridge across the lake, 2500 ft. long, 
built in 1401. 

Close to the Palazzo Ducale, in the Contrada della SS. 
Trinitk, is the Museo, containing a number of fragments of 
ancient sculpture : the best : — 

198. Torso of Venus. 

210. Apollo and a bay tree, round which twists the serpent, the sym- 
bol of wisdom. 

287. Bust of Homer — the nose a restoration. 

In the same building is the Public Libi'ary. 

The Contrada del Vescovado, between the Palazzo 
Bianchi and the Cathedral, leads to the Piazza called 
Virgiliana, in honour of Virgil, 

'* Mantua mittenda certavit pube Cremonas: 
Mantua Musarum domus, atque ad sidera cantu 
Evecta Andino, et Smyrnais aemula plectris. " — Sil. Ital. viii. 594. 

The actual birth-place of the poet, however, was a village 
called Andes in the Mantuan territory,* which is supposed 
to be identical with Pietola, about 3 miles distant. It is thus 
extolled by Dante : — 

" E quell' ombra gentil per cui si noma 

Pietola piu che villa Mantovana." — Purg. xviii. 

• Donatus. Vit. Virg. i. 



312 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Returning through the Piazza S. Pietro, the Via Broletto 
leads to the Piazza Dante, decorated with a statue of Dante 
in 187 1. Here is a noble gateway of brick and stone mixed 
(restored 1874), and, on the left, under a beautiful Gothic 
canopy, a seated figure of Virgil with a book, probably of 
the 14th century. 

Just beyond is the Piazza delle Erbe, containing the 
Palazzo della Ragione, built 1198 — 1250 : it has a campanile 
with a Dondi clock. At the angle of the piazza is a house 
with most admirable terra-cotta ornaments. 

On the right is the noble Church of S. Andrea, built from 
designs of Z<?<w Battista Alberti. It was begun in 1732, but 
not finished till 1781. The cupola was added by Juvara. 
The facade is exceedingly simple, with one noble triumphal 
arch, with deeply recessed portico, and four Corinthian 
columns sustaining a gabled front. 

" S. Andrea, the work of Alberti, is interesting in a historical point 
of view, as being the type of all those churches which, from S. 
Peter's downwards, have been erected in Italy and in most parts 
of Europe during the last three centuries. . . . The dimensions of 
the church are consideraole, being 317 ft. long internally, and the 
nave and transepts ai-e each 53 ft. wide by 95 in height, but owing 
to the simplicity of the parts it appears even larger than it really 
is. The great charm, however, is the beauty of its proportions, the ex- 
treme elegance of every part, and the appropriateness of the modes in 
which Classical details are used, without the least violence or straining. 
The exterior never was finished, except the entrance front, and this is 
worthy of the interior. Nothing in the style is grander than the great 
central arch, well supported on either side, and crowned by a simple 
unbroken pediment." — Fergusson. 

The noble brick campanile is a remnant of the basilica of 

1472— 1494. 

"The detail of this is throughout very fine. The tracery is all of a 
kind of plate-tracery, consisting, that is to say, of cusped circles pierced 



S. ANDREA. PALAZZO DEL TE. 313 

in a tympanum within an enclosing arch ; the shafts between the lights 
are of polislied marble, and coupled one behind the other. " — Street. 

The church contains : — 

Right, 1st Cfiapel. Giulio Arrivabene. S. Antony admonishing 
Ezzelino. 

2ird Chapel. A sarcophagus supposed to contain the remains of S. 
Longinus, the Roman centurion, who stood by the cross and pierced 
the side of our Saviour. The frescoes are from designs of Giulio 
Romano. They represent the Crucifixion and the bringing of the 
miraculous blood of our Saviour to Mantua by S. Longinus. 

South Transept. Tomb of Bishop Andreasi, 1549, by Prospero de- 
menti. Tombs of the Donati family, 1 58 1. 

Apse of Choir. Anselmi. Fresco of the martyrdom of S. Andrew. 
A kneeling statue of Duke Guglielmo Gonzaga, founder of the church. 
The frescoes of the cupola are by Campi. 

North Transept. Tombs of Pietro Strozzi, 1529, and of Count 
Andreasi, from designs of Giulio Romano. 

\st Chapelleft of Entrance. Tomb of Andrea Mantegna, ob. 1506, 
with a bronze bust by Sperandio, erected in 1560, by Andrea, nephew 
of the artist. Under the bust is inscribed, " Esse parem hunc noris, si 
non prseponis Apelli. Enese Mantinae, qui simulacra vides." 

Giovanni Santi places Mantegna at head of painters of 
his time because of his skill in perspective and fore-shorten- 
ing. 

" Perchfe de tucti i membri de tale arte 
Lo integro e chiaro corpo lui possede 
Piti che huom de Italia o dele exteme parte." 

Hence, following the Via S. Sebastiano, we pass (right) 
the Church of S. Sebastiano, now desecrated, but a good 
work of L. B. Alberti of 1460 ; and (right) the Casa di 
Mantegna, given to him by the Gonzagas. 

Here is the Porta Pusterla, a little beyond which, in a 
grove of plane-trees, is the famous Palazzo del Te (sometimes 
written The, and probably an abbreviation from Theyetto or 
Taglietto). 

" Mounted on a horse which was presented to him by the Marquis, 



314 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Giulio Romano rode forth in his company to a spot without the walls, 
where his Excellency had a place with some stables, called the T, 
situated in the midst of meadows, and where he kept his breeding stud. 
Here, the Marquis announced that, without destroying the old walls, he 
would like to have a small building arranged to which he might some- 
times resort for amusement. 

"Giulio availed himself of the old walls, and in the principal space at 
his disposal, erected the first hall which is seen on entering, with the 
chambers on each side of it, and as there is no stone in the place, nor 
any quarries whence it could be excavated, he contented himself with 
bricks and other substitutes, which he covered with stucco, and out of 
these materials made columns, bases, capitals, cornices, doors, and 
windows, all in the most perfect proportion and beautifully decorated. . . 
All which induced the Marquis to change his purpose, and, from a small 
beginning, he determined that the whole edifice should be arranged as a 
great palace. 

"Giulio thereupon constructed a most beautiful model, the outer walls, 
as also the interior towards the court-yard, being in the rustic manner. 
The building is a rectangle with an open court in the centre, which is 
rather like a meadow or public square, into which four ways open in the 
form of a cross ; one conducts into a very wide loggia, whence another 
entrance leads to the gardens, while two others open into various 
apartments, all of which are decorated with stucco-work and paintings. " 
— Vasari. 

From the ante-chamber on the left we enter : — 

I. Camera dei Cavalli. Portraits of the horses of the Marquis Federigo 
Gonzaga, designed by G. Romano, and executed in fresco by his pupils 
Benedetto Pagni and Rinaldo da Mantova. It was the success of this 
room which decided the Gonzaga to build a palace instead of a hunting- 
lodge. 

II. Camera di Psiche, Wonderfully gay and rich in colour. The 
walls are covered with the story of Psyche in fresco. In the centre of 
the vaulting is the marriage of Cupid and Psyche. The lunettes which 
are in oil are considerably blackened. Some of the scenes are ex- 
ceedingly erotic. The whole are by Rinaldo de Mantaua and Benedetto 
da Peseta from designs of G. Romano. 

" Here, with very few graceful groups, we find an almost total indif- 
ference to beautiful and noble forms, as well as to pure colouring ; and 
these faults cannot be altogether laid to the charge of the assistants : a 
coarseness of conception is visible throughout, which, in some of the 



PALAZZO DEL TE. 315 

pictures (that of Olimpia for example), can hardly be carried further." — 
K'ugler. 

III. Camera del Zodiaco, by the scholars of Giulio. 

IV. Camera di Faetonte — a beautiful little chamber; the Fall of 
Phaeton is represented in oil upon the ceiling by Giulio Romano. 

V. Loggia di Davide, an open hall, with five reliefs from the life of 
David. The ornaments by Primaticcio, 

VI. Sala degli Stucchi, with friezes by Primaticcio and Giambattista 
Mantoziano from designs of G. Romano. They represent the triumphal 
entrance of the Emperor Sigismund into Mantua in 1433. In the year 
before he had created Gian Francesco Gonzaga Marquis of Mantua. 

VII. Camera dei Cesari. . In the centre of the ceiling Julius Caesar is 
burning the letters of his enemies. In the two lunettes in fresco, by 
Giulio Romano, Alexander discovers a chest containing the writings 
of Homer, and restores the wife of Mardonius. 

VIII. Sala dei Giganti. 

" Original and ingenious as he was, Giulio desired here to display all 
his resources ; and determined to construct an apartment where the 
masonry should be adapted to the requirements of the painting, in order 
more effectually to deceive the eye of the spectator. Having first there- 
fore secured this angle of the palace, which is on a marshy soil, by means 
of double foundations of great depth, he caused a large circular chamber 
to be erected, giving extraordinary thickness to the walls, to the end 
that the four external angles of the same might have all the strength 
required for the support of a double vaulting, which he proposed to 
make in a round form, like that of a furnace. This done, he caused 
the doors, windows, and mantelpiece of the room to be formed in rustic 
masonry, purposely constructed so much out of square, and set together 
in so disjointed and distorted a fashion, that they appeared to be really 
leaning on one side, and as if they must necessarily fall into the room. 
The apartment being thus strangely constructed, Giulio began to paint 
it with the most extraordinary conceptions he could devise. The subject 
he chose was Jupiter hurling his thunderbolt at the Giants, and having 
caused the vaulting to represent the Olympic heaven, he placed there 
the throne of Jove, foreshortened, as seen from below. . . Lower down 
he has depicted Jupiter in anger hurling his thunderbolt at the Giants, 
with Juno still further down, who is assisting him. Around them are 
the Winds, represented by the most extraordinary faces, blowing towards 
the earth, while the goddess Ops turns away with her lions at the terrible 
roar of the thunders, as do the other gods and goddesses, especially 
Venus, who is at the side of Mars, and Momus, who with extended 



3i6 ITALIAN CITIES. 

arms, seems to be anticipating that heaven itself will fall asunder, but 
stands nevertheless immoveable, waiting for the end. 

" The Graces also are filled with dread, and indeed all the gods, seized 
with terror, are taking to flight, each in his chariot. The Moon, Saturn, 
and Janus, turn to that part of the heaven which is least overwhelmed 
with darkness, as if to flee as far as possible from such horrible tumult 
and confusion, and also Neptune, who, with his dolphins, seems striving 
to stay himself upon his trident, while Pallas, with the nine Muses, stands 
watching the awful catastrophe which is taking place, as if questioning 
what so dreadful an event may portend. Pan embraces, with supporting 
arms, a nymph who is trembling with fear, and seems anxious to shelter 
her from the flashes of lightning and fire with which the heavens are 
filled. Bacchus and Silenus, with the Satyrs and Nymphs, show the 
utmost terror and anxiety, Vulcan with his huge hammer on his shoulder 
looks towards Hercules, who is speaking with Mercury of the crisis 
which is occurring : near these is Pomona with terror-stricken aspect, 
and the same feeling is evinced by Vertumnus and the other gods, who 
are dispersed through the heaven. 

" In the lower part, that is to say upon the walls, are the Giants, 
some of whom, those who are nearest to Jupiter, have mountains and 
enormous rocks upon their backs, which they support upon their power- 
ful shoulders, intending to make a pale wherewith to scale the heavens, 
where their ruin is preparing, where Jupiter is thundering, where all the 
denizens of heaven are kindled with anger against them, and where the 
whole assembly appears not only to have a sense of terror at the rash 
presumption of those Giants, on whom it is casting mountains, but as if 
apprehensive that the whole world was in conftision and coming to an 
end. In this lower part of the painting, Giulio has also depicted 
Briareus in a dark cavern almost covered with enormous masses of rock, 
with other Giants lying crushed and some dead beneath the ruins of the 
mountains. Through the cleft of another dark cave, moreover, which 
is managed with infinite skill, other Giants are seen in ftill flight ; struck 
by the thunderbolts of Jove, they seem also on the point of being crush- 
ed, as the others are. In another part of the picture are still other 
Giants, upon whom temples, columns, and other fragments are falling, 
with immense slaughter and destruction of those proud assailants of the 
gods. It is amidst these falling ruins that the fire-place of the apart- 
ment is placed, and when the fire is lighted there, the Giants seem to be 
burning in the flames. Here the master has pourtrayed Pluto in his 
chariot ; drawn by meagre bare-boned horses, and accompanied by the 
Furies, he is flying towards the centre." — VasarL 



S. AMJilA DELLE GRAZIE. 317 

. Some smaller rooms have exquisite arabesques by Giulio Romano. 

"The Palazzo del Te stands in a swamp, and is, indeed, as singular 
a place as I ever saw. 

" Not for its dreariness, though it is very dreary. Not for its damp- 
ness, though it is very damp. Not for its desolate condition, though it 
is as desolate and neglected as house can be. But chiefly for the un- 
accountable nightmares with which its interior has been decorated 
(among other subjects of more delicate execution) by Giulio Romano. 
There is a leering Giant over a chimney-piece, and there are dozens of 
Giants (Titans warring with Jove) on the walls of another room, so in- 
conceivably ugly and grotesque, that it is marvellous how any man 
could have imagined such creatures. In the chamber in which they 
abound, these monsters, with swollen faces and cracked cheeks, and 
every kind of distortion of look and limb, are depicted as staggering 
under the weight of falling buildings, and being overwhelmed in the 
ruins ; upheaving masses of rock, and burying themselves beneath ; 
vainly striving to sustain the pillars of heavy roofs that topple down 
upon their heads ; and, in a word, undergoing and doing every kind of 
mad and demoniacal destruction. The figures are immensely large, and 
exaggerated to the utmost pitch of uncouthness ; the colouring is harsh 
and disagreeable ; and the whole effect more like (I should imagine) a 
violent rush of blood to the head of the spectator, than any real picture 
set before him by the hand of an artist. This apoplectic performance 
was shown by a sickly-looking woman, whose appearance was referable, 
I dare say, to the bad air of the marshes ; but it was difficult to help 
feeling as if she were too much haunted by the Giants, and they 
were frightening her to death, all alone in that exhausted cistern of a 
palace, among the reeds and rushes, with the mists hovering about out- 
side, and stalking round and round it continually." — Dickens. 

About 3I miles from Mantua is the curious Church of S. 
Maria delle Grazie, an ex voto, consecrated in 1399 by Fran- 
cesco Gonzaga and the people of Mantua, in gratitude for 
the cessation of the plague. It is one of the most curious 
places of pilgrimage in Europe and is well worth a visit. 

The acacia-fringed road leads across the Seregno, as the 
marshy country round Mantua is called, and passes (right) 
the brick church of S. Maria degli Angeli, and (left) a 
Monument raised to the Tuscans who fell near this in 1848. 



3i8 ITALIAN CITIES. 

S. Maria delle Grazie is a handsome brick and terra-cotta 
church, approached through a kind of street of rehc-stalls. 
In its outer cloister are frescoes commemorating benefits 
supposed to have been obtained here, and, on the left of 
the entrance, are cannon-balls which fell harmless in the 
siege of Mantua, 1522, and were vowed after\vards by 
Federigo Gonzaga. On entering the church you find your- 
self between the double lines of a regiment of figures, life- 
size, dressed, and coloured, arranged in niches along the 
walls. Each represents some devotee, who thus wished to 
express his gratitude to the Virgin, for graces which he 
believed that he had received from her, and these figures 
include Pope Pius II., Charles V., and his son Federigo 
Gonzaga, and the Constable de Bourbon. Some of the 
statues are most extraordinary, and the story of each is told 
in rude verses beneath. Thus, a criminal, who appears 
with the punishment of " the Cord " to which he was con- 
demned, is supposed to say : — 

" Dalla fune ond' in alto era sospeso 
Vergine benedetta io Te chiamai 
Leger divenni, e non rimasi offeso." 

Rinaldo della Volta, condemned to be beheaded, says : — 

" Per mio delitto condannato a morte 
E in van datomi un colpo il giustiziere 
L'altro sostenne per Tua destra forte." 

A soldier, with a wooden leg, exclaims : — 

'* Nella guerra crudel mi fii troncato 

Un di membri, ch' al corpo era sostegno 
Quando Maria chiamai fu risanato." 

Beneath a representation of angels drawing up a man. 



^. MARIA DELLE GRAZIE. 319 

with an immense stone tied round his neck, from a well, is 
written : — 

" Fuor desto pozzo uscy libero e sciolto 
Col grave sasso, che pendea al collo, 
Perch' allor fui da le tue braccie accolto. " 

A figure standing beneath a gallows, of which the halter is 
loosed, says : — 

" lo veggo e temo in cor lo stretto laccio 
Ma quando penso che Tu I'ai disciolto 
Ribenedico il tuo pietoso braccio." 

A converted Saracen attests : — 

" In mezzo rio camin di questa vita 
D'ogni fedel nocchier fidata guida 
Per noi se posta e Tu ne porgi aita." 

But the most curious of all is a man represented fixed in 
iron stocks with burning coals at his feet, who exclaims : — 

"Col fuoco appiedi, ahime, posto tra cappi 
Sottrato fui dal barbaro tomiento, 
Perche devoto a Te, volger mi seppi. " 

Piles of crutches of lame persons who have recovered, and 
ex-voto pictures of every kind, appear in every available space 
in the church. From the ceiling hangs a kind of little 
Crocodile, of which the legend says that it attacked two 
brothers in the neighbouring Curtatone, killed one brother, 
and was killed by the other, who vowed its body to the 
Virgin. Altogether S. Maria delle Grazie is quite unlike 
any other place in Italy. 

Here the House of Gonzaga and other illustrious Man- 
tuans are buried. Among the monuments is that of Baltha- 
sar Castiglione, "the Perfect Gentleman," who was the author 
of " II Cortegiano," the friend of M. Angelo and Raffaelle. 
He was twice painted by Raffaelle. He died at Toledo 



320 ITALIAN CITIES. 

(Feb. 2, 1529), but was brought here to rest in the tomb of 
his young wife. His epitaph is by Bembo : — 

" Non ego nunc vivo, conjux dulcissima : vitam 
Corpora namque tuo fata meam abstulerunt ; 
Sed vivam, tumulo cum tecum condar in isto, 
lungenturque tuis ossibus ossa mea. 

" Hyppolytae Taurellre, quae in ambiguo reliquit, utrum pulchrior an 
castior fuerit. Primos juventae annos vix. Baldassar Castilion insatia- 
biliter maerens posuit anno Dom MDXX." 

The admiration in which Castiglione was held may be 

seen in the verses of Mercantonio Flaminio : — 

" Felix Mantua, centiesque felix 
Tantis Mantua dotibus beata ; 
Sed felix magis, et magis beata, 
Quod his temporibus, rudique saeclo 
Magnum Castaliona protulisti. " 



CHAPTER XVIII. 
VICENZA. 

{Inns. Hotel de la Ville — Albergo Roma.) 

IT is about one hour by quick train from Verona to 
Vicenza — 7 frs. : 5 frs. 10 c. The hne passes 

Caldiero Stat., where the sulphureous baths, known as 
CaUdarium in the first year of the Christian era, are still in 
service, though somewhat neglected. Leaving the Scaliger 
town of Soave to the left, and passing Villanuova, where the 
campanile of the church was a fortified tower of the family 
of San Bonifacio, we reach 

Sambonifacio Stat. Three miles south of which is Areola, 
where Napoleon I. gained his victory over the Austrians, 
Nov. 15 to 17, 1796. 

Lonigo Stat. The village (right) is at the base of the 
wooded volcanic hills of the Monti Berici. 

Montebello Stat. On the heights are castles of the Mon- 
tecchi, the Montagues of Shakespeare. 

We enter Vicenza between the city and Monte Berico. A 

pleasant walk lined with trees leads into the town. On the 

left is seen a noble machicolated tower of die Scaligers, 
VOL. I. 21 



322 



ITALIAN CITIES. 




At Vicenza. 

now serving as a campanile to the Church of S. Felice e 
Fortunato. Just inside the Porta Castello, close to the 
gardens of the Marchese Salvi, is the long-established 
Inn, called Hotel de la Ville.* 



The History of "Vicenza follows that of Padua, Verona, and Venice : 
first with a constitution of its own, then subjugated by Ezzelino, stormed 
by Frederick II. in 1236 and destroyed by fire, subjected to Padua, then 
in 131 1 to Can Grande delia Scala, after 1387 to the Visconti, and after 
1404 to Venice. 

Vicenza is emphatically the city of Palladio, 1518 — 1580. 
and owes all its characteristics to that great architect. Those 
who cannot admire Palladio will not care about Vicenza. 
But though many may quarrel with his details, there are few 
who will fail to acknowledge the perfection of his propor- 

* PeuMun of six francs a day includes everything. 



PALLADIO AND MONTAGNA. 323 

tions, and the wonderful way in which his windows, doors, 
entablatures, and columns, are all related to, and all balance, 
one another. 

" Palladio was a man really and intrinsically great, and whose great- 
ness was outwardly manifested. The chief difficulty with which this 
man, like all modem architects, had to contend, was the suitable appli- 
cation of the orders of columns to buildings for domestic or public use ; 
there is always a contradiction in the combination of columns and walls. 
But with what success has he not united them ! What an imposing 
effect has the appearance of his buildings, at the sight of which one for- 
gets that he is attempting to reconcile us to an isolation of the rules of 
his art. There is, indeed, something divine in his designs, which may 
be compared to the creations of a great poet, who, out of truth and 
falsehood, can elaborate something which participates in both, and 
which charms us with its borrowed existence." — Goethe. 

The palaces have also a great charm from the wealth of 
verdure and bright flowers seen through their wide-opening 
porticoes, giving such an idea of space and air within the 
walls of the town , 

What Palladio was to the architecture of Vicenza, such to 
its art was Bartolomeo Montagna, 1475 — 1523, whose works, 
wonderfully beautiful and characteristic as they are, are little 
known out of his native place.* 

" An Umbrian repose dwells in the lazy calm of his dramatis personse, 
but the faces have peculiarities by which Montagna is always distin- 
guished, a long oval, though not a simple, shape, a thin barrelled nose, 
arched brows, a small mouth with a round projecting chin, and eyes of 
great convexity guarded by broad and drooping upper lids." — Crowe 
and Cavalcaselle. 

The sights which must not be omitted in Vicenza are 
the Piazza dei Signori and Palazzo della Ragione ; the 

* Yet the works of Montagna, once in the churches of S. Michele and S. Rocco 
at Vicenza, are not now to be looked for here. They are either lost, or removed to 
the Brera Gallery at Milan. Those once in S. Bartolommeo are now in the Museo. 



324 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



pictures at S. Stefano, S. Corona, and in the Pinacoteca ; the 
Teatro Olimpico, and a general survey of the buildings of 
Palladio, ending in a visit to the Rotonda, and the ascent to 
Monte Berico. 

The town is divided by the Corso, which ends at the Porta 
Castello. Here, from the windows of our inn we may begin 
our study of Palladian architecture, by looking down upon 
the admirable, never-finished fragment of the Palazzo del 
Conte Porto al Castello, generally known as the Cd del 
Diavolo. 




Casa del Diavolo. 

A little behind the hotel (right of the Corso), is the Duomo, 
a Gothic building of 1235. The front is inlaid with red 
marble. The nave is a single aisle with chapels. A great 
staircase of red marble ascends to the choir, giving room for 
a very lofty crypt which contains the ancient Lombard bath 
for baptism by immersion. The church contains : — 

Left, yd Chapel. Frescoes by Girolamo del Toso, c. 1 526. The 



PALAZZO BELLA RAGIONE. 32$ 

altar-piece, by Bart. Montagna, represents the Virgin and Child with. 
SS, Catherine and Lucia. 

Against a pillar. Giacomo da Ponte. The Preaching of S. John 
Baptist. 

yh Chapel (del Sacramento). Bart. Montagna. The Glory of Para- 
dise. 

Facing the west end of the cathedral is the Palazzo 
Loschi, which contains, or lately contained, a grand picture 
of Christ bearing his cross, by Giorgione. Returning hence 
to the Corso, we pass on the right the Palazzo Annibale 
Tiene, a noble work of Palladia, completed by Scamozzi, 
Beyond this, a side street, Contrada Morte, leads (right) to 
the very picturesque Piazza dei Signori, which is like the 
Piazza S. Marco at Venice in miniature. At one end stand 
the pillars which the Venetians erected in all the cities 
which acknowledged their rule. Like the campanile of S. 
Mark's also, the brick Torre del Orologio here soars up to a 
height of 270 ft. But the great feature is the Basilica, or 
Palazzo della Ragione, a Gothic building, encased by Palladio 
(in 1550) in noble cloistered galleries of stone, which, in- 
stead of marring, greatly add to its effectiveness. At the 
west end is a modem statue of Palladio. 

The Basilica was continued by Scamozzi into the adjoin- 
ing Piazza della Biava, here under the name of Palazzo del 
CotnmuTU. 

Descending the street which faces the central passage of 
the Basilica, the first turn on the right is the Contrada della 
Luna, containing the Casa Pigafetta, a very curious small 
house, finished in 1481, and very highly decorated. On 
the lower story are sculptured roses with the French 
motto, " // tCest rose sans espine." The upper story 
is richly carved with arabesques in lower relief, and the 



326 ITALIAN CITIES. 

three windows have balconies resting on very rich brackets. 
The house was inhabited by Antonio Pigafetta, the navigator, 
but its architect is unknown. 

Returning to the Corso, a little to the left, almost facing 
a very handsome Palladian palace, is the Church of S. 
Stefano, which contains : — 

Left, \st Chapel. Tintoretto. S.Paul. 

*LeJi Transept. Palma Vecchio. Madonna and Child seated with 
SS. George and Lucia. 

" I scarcely know a church out of Venice which can show so splendid 
a work." — Mundler. 

Close by, passing (left) the Casa Salvi, the next turn (left) 
from the Corso leads to the brick Church of S. Corona, of 
1260. Its west front is — like the other churches here — a 
single gable with a western doorway and a large circular 
window above. It contains : — 

Right, 1st Altar. Speranza (contemporary of Montagna). Two saints, 
Dominic and Bernardo da Campo, at the sides of the altar. 

3n/ Altar. P. Veronese. Adoration of the Magi — much injured. 

Chapel right of High Altar. Fine gilt Gothic tombs of the Tiene 
family — still the great family of Vicenza. 

*Left, ^th Chapel. Giovanni Bellini. The Baptism of Christ. 

"In the old Gothic church of Santa Corona at Vicenza, let us stand 
where, under a gorgeously carved cinque-cento canopy, looks out, in- 
stinct with life and colour, that wonderful Baptism of our Lord, by 
Giovanni Bellini. Let us remain long, and look earnestly ; for there is 
indeed much to be seen. That central figure, standing with hands folded 
on his bosom, so gentle, so majestic, so perfect in blameless humanity, 
O what labour of reverent thought, what toil of ceaseless meditation, 
what changes of fair purpose oscillating into clearest vision of ideal truth, 
must it have cost the great painter, before he put forth that which we 
now see ! It is as imp>ossible to find aught but love and majesty in the 
Divine countenance, as to discover a blemish on the complexion of that 
Body, which seems to give forth light from itself, as He stands in His 
obedience, fulfilling all righteousness. And even on the accessories to 
this figure, we see the same loving and reverent toil bestowed. The 



S. CORONA. 327 

cincture, where alone the body is hidden from view, is no web of man's 
weaving ; or, if it were, it is of hers, whose heart was full of divine 
thoughts as she wove : so bright and clear is the tint, so exquisitely 
careful and delicate every fold where light may play or colour vary. 
And look under the sacred feet, on the ground blessed by their pressure : 
no dash of hurrying brush has been there : less than a long day's light 
did not suffice to give, in individual shape and shade, every minutest 
pebble and mote of that shore of Jordan. Every one of them was worth 
painting, for we are viewing them as in the light of His presence who 
made them and knew them all. And now let us pass on to the other 
figures : to that living and glowing angelic group on the left-hand corner 
. of the picture. Three of the heavenly host are present, * variously affected 
by that which they behold. The first, next the spectator, in the comer 
of the picture, is standing in silent adoration, tender and gentle in ex- 
pression, the hands together, but only the points of the fingers touching, 
his very reverence being chastened by angelic modesty : the second 
turns on that which he sees a look of earnest inquiry, but kneels as he 
looks ; and, indeed, that which he sees is one of the things which angels 
desire to look into. The third, a majestic, herald-like figure, stands, as 
one speaking, looking at the spectator, with his right-hand on his gar- 
ment, and his left held out as in demonstration — unmistakably saying 
to us who look on, ' Behold what manner of love is here ! ' Then, 
hardly noticing what might well be much noticed, the grand dark figure 
of the Baptist on the right, let us observe, how beautifully and accurately 
all the features of the landscape are given, even to the expression of the 
stratification and cleavage of the rocks in the foreground. Truly our 
minutes spent before a picture like this are minutes of upward progress. 
We depart, and the scene itself passes from our memory, but the effect 
of tracinfj all these its attributes does not pass away, if it has been 
rightly done, but flows over and hallows our conceptions of the blessed 
event, and of Him round whom all its interests are centered." — Dean 
Alford. 

Left, ^h Chapel. Fogolino. Madonna and Child in a glory of angels 
— the town of Vicenza below. 

2nd Chapel. Bart. Montagna. A most noble group of saints. 

Palladio was at first buried in this church, but has been 
removed to the Campo Santo, where a monument by Z>e 
Fabris has been erected in his honour. 

Passing (left) the Casadi Palladio, on the right is the beau- 

• Are they not simply spectators, mi/emales ? 



328 ITALIAN CniES. 

■tiful Palazzo Chiericati erected by Palladio, c. 1566. Here 
is the Museo Civico containing a collection of pictures, open 
daily from 9 to 5. With much rubbish, it contains some 
most interesting specimens of Vicentine art — Custode \ to 
I fr. 
We may especially notice :— 

Entrance Hall. — 

2. yacopo da Ponte. The ' ' Rettori " of Vicenza, Giovanni More and 

Silvan Cappello, kneeling before the Virgin, by whom SS. 

Marco and Vincenzo are standing. 
31. Bernardo Strozzi, 1581 — 1644. Ihe Supper in the Pharisee's 

House. 
38. Girolamo del Toso, 1526. Virgin and Child, with SS. Catherine 

and Apollonia. 

{Left) Stanza del Re. — 

10. Domenichino. S. John Baptist preaching. 

23. yacopo da Ponte. Madonna and Child, with SS. Mary Magdalen 
and Catherine. The donor kneels beneath. 

Stanza del Cima. — 

9. Moceto (pupil of Giov. Bellini). Madonna holding the Child 
erect on her knee in front of a green hanging. In the left 
comer "Hieronimo Moceto p." 

12. Bern. Luini. Adoration of the Magi. 

15. Gioru. Bellini. (?) Madonna and Child. 

36. Giov. Bellini. (?) Madonna and Child, with SS. Sebastian and 
Roch. 
*54. Cima da Cotiegliano, 1489. Madonna under a bower of vines, 
with SS. James and Jerome. A very early and most beautiful 
work of the master — from the Church of S. Bartolommeo. 

Stanza delle Antiche. — 

2. Bernardino da Murano, (?) Madonna, with SS. Jerome and Francis 

and two others. There is no proof of the existence of the 

painter to whom this picture is attributed. It is probably by 

a pupil of Montagna. 

10. Paolo da Vatezia. The Death of the Virgin, her soul is received 



MUSEO CIVICO. 329 

above by the Saviour — a very curious picture, inscribed 
" MCCCXXXIII. Paulus de Veneciis Pixit he opus." 

14. Andrea da Castagno. S. Michael weighing souls. 

15. Andrea Bussato (apparently a pupil of Basaiti, c. 1510). S. 

Anthony of Padua. 

Stanza degli Antichi Vicentini. — 

I. Bart. Montagna, 1438— 1523. Holy Family. 
*2. Id. Madonna and Child under an arcade, with SS. J. Baptist 
and Bartholomew, Sebastian and Augustine. The predella 
represents the Legend of S. Bartholomew. 
'3. Id. Madonna, in a blue veil, adoring the Infant Saviour, 
between SS. Monica and Mary Magdalen. 

4. Battista da Vicenza. Saints — a tabernacle. 

5. Marcello Fogolino, 1450. S. Jerome. 

*8. Bart. Montagna. The Presentation in the Temple. S. Simeon 
kneels, as the Virgin, kneeling, presents the Child. Behind 
the Virgin is S. Joseph ; behind Simeon, a kneeling patron. 
It is signed "Opus Bartolomei Montagna." 

18. Id. Virgin and Child, with SS. John Baptist and Onofrio. 

19. Id. A Predella— the story of S. Biagio. 

20. Gierv. Buonconsiglio. The Dead Christ, with the Virgin, S. John, 

and the Magdalen. 

21. Giov. Speranza, i^do. The Assumption, with two kneeling saints 

— in the predella, the twelve apostles. 

22. Marcello Fogolino. The Adoration of the Magi— from S. Barto- 

lommeo. In the predella are the Annunciation, Nativity, and 
Flight into Egypt. 

Stanza dei Ritratti. — 

21. Leonardo da Vinci. (?) Unknown. 

46. Giorgione. Pietro d'Abano. 

47. Raffaelle. (?) Lorenzo dei Medici da Urbino. 

58. Jacopo Tintoretto. Vincenzo Scamozzi the architect. 

Sala dei Disegni Autografi. — 

A most valuable collection of the sketches of Palladia (1518 — 1568) 
and the two other great Vicentine architects, Scamozzi and Calderari, for 
the buildings in the town. 

In the great Hall of the Palace are the relics of the great 
picture of The Supper of S. Gregory, by Paul Veronese, <vhich 



330 ITALIAN CITIES. 

was hacked into 32 pieces by the Austrian soldiers who 
occupied the Convent of Monte Berico in 1848. 

Close to the Museo on the left (by the door No. 988 Leva 
degli Angeli) is the entrance to the truly wonderful Teatro 
Olimpico built from designs of Palladia, though completed 
after his death by his son Scilla. The scenery of the 
stage represents a piazza with streets opening behind it — 
but it is indescribable — though well worth seeing. 

" The Olympic theatre is a theatre of the ancients, realized on a small 
scale, and indescribably beautiful. Compared with our theatres, how- 
ever, it reminds me of a genteel, rich, well-bred child, contrasted with a 
shrewd man of the world, who, though neither as rich, or genteel, or 
well-bred, knows better how to employ his resources." — Goethe. 

A short distance to the right from hence (by the Ponte 
degli Angeli) is the Church of S. Pietro which is united to 
Casa de Ricovero, or Ospizio del Poveri. Over the door is 
a relief by Canova of Charity writing on the pedestal which 
supports the bust of Octavio Trento, founder of the institu- 
tion. The church contains pictures by Maganza, and 
statues of Adam and Eve by Albanese. 

Returning down the Corso, we may observe (on the right) 
in the Contrada da Porto, a noble palace by Palladia, and 
several fine specimens of Venetian Gothic houses. Further, 
on the right, in the Via Porta S. Croce, is the Church af S. 
Lorenzo, the finest of the brick churches here, built 1185. 
The picturesque west front has seven long deeply-recessed 
arches, in four of which are canopied Gothic tombs, with 
the portal in the centre. The interior is very lofty and well- 
proportioned. It contains a number of tombs of illustrious 
Vicentines, especially (left) those of the architect Scamozzi, 
the artist Bart. Montagna, and J. Ant. Fasoli, 1572, also — 

Right, "yd Altar. B. Montagna. SS. La\vrence and Vincent 



MONTE BERICO. 331 

The other churches of Vicenza are of no importance. 
Many other palaces by Palladio deserve notice, and will be 
admired in walking about the streets, such as the Palazzo 
Barbarano, Marc-Antonio Tiene, Porto, and Valmarana. 
They have all much the same character. 

The great charm of Vicenza is its vicinity to the beautiful 
Monte Berico,'wh\Qh. no one should fail to ascend (about \ mile), 
to the Church and Convent of S. Maria del Monte, built to com- 
memorate an appearance of the Virgin, in 1428, but much 
added to in 1688. The church is a Greek cross with a 
cupola. It contains a fine picture of Bart. Montagna, 
1500 — the Madonna and saints bewailing the dead Christ. 
There is a delightful walk beyond the church, along the 
ridge of the hill, whence the view of Alps and plain and 
city is most beautiful. 




Vicenza, from Moute Berico. 



On one of the lower ridges of Monte Berico, reached by 
a road which diverges '* Al Cristo " from the portico (to the 



332 ITALIAN CITIES. 

right in descending), is the Villa Valmarana, adorned with 
frescoes by Tiepolo, and above it the famous Rotonda Capra, 
" Palladio's Villa," from which Chiswick is copied. 

"The Rotonda is a quadrangular building, enclosing a circular hall, 
lighted from the top. On all the four sides, you ascend a broad flight 
of steps, and always come to a vestibule, which is formed by six Corinth- 
ian columns. Probably the luxury of architecture was never carried to 
so high a point The space occupied by the steps and vestibules is much 
larger than that occupied by the house itself ; for every one of the sides 
is as grand and pleasing as the front of the temple. With respect to the 
inside it may be called habitable, but not comfortable. The hall is of 
the finest proportion, and so are the chambers ; but they would hardly 
suffice for the requirements of any gentleman's family as a summer resi- 
dence. Still, its appearance is most striking, from whatever side it may 
be seen. The variety produced by the principal mass, as, with its pro- 
jecting columns, it is brought gradually before the eyes of the spectator 
who walks round it, is very great : and the intention of the owner, who 
wished to leave a large trust-estate, together with a visible monument of 
his magnificence, is completely attained. And, as the building appears 
in all its glory, from whatever site it may be looked upon, so in itself 
it is the point whence an enchanting view may be obtained. You see 
the course of the Bachiglione as it bears vessels from Verona to the 
Brenta, while you overlook the immense possessions which the Marquis 
Capra wished to preserve intact in his family. The inscriptions on the 
four gables, which together constitute one whole, deserve to be re- 
corded : 

Marcus Capra Gabrielis filius 

Qui sedes has 
Arctissimo primogeniturae gradui subjecit 

Una cum omnibus 
* Censibus agris vallibus et collibus 

Citra viam magnam 
Memorise perpetuae mandans haec 

Dum abstinet ac subiret. 

"The conclusion in particular is strange enough. A man who can 
command so much wealth and such a capacious will, still feels that he 
must bear and forbear. This can be learned at a less expense." — 
Goethe. 



VALDAGNO. 333 

At S. Giovanni Ilarione, near Vicenza, is a beautiful pic- 
ture by Bart. Montagna, of the Madonna between SS. 
Anthony of Padua and John the Evangelist. 

On summer evenings, when the meadows between the 
town and Monte Berico are aflame with fire-flies, all the 
" high life " of Vicenza turns out to walk in the beautiful 
passeggiate beyond the Porta Castello. Then the great 
tower of the Scaligers stands out magnificently against the 
jagged blue mountains, and the stately groups of trees are 
solid blots upon the transparent sky, like the backgrounds 
of Titian's pictures. At such times it will be felt, that 
Vicenza is one of the places — and they are rare — ^where the 
ideal Italy of pictures and story-books may really be found. 



(From Vicenza a pleasant excursion of 26 miles may be 
made to Valdagno and the Baths of Recoaro (carriage 18 
frs., or 14 frs. to Valdagno only). The road passes through 
the long straggling village of Montecchio (Montagu), above 
which the great ruined castles of the Montecchi and Cap- 
pelletti are pointed out. The country will give an idea of 
the wealth of the Veneto, the richest district in Italy, and 
famous for its cattle. Hay is made three or even four times 
in a year, and the leaves of the white mulberries are no 
sooner gathered for the bacchi (silk-worms) than they begin 
to come again. To the left is Trissino, where Count Porto- 
Tiene of Vicenza has a charming summer palace. At 20 
miles we reach Valdagno (Albergo delle Alpe), a small town 
embosomed in verdure and approached by a long avenue 
of trees. In the latter part of the last century this quiet 
country-place was the resort of several English families to 



334 ITALIAN CITIES. 

whom economy was an object : Julius Hare, afterwards 
Archdeacon of Lewes, was born here in 1795. 

After this the road ascends almost perpetually to Recoaro, 
which is quite in the depths of the hills, and, like Valdagno, 
intersected by the swift and dangerous stream of the Agno, 
After June 15, when the bathing season begins, this pretty 
little place is crowded by representatives of every European 
nation. Though there are pleasant walks all round, it has 
no especial feature. But the life here is remarkably social, 
and, on summer evenings, sometimes as many as 800 or 
1000 mounted donkeys are driven off together on an excur- 
sion, which has an amusing effect. Balls and picnics are 
also frequent, to which a very slight introduction ensures a 
welcome.) 



I 



CHAPTER XIX. 

PADUA AND THE EUGANEAN HILLS. 

T is rather more than ^ hr, by quick train from Vicenza 
to Padua — 4 frs. 35 c. ; 3 frs. 15 c. 



Hotels. Aquila d'Oro, a comfortable, old-fashioned hotel, looking 
upon S. Antonio ; pension 6 francs. Stella d'Oro, very good. Aquila 
Neva. 

Carriages, from the station, I franc ; with 2 horses, I fr. 50 c. ; each 
piece of luggage, 40 c. Course in the town, 50 c. For an hour 2 
francs ; with 2 horses, 2 frs. 50 c. 

Omnibus, 75 c. 

Two days may be well spent at Padua. More hurried 
travellers should see — the Sala della Ragione, the University, 
and the squares around them ; the Cathedral and Baptistery ; 
the Prato della Valle and S. Giustina ; S. Antonio and its 
appendages (this the most important) ; the Eremitani and 
the Chapel of the Arena. 

Padua, the ancient Patavium, is said to owe its foundation to 
Antenor. 

" Hie tamen ilia urbem Patavi, sedesque locavit 
Teucrorum, et genti nomen dedit, armaque fixit 
Troia."* — Virgil, jEn. i. 242. 

♦ " Antenor founded Padua's happy seat, 
And gave his Trojans a secure retreat, 
There fix'd his arms, and there renew'd their name, 
And there in quiet rules, andcrown'd with fame." — Dryden. 



336 ITALIAN CITIES. 

It grew so rapidly in power that, according to Strabo, it was able to 
bring 200,000 men into the field, and when the Spartan Cleonymus 
came to Italy with a Greek fleet and attacked Padua, he was repulsed 
and driven out of the territory of the town, which then extended to the 
sea. Livy (x. 2) narrates that the remembrance of this victory was 
annually celebrated by a naval contest on the Brenta. The historian 
Livy was born here in 50 B.C., and also died here in his 76th year. In 
452 Padua suffered severely from the invasion of Attila, and in 601 was 
burnt by Agilulfj king of the Longobards. 

In the Middle Ages, Padua was one of the towns which struggled most 
successfully against the Imperial rule. In 1164 it joined the Lombardic 
league and instituted its free government. The town was then extended, 
and the Palazzo della Ragione built. In 1222 the University of Padua 
was founded, in consequence of the dissolution of that at Bologna. 

As a Guelphic city, Padua fought against the detested tyrant Eccelino, 
the son-in-law of the Emperor, but, in 1237, he succeeded in gaining 
possession of the town, and avenged, by the most fearful massacres, the 
destruction of his family castle by the inhabitants. Padua was relieved 
by the Guelphic army raised by Pope Alexander IV., and, unable to 
reconquer it, Eccelino vented his fury by the massacre of 1 1,000 Paduans 
in his army at Verona. Upon the fall of Eccelino in 1259, the town 
rose to great power, governed by a council of eight chosen patriots. 
This time was marked by the building of the grand church in honour of 
S. Antonio, who, a Portuguese noble, the strictest and most celebrated 
of the followers of S. Francis, died at Padua in 1231. In 131 1 disputes 
as to the possession of Vicenza led to a war with Verona, in which the 
Paduan troops were headed by the famous Guelphic chieftain Jacopo 
da Carrara, who was elected Signore of Padua in 1318. In 13 19 Can 
Grande besieged the town, and demanded the abdication of Carrara as 
a condition of peace. He sacrificed his position, and Padua submitted 
for a short time to the representatives of the Emperor. But in 1337 
Marsiglio da Carrara became independent prince of Padua, and was 
succeeded by his son Ubertino, who ruled from 1338 to 1345, and was 
a noble and beneficent prince. The Palazzo dei Principi was built and 
the town greatly adorned under his government. His successor Mar- 
siglietto Papafava was murdered by Jacopo da Carrara (the friend of 
Petrarch), who was in his turn murdered in 1350, after which his brother 
Jacopino ruled for five years. He was succeeded by his nephew 
Francesco da Carrara, who was celebrated for his wars against the 
Venetians and afterwards against the Milanese under the Visconti. An 
alliance between Venice and Milan ended in the total defeat of the 
Paduans in 1388, and the temporary fall of the house of Carrara. The 



HISTORY OF PADUA. 337 

story of the imprisonment and the after adventures of the Carraras is 
one of the most romantic of the Middle Ages. Francesco Novello da 
Carrara and his devoted wife Taddea d'Este escaped from the castle 
wrhere they were immured by the Visconti, and after a series of almost 
incredible adventures they reached Florence. With assistance obtained 
from Bologna and Friuli, Francesco once more presented himself before 
his native town with a banner bearing the arms of the House of Carrara. 
He called upon the Milanese governor to surrender, and was received 
with derision, but he swam the Brenta by night, crept into the town, 
and was welcomed with joy by the citizens, who rose suddenly and 
successfully against the Milanese, and proclaimed Francesco Novello 
sovereign Lord of Padua on Sept. 8, 1390. He ruled till 1405, when a 
succession of wars with the Visconti and Venice ended in the treacher- 
ous capture of the city by the Venetians. Then the brave Francesco 
Novello da Carrara and his sons were strangled, after having endured 
imprisonment in an iron cage 8 feet broad and 12 feet long. Hence- 
forth Padua shared the fortunes of Venice. 

The finest edifices in Padua date from the time of her freedom ; those 
raised under the dominion of Venice (the Cathedral, S. Giustina, &c. ) are 
comparatively unimportant. The earlier buildings, — the Palazzo della 
Ragione, S. Antonio, the Arena, the Baptistery, &c., are of the greatest 
value in the history of art. Here also we make our principal acquaint- 
ance with the immortal creations of the Florentine Giotto. He was 
succeeded by Andrea Mantegna (bom at Padua, 1431), who, with his 
master Francesco Sqtiarcione, founded the Paduan school of painting. 
In sculpture, Padua is rich in works of Donatello, who came here from 
Florence, and of his pupil Andrea Riccio. Among the native architects 
Falconetto is the most important. 



"Many-domed Padua proud 
Stands, a peopled solitude, 
'Mid the harvest-shining plain, 
Where the peasant heaps his grain. " — Shelley. 

The plain in which Padua lies is backed by the Euganean 
hills. It is buried in gardens and vineyards, and has a 
charming character of brightness and verdure in the spring 
and summer months. Its tall towers and its many domes 
rising high above the walls, give it a stately aspect. Within, 



338 ITALIAN CITIES. 

the streets are narrow, and everywhere along the sides 
arcaded walks run beneath the houses, which are a delight- 
ful protection from wet in winter and from heat in summer. 
The stately old palaces have large court-yards and radiant 
gardens of flowers in the very centre of the town, and the 
principal churches stand in wide open spaces which are 
always fresh and pleasant to walk in. 

The town is approached from the station through walks 
bordered by chestnuts. On the right an inscription on an 
old pillar tells that — " Here was the bulwark where our 
countrymen, at the cost of many a free-man's blood, defeated 
Maximilian, avenged the infamy of the league of Cambray, 
and the aggression of the stranger, Sept. 29, 1509." On 
the first bridge another inscription tells that — " Here Novello 
da Carrara with forty hero friends went down into the stream, 
attacked the bridge, routed the Visconti, and in glad triumph 
was received again by the people as their lord. June 19, 
1390." 

On the left of the first gate is the great Church of the 
Carmine, a stately brick building with a tall campanile and 
dome. The neighbouring oratory called Scuola del Carmine 
is covered with important frescoes ; some of them appear to 
have almost perished, but it is hoped that they may be 
restored by the cleaning process of white wine and bread 
which has already often proved eflScacious. The best are :— 



End Wall. Cavazzola. The Adoration of the Magi and the Ador- 
ation of the Shepherds. 

Left Wall. Girolamo Santa Croce. The Birth, Presentation, Purifi- 
cation, and Marriage of the Virgin. 

Id. Titian. The Meeting of Joachim and Anna. 

The Altar-piece is a beautiful Madonna and Child by Palrna Vecchio. 



PIAZZA DEI SIGNORI. 339 

In the piazza opposite the Scuola is a Statue of Petrarch, 
erected 1874. 

On the right is a brick tower with a heavy stone basement 
built as a fortress by the tyrant Ezzelino, in 1250. 

Crossing the stream of the Bacchiglione (a branch of the 
Po, most picturesque, with its old water-mills and overhang- 
ing houses), we enter the town by a second gateway, and an 
old tower from which, as the inscription tells us, Galileo 
tracked out many paths in the heavens. 

The Via Maggiore with heavy colonnades (there is a good 
Venetian Gothic house on the right) leads hence to the 
centre of the town, where there are a group of piazzas. 
That first entered is the Piazza dei Signori (which they now 
attempt to call Piazza dell' Unitk d'ltalia), containing the 
Palazzo del Capitan, and the Loggia del Consiglio, beyond 
which are the University Library, the Baptistery, and 
Cathedral. A block of houses only separates this square 
from the Piazza delle Erbe and the Piazza delle Frutte, 
which are divided by the huge mass of the Palazzo del 
Ragione. Examining these buildings separately : — 

The Palazzo del Capitan has a great clock-tower, con- 
taining what is said to be the earliest striking clock, invented 
at Padua by Giacomo Dondi, c. 1344. The descendants of 
the clock-maker are still called Dondi dell' Orologio. The 
doorway of the palace is by Falconetto, 1532, and its beauti- 
ful staircase by Palladio. 

Adjoining, is the Library of the University, which has an 
immense hall ornamented with frescoes by Campagnola, 
1540. The portrait of Petrarch belongs to an earlier series 
of frescoes. The Library, which is a very good one, is open 
to students from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. 



340 ITALIAN CITIES. 

The Palazzo della Ragione is an immense building with a 
high roof, surrounded by wide loggias resting upon open 
arches, beneath which there are arcades with shops. The 
entrance is from behind, on the left of the Via S. Martino, 
where a staircase in a court-yard leads to the upper court of 
the Palazzo Municipale, and beyond that to the vast Sala 
(a custode) which occupies the whole upper floor of the 
Palazzo. This chamber is 267^ feet long and 89 both wide 
and high. It was built, or rather arranged and roofed, for 
there were three halls here before, in 1306, by i^ra Giovanni, 
an Augustinian monk, who had brought back the design of 
its vast wooden roof from a palace he had seen in India. 
The walls were originally decorated with frescoes by Giotto, 
executed under the direction of Pietro d'Abano, but these 
were destroyed by fire in 1420, and the present frescoes are 
partly by Zuan Miretto of Padua, partly by an unknown 
artist from Ferrara. They depict, in 319 compartments, 
the months, planets, and other things allegorical. None are 
of any great importance ; Dante is represented as Sagittarius. 

At the end of the hall is the huge wooden model of 
Donatello for the horse of Gattamelata, near S. Antonio, 
looking here like the horse of Troy ; it was executed in 1466. 
The head is a restoration. Formerly it was covered with 
skins so as to resemble life. Ludovico Lazzarelli, a con- 
temporary poet, sang its praises as equal to the works of 
Daedalus, Phidias, or Praxiteles. 

On the right of the horse is a monument, of 1547, erected 
in honour of Livy, who was a native of Abano near Padua. 
Some bones, certainly not those of the historian, which were 
found in 141 3 near where an inscription had been discovered 
relating to Titus Livius Halys, a freedman of Livia Quarta, 



IL BO. 341 

were brought here with great pomp, a jawbone having been 
given, at his own request, to King Alfonso of Arragon. To 
the right of this memorial is a still stranger one of 1661 to 
Lucrezia Dondi, who died under such excessively odd 
circumstances, that those who are very particular had better 
not read her epitaph ! To the left of the horse is a bust to 
Sperone Speroni, the philosopher. 

At the other end of the hall, between two Egyptian figures 
presented by him, is a medallion to Belzoni, who was a 
native of Padua. Near these, is the Lapis Vituperii, or Altar 
of Insolvency, upon which debtors were cleared. In the 
loggia, over the different doors, are memorials to the Frate 
Alberto Padovano, 1323; to Paulus, a jurist under the 
Empire ; and to Pietro d'Abano, the physician and astrologer, 
1250 — 13 16, with an inscription refuting the accusation of 
using magical arts which was brought against him.* 

The Archivio Pubblico, near the Sala, has a very important 
collection of documents relating to the city. In the Sala 
Verde are some pictures connected with Paduan history. 

The Via S. Martino, which runs through an arch behind 
the richly decorated Palazzo del Municipio, leads speedily 
to the University, commonly called // Bo, which was founded 
by Urban IV. in 1260. Galileo was a Professor here. The 
University was formerly greatly renowned, and is still much 
frequented. The class-rooms surround a handsome court, 
attributed to Sansovino, and highly picturesque from the 
multitude of shields of arms of the students with which the 
walls are crowded. At the foot of the staircase is the statue 
of Elena Lucrezia Piscopia, who died in 1684, having 

* Those who stay in Padua may be interested in reading Tieck's tale of Pietro 
d'Abano. 



342 ITALIAN CITIES. 

received a doctor's degree here, in honour of her extraordinary- 
learning. Galileo was a Professor, and the University was 
once of great renown ; but, though still much frequented, it 
is long since it has produced anything very remarkable, 

"In thy halls the lamp of learning, 
Padua, now no more is burning ; 
Like a meteor, whose wild way 
Is lost over the grave of day. 
It gleams betrayed and to betray." — Shelley. 

The Cathedral was built in the sixteenth century by 
Andrea delta Valle and Agostino Righetti, but is falsely 
attributed to Michael Angelo. The proportions of the 
interior are admirable, a second transept with a second 
dome has been inserted half-way down the nave. We may 
observe : — 

Right Aisle {near door). The Monuments of Sperone Speroni and his 
daughter Giulia. 

Sacristy. An Evangeliarium with miniatures by one Isidorus, of 
1 1 70; an Epistolarium with minatures by Giovanni Gaibana, 1259; and 
some curious reliquaries. 

In the North Transept 'k a Madonna ascribed to Giotto. Its authenticity 
has been doubted, but it is most interesting as having been the property 
of Petrarch, who considered it a Giotto, and bequeathed it as such in 
his will to his friend Francesco Carrara the elder. There are good early 
monuments of bishops in both the transepts. 

Tribune. Padovanino (copy of Titian). Madonna and Child. 

Leji Aisle {near door). A modem bust of Petrarch, who was a canon 
here, by Rinaldi. 

The Baptistery ^ on the left of the entrance, dates from the 
twelfth century. The walls are covered with frescoes believed 
to have been executed by Guisto Padovano in 1378, at the 
expense of Fina Buzzacarina, wife of Francesco di Carrara. 
The donor and her family, with Petrarch, are represented 
kneeling before the Virgin. 



BAPTISTERY OF PADUA. 343 

' ' The Baptistery is a quadrangular building, surmounted by a cupola, — 
characteristic without and beautiful within, where the eye roves delighted 
over a perfect garden of frescoes. 

" The Gloria on the cupola is the first instance, I believe, of the style 
of composition subsequently adopted by Correggio and later painters, but 
originally, as in the present instance, imitated from the mosaics. Our 
Saviour, blessing with his right hand and holding the open book, 
inscribed, ' Ego sum A et Q, ' in his left, stands in the centre, within a 
circle of light, and below him, in a vesica piscis, the Virgin, erect, with 
her hands raised in prayer, as at St. Mark's and in the Duomo of 
Murano. To their right and left sit, in different attitudes, and with 
their distinctive emblems, the Saints of God, male and female, five rows 
deep, in a vast circle ; the effect is singularly brilliant, and reminds one 
of Dante's comparison of the church in heaven to a snow-white rose. 
The lower circuit of the cupola is filled with the history of the book of 
Genesis, ending abruptly with the Concealment of Joseph in the well. 

" The history of John the Baptist is represented on the southern wall, 
and that of the Virgin and our Saviour on the western and northern 
and on the triumphal arch. . . . The cupoletta of the chancel represents 
the Descent of the Holy Spirit, the traditional composition, as depicted 
in mosaic at S. Mark's ; and the walls of this little recess are completely 
lined with about forty small subjects, entirely taken from the 
Apocalypse, and treated with the most fearless originality ; one of them 
is delightfully quaint and naive — the four angels kneeling on the four 
corners of the earth, and forcibly compressing with both hands the 
mouths of the four winds, represented as ^olus' heads ; in spite, how- 
ever, of their utmost efforts, they cannot prevent great blasts escaping, 
and you almost hear the spluttering and fizzing that is going on. Others 
of these compositions are very grand, and the painter has combined, 
added, and taken away, with singular felicity. The lunette above the 
altar represents God the Father within a vesica piscis, the lamb lying 
in his bosom, the four beasts keeping watch around the throne, the 
lamp burning in front, the twenty-four elders, to the right and left, 
offering their crowns, the angels in front adoring. The four horsemen 
are represented in the ionr pennachi or pendentives of the cupola, — the 
Vision is then continued round the walls and under the arches, the subjects 
being most skilfully adapted to the different spaces that were to be 
covered ; the seven trumpets, for instance, are carried from the summit 
of the small transverse arch to the left hand on entering the chancel, all 
round it, to the soffit of the corresponding transverse arch to the right 
hand, — similarly, and with exquisite propriety, the seven last vials are 
disposed on the soffit of the triumphal arch of entrance, symbolical of 



344 ITALIAN CITIES. 

death. It is the most complete and comprehensive illustration of the 
Apocalypse ever attempted in painting, and, rude as it undoubtedly is 
in detail, there are hints here by which a painter desirous of taking a 
lofty flight might profit much." — Lindsay's Christian Art. 

The Cathedral Library contains many illuminated MSS., 
Letters of Tasso, MSS. of Sperone Speroni, &c. 

The Via Teatro Concordi leads from hence (right) to the 
Palazzo Pappafava, which contains a curious sculptured 
group representing the fallen angels, of sixty figures carved 
out of a single block of marble, by Agostino Fasolato. There 
are a few rather good pictures here. 

Hence, by the Via Scaloni, we reach a bridge over the 
Bacchiglione, whence there is a good view of the fine old 
Torre di S. Tommaso, full of character, with exceedingly long 
machicolations. It was built by Eccelino, and was the scene 
of many of his cruelties ; now it is used as an Observatory. 

The Via Seminario leads from the bridge to the small 
Church of S, Bovo. On the left is the Church of S. Maria 
in Vanzo, which contains two pictures hy Bartolommeo Mon- 
tagna at the high-altar, and a Burial of Christ by Bassano 
in the chapel on the left. 

Hence, turning to the left, we reach the vast and unique 
square called Pratodella Valle.* On the right is the Gothic 
Loggia Municipale. In the centre is a garden, surrounded 
by a canal, and peopled by a vast multitude of gigantic 
statues, representing all illustrious citizens of Padua, and 
many others who have any bond of connection with the 
town, including Gustavus of Sweden, who studied at the 
University in 1609. Beyond the statues rises, in eastern- 
looking domes — 

* A ludicrous attempt is being made to change this time-honoured name to the 
Piazza Vittorio Emanuele ! 



S. GIUSTINA. 345 




Prato della Valle, Padua. 

The Church of S. Giustina, which dates, as it now stands, 
from 1532 — 49. Its facade is unfinished, but very stately 
in its proportions. At the top of the steps are two griffins 
which belonged to an earHer church of the thirteenth century. 
Making the round of the church we may see : — 

Right Aisle. 2,nd Altar. Liberi. S. Gertrude supported by angels. 
, ^h Altar. Luca Giordano. Death of S. Scholastica. 

yh Altar. Palma Giovane. S. Benedict and his disciples. 

Hight Transept. An altar supposed to cover part of the body of 
S. Matthew. In the chapel behind this, is a well with bones of the 
Paduan martyrs at the bottom, and behind it the prison of the martyr S. 
Daniele, and a catacomb with the graves of S. Giustina and S. Pros- 
docimo, the first bishop of Padua, with the bull authorizing their 
canonization. Also the Chapel of S. Luca, with frescoes by Campagnola, 
and a Madonna (not black) set in gold, and brought in the eighth 
century from Constantinople. In front of the altar is the sleeping figure 
of S. Prosdocimo. 

Right of High- Altar. Parodi. A group of the Dead Christ with the 
Virgin, the Magdalen, and S. John. 



346 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Choir. Stalls by A. Campagnola of 1556. The altar-piece is the 
Martyrdom of S. Giustina, by P. Veronese. Hence, a door on the right 
leads to another Choir, a remnant of the thirteenth-century church, 
which contains some fine tombs, of Ludovico Barbo, and Jacopo, a 
Doctor of Law. 

Left Transept. A tomb covering relics of S. Luke, with alabaster 
reliefs set in Serpentine, and an iron case containing the coffins in which 
the remains of the Evangelists were brought from Constantinople in 1 1 77. 

A little to the right of the church is the Orto Botanico, 
the earliest Botanic Garden in Europe, instituted 1543. 

On the right of the Prato della Valle the simple direction 
" Al Santo " indicates the way to S. Antonio. 

"No one among the disciples of S. Francis was more conspicuous 
than S. Anthony for holiness of life and the gift of persuasive eloquence. 
Although bom in an age of fierce and unbridled passion, he preached 
peace and goodwill to men, enforced it by example, and so moved the 
vast audiences assembled around him, in city squares and open fields, 
that the bitterest enemies fell upon each other's necks and swore ever 
after to live like brothers. 

"In the sermons of S. Anthony, whose texts are developed by images 
fitted to touch the heart, and illustrated by striking similes, there is 
enough of sentiment and fancy to explain the interest which they excited 
in the minds of his hearers, who gave him all their confidence, because 
they were convinced 'che le sue parole rispondevano alia sua santa 
vita,' and because so many of them had witnessed his fearlessness in 
rebuking sin, when he saluted Eccelino the tyrant of Padua with the 
words, ' O most cruel tyrant, and mad dog ! the terrible sentence of God 
hangs over thee. When wilt thou cease to spill the blood of innocent 
men ? ' and had wondered at his power when they saw the monster, 
whom all feared, fall upon his knees, with a cord about his neck, before 
the man of God, confessing his sins and imploring pardon." — Perkins^ 
Tuscan Sculptors.* 

* S. Anthony was once sent for to preach before the Pope and Cardinals in the 
Consistory, and " explained the word of God so devoutly, so sweetly, so clearly, and 
in a manner so efficacious and learned, that all who were in the Consistory, though 
they spoke different languages, understood what he said as perfectly as if he had 
spoken the language of each. And the Pope, considering the deep meaning of his 
words, exclaimed, — ' In truth this man is the ark of the Testament, and the treasure 
of the Holy Scriptures.' " — Fioretti di S. Francesco, xxxix. 



r 



S. ANTONIO. 347 

The vast Church of S. Antonio is one of the most extra- 
ordinary buildings in Italy. Externally it is like a mosque, — 
a huge square mass surmounted by a crowd of domes and 
minarets. It was begun in honour of S. Antonio, immedi- 
ately after his death, from designs of Niccolb da Pisa, and was 
completed in 1307, being 280 ft. long by 188 ft. broad. 

" The Gothic elements which Niccol6 used were a homage to the 
peculiar predilections of the followers of S. Francis ; the clustering 
Byzantine cupolas showed the effect produced upon him by the Church 
of S. Mark at Venice ; while the Romanesque fagade told that he had 
not forgotten the well-beloved Duomo at Pisa, under the shadow of 
whose walls his early years had been spent." — Perkins' Tuscan Sculptors. 

The paved Piazza in front of the church is full of interest. 
On the left is the noble equestrian statue of the Venetian 
general Gattamelata (Erasmo da Narni) by Donatella, in- 
scribed " Opus Donatelli, Flor." 

" Being more conversant with human than equine anatomy, Donatello 
succeeded less well with the horse than the rider, who, dressed in armour, 
and holding the baton of command in his left hand, while the reins are 
gathered in his right, sits somewhat stiffly, though with considerable 
dignity, on the back of a ponderous war-horse, whose head wants nobility 
and fire, and whose heavy limbs seem ill adapted for pursuit or flight. 
Close observers have remarked that like the bronze horse which bears 
Bartolommeo CoUeoni at Venice, like that painted by Paolo Uccello 
at Florence, this horse lifts two legs on the same side, which being con- 
trary to nature, surprises us in the work of one who studied her so care- 
fully as Donatello." — Perkins' Tuscan Sculptors. 

On the right are the Museo, the Scuola del Santo, and the 
Chapel of S. Giorgio, and, close to the church, the tomb of 
Rolando Piazzola. 

The west front of the church is rather spoilt by recent re- 
parations. Over the central door is a fresco of S. Antonio 
and S. Bernardino, with the famous monogram of the latter 



348 ITALIAN CITIES. 

painted by A. Mantegna in 1452. Above is a statue of S. 
Antonio, backed by an injured fresco, and then a range of 
pointed arches. 

The general effect of the interior, from its crowd of pictures, 
tombs, and sculpture of every description, with lamps hang- 
ing before the shrines, is quite magnificent. Making the 
round of the church we find — 

Right Aisle. 

1st Pillar. Antonio Boselli (a native of the Val Brembana). The 
Virgin and Child, with SS. Antonio, Buenaventura, Francis, and 
Paul — a beautiful specimen of this rare master, who painted c. 
1500— 1536. 

Close to this is one of the two beautiful holy- water basons sur- 
mounted by figures of the Saviour and S. J. Baptist. 

2nd Pillar. Fine tomb of Cardinal Pietro Bembo. 

\st Chapel (of the Sacrament). Beautiful bronze gates and orna- 
ments by Donatella. Picturesque tombs in red, black, and white 
marble, of (left) Gattamelata, and (right) his son. 

^h Pillar. Behind the pulpit a fresco by Stefano da Ftrrara. 

Transept. Chapel of S. Felice, with a beautiful screen of red and 
white marble, built in 1372 — 76 by Andriolo da Venezia for Bonifazio 
de Lupi, Marchese di Sorogna, whose tomb is within, on the right of the 
altar. It was originally dedicated to S. James, but afterwards to S. Felix, 
when his remains were transported hither. Behind the altar is buried 
Bartolommea degli Scrovigni (sister of the builder of the Arena), who is 
said to have been poisoned by her husband Massilio da Carrara soon after 
their marriage. Over the altar are five statues of saints by Andriolo. 
The walls are entirely covered with frescoes of great beauty, by facopo 
Avanzi and Altichieri da Zevio. On the Left wall begins the legendary 
story of S. James. 

I. Hermogenes the Magician sends Philetes to dispute with S. 
James : in the centre, S. James converts Philetes by his preach- 
ing : to the right Hermogenes sends his demons to arrest S. 
James and Philetes : in the right-hand comer the devils com- 
plain to them of Hermogenes. 

7: Altar wall, left, 1st lunette. Hermogenes is brought to S. James 
by the devils : Philetes bums the magical books : Hermogenes 
and Philetes converse with S. James. 



S. ANTONIO. 349 

3. Middle lunette. S. James healing a paralytic man on the way to 

execution, and his decapitation. 

4. Third lunette. Sea-shore in front of the castle of Queen Lupa ; 

an empty boat beside it, an angel holding the rudder ; Hermo- 
genes and Philetes lay the body on the stone, which shapes 
itself into a sarcophagus ; Queen Lupa, with her sister, looks 
down from the balcony of the castle. 

5. Right-hand wall, to the left of the window. Hermogenes and 

Philetes arrested by a soldier of the Spanish king. 

6. Right wall, right of the window. Their imprisonment — much 

defaced. 

7. \st of three lunettes on the outer wall. Their release from prison ; 

their pursuers are drowned. 

8. Second lunette. The sarcophagus drawn byjwild oxen into Queen 

Lupa's palace. In the background they seem to go down on 
their knees before Hermogenes and Philetes. 

9. Third lunette. Interior of Queen Lupa's palace : she receives 

baptism. 

10. Left-hand wall, below No. I. Apparition'of S. James in a dream, 

to Don Ramiro L, King of Leon, and his deliberation there- 
upon with his council, which led to 

11, The Defeat of the Saracens at Clavijo, A.D. 844 (when 70,000 

infidels fell, and after which S. lago became the Spanish battle- 
cry) : S. James appears above the broken arch in the back- 
ground. * 

Left {entrance of Choir). The Crucifixion, with those who foretold it, 
and saints standing below, by Montagnana, 

Right. A fresco, by Filippo Veronese, of Gregory X. presenting the donor 
to the Virgin and Child, and close to it the curious painted effigy of Lupi 
da Parma under a canopy. Here is the entrance to the Sacristies. The 
Ante-chamber has a most curious fresco of S. Antonio preaching to the 
fishes at Rimini. The Sacristy is painted by Liberi. The Old Sacristy 
beyond is connected with the cloisters by open arches. 

The Cappella del Sintuario behind the high-altar is extremely rich in 
marbles and gilding. It possesses some minor fragments of the saint, 
his tongue, his chin, his hair, &c. } . . . In the second chapel beyond 
this is a fifteenth-century tomb by Antonio Tuni, in imitation of an early 
Christian sarcophagus. 

Right. The tomb of two Marchetti, professors in the University. 
Then a fresco of Christ bound and crowned with thorns, by Andrea Man- 
tegna. 

• See Lindsay's " Christian Art," ii. 341. 



3SO ITALIAN CITIES. 

Right. Cappella della Madonna Mora. A most picturesque chapel, 
full of effect and colour, containing the image from the church of S. Maria 
Nuova, which was venerated by S. Antonio. Part of the side wall is occu- 
pied by the grand fourteenth-century tomb of Raffaello Fulgoso. On the 
other side is the red marble sarcophagus of the Rogaii, an ancient Paduan 
family. This was the original chapel of II Santo. The chapel within 
this, Cappella del Beato Luca Belludi, is entirely covered with frescoes, 
chiefly by Giusto Fadovatio, of the fourteenth century. Over the altar 
are the Virgin and Saints ; on the roof, the Evangelists ; on the left 
wall, the Crucifixion ; on the right, the story of S. Philip and S. James 
the Less ; within the tribune, the extraordinary miracles attributed to 
the Beato Belludi. 

Right (left transept). The Cappella del Santo, begun in 1500 by Gio- 
vanni Minello and his son Antonio, continued by Sansovino, and finished 
in 1553 by Falconetto. In the centre is the tomb, before which many 
lamps burn eternally. The chapel is covered with reliefs which tell the 
story of the saint. It seems worth while giving Addison's translation of 
one of the many tablets hanging up in honour of the divinity of Padua, 

" To the thrice holy Anthony of Padua, delight (whiter than the lily) 
of the most holy Child of Bethlehem, highest son of seraphs, highest 
roof of sacred wisdom, most powerful worker of miracles, holy dispenser 
of death, wise corrector of error, pious deliverer from calamity, power- 
ful curer of leprosy, tremendous driver-away of devils, most ready and 
most trusty preserver of the sick and shipwrecked, restorer of limbs, 
breaker of bonds, stupendous discoverer of lost things, great and won- 
derful defender from all dangers, the most pious (next to God and his 
Virgin Mother) defender and safeguard." 

Left Aisle, Last Pillar but one. Magnificent tomb of Alessandro Con- 
tarini, 1555, by Sanmichele, and fresco of the Madonna by Stefafw da 
Ferrara. 

Last Pillar. The miraculous fourteenth-century "Madonna dei 
Ciecchi." 

The Choir, which stands isolated in the church, has bronze gates by 
Tiziano Aspetti. The reliefs of the high-altar and the crucifix are by 
Donatello. The glorious bronze candelabrum, and two reliefs — of the 
Translation of the Ark from the house of Abinadab and of the Story of 
Judith, are by the Paduan sculptor Andrea Briosco, called Crispo from 
his curling hair (1470 — 1532). The sculptor is himself introduced in 
the former of these. • 

• In an unnamed grave before the Cappella del Crocefisso lies the body of Edward 
Courtenay, Earl of Devon, who died at Padua, not without suspicion of poison, Oct. 
4, 1566. 



3-. ANTONIO. 351 

The Cloisters are exceedingly interesting and filled with 
curious monuments, forming a perfect museum of Italian 
sepulchral art. In the south porch of the church is the tomb 
of Federigo da Lavalongo, with his effigy in armour, lying 
within a frescoed arch. The lady opposite, with her hands 
crossed upon her breast, is the learned Bettina di San Giorgio, 
" che fu di scienza un chiaro fonte," and who, as Professor 
of Ecclesiastical Law, gave public lectures before crowds of 
students in the Archigymnasium. 

Passing the opening arches of the Chapter- House, at 
the end of the cloister facing the south door, in a tomb 
adorned with spiral columns, niches, and a relief of the 
Madonna and Child, lies the famous lawyer, Rainerio 
degli Assendi : his feet rest against the huge volumes 
of his works. In the adjoining passage, which leads 
from the Chiostro del Capitolo to the Chiostro del Novi- 
ziato, is the tomb of Manno Donato, 1370, a Florentine 
Guelph who fought for Franscesco da Carrara, with an in- 
scription by Petrarch. Near this is the canopied sarco- 
phagus of the brothers Gerardo, Alberto, and Giovanni 
Bolparo. 

Beyond the Chiostro del Noviziato, and behind the east 
end of the church, are remains of a smaller and more ancient 
cloister adorned with terra-cotta, very interesting as being 
that in which S. Antonio used to walk, belonging to the old 
Church of S. Maria Nuova, which was destroyed when the 
present church was erected. 

To the left, from the west entrance of S. Antonio, is the 
little Church of S. Giorgio, built as a mausoleum for his 
family by Raimondino di Soragna in 1377. It contains some 
interesting frescoes by Avanzi. The once splendid tomb of 



352 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Soragna was mutilated by the French soldiers during their 
occupation of Padua in the last century. 

Close by, is the Scuola del Santo, surrounded with frescoes 
of the story of S. Antonio, all interesting. The best are by 
Titian :— 

I. He causes an infant to speak to prove the innocence of his 
mother. 

11. He raises to life an innocent wife killed by her jealous husband. 

12. He heals a child with a broken leg. 

The Convent of S. Antonio is gradually being turned into 
a Museum, and the Pictures, till lately at the Palazzo del 
Municipio, have been removed here. They are a very poor 
collection, but at the end of the gallery is : — 

1215. Girolavio Romanino. The Virgin and Child, with S. Prosdoci- 
mus, S. Giustina, S. Benedict, and S. Scholastica — brought 
from the Coro Vecchio of S. Giustina. 

We may also notice ; — 

18. Marco Basaiti. The Virgin and Child, with S. Peter and S. 

Liberali. 
74. Bonifazio. Holy Trinity, with S. Catherine, S. Francis, and the 

Shepherds. 

The Statue of " The Reading Girl," by Magni of Milan, is 
here in one of the rooms. 

The Via S. Antonio falls into the Via S. Francesco oppo- 
site an old brick palace. Here, a little to the left, is (on 
the left, at the entrance of a side street) the so-called Tomb 
of Antenor, a sarcophagus supported by pillars, beneath a 
brick canopy of the thirteenth century. The sarcophagus 
was discovered by some builders in 1274, and was found to 
contain a large skeleton, with a sword in his right hand. 
The sword was given to Alberto della Scala in 1334. An 



THE EREMITANI. 353 

inscription upon it was believed to indicate that the body 
was that of Antenor, the legendary founder of Padua : — 

*' Antenor potuit, mediis elapsus Achivis, 
Illyricos penetrare sinus atque intima tutus 
Regna Liburnorum, et fontes superare Timavi ; 
Unde per ora novem vasto cum murmure montis 
It mare proruptum, et pelago premit arva sonanti. 
Hie tamen ille urbem Patavi, sedesque locavit 
Teucrorum et genti nomen dedit, armaque fixit 
Troia, nunc placida compostus pace quiescit." 

Virgil, ^n. iii. 243. 

Turning in the opposite direction (right) we reach (right) 
the Church of S. Francesco^ entered through the cloisters, 
which contains frescoes by Girolamo da Santa Croce, 1530. 
To the left of the high altar is the monument of Pietro Ricca- 
bonella, Professor of Medicine, with two large reliefs by the 
Paduan sculptor Bartolommeo Bellano, 1430 — 145 1. A 
street in front of S. Francesco leads to the curious little old 
Church of S. Sofa, believed to have been the original 
cathedral of Padua. 

Hence, after following the Via S. Sofia for some distance, 
a street on the right leads to the great Church oftheEremitam, 
built c, 1270. It is a single nave ending in three arches, 
and has a roof by Fra Giovanni who gave the design of that 
at the Sala della Ragione. This roof is now painted blue 
and white, and spoils what would otherwise be a striking and 
beautiful building. It was here that (Dec. 24, 1585) the 
surpassingly beautiful body of Vittoria Accorambuoni, niece 
of Pope Sixtus v., lay in state, robed in satin, with her ducal 
coronet on her brows, and her long golden hair flowing 
around her, on the day after her murder by Prince Luigi 
Orsini. Meanwhile the Paduans watched her with fury for 
VOL, I. 23 



3H ITALIAN CITIES. 

the crime — " dentibus fremebant," says the chronicle — and 
vowed vengeance for her death. 

On the left of the entrance is the tomb of Jacopo da Carrara, 5th 
Lord of Padua, the friend of Petrarch, who composed his Latin epitaph ; 
and opposite that of Ubertino de Carrara, 1354. Further, on the left, 
is the great tomb of Benavides, professor of law, 1583, by Ammonati. 

In the Choir are curious frescoes by Giiariento di Aj-po. 

The altar-piece by Fiumkelli represents Doge Andrea Gritti, in- 
troduced by four saints, presenting the city of Padua to the Virgin. 

The Chapel of SS. Christopher and yames to the right of the high 
altar has also a number of frescoes. The best are by A. Mantegna, and 
represent the story of S. Christopher. The bronze-like figures on the 
altar are of terra-cotta by Giovanni da Pisa. 

In the Sacristy is a monument to Paulus de Venetiis, 1419, who is 
represented lecturing to his pupils. Here also is the tomb of Prince 
Frederick of Orange, 1799, who died at Padua in his 25th year. 

Close to the west door of the church, a gate on the left (a 
bell) leads into the Arena, the site of a Roman Amphitheatre, 
now a garden and vineyard, containing the famous Giotto's 
Chapel, properly S. Maria deW Arena, built c. 1303, by 
Enrico Scrovegno. He was the son of that Reginald, who, 
for his avarice, is placed by Dante in the 7th circle of the 
Inferno. The chapel was given to the Cavalieri di S. Maria. 
The founder died in exile at Venice in 1320, but was buried 
here, where he has a monument (in which he is represented 
standing) in the sacristy, and a tomb with his worn reclining 
effigy behind the altar. Giotto was summoned to decorate 
the chapd about 1306 — "summoned as being at that time 
the acknowledged master of painting in Italy." 

"The walls of the chapel are covered with a continuous meditative 
poem on the mystery of the Incarnation, the acts of Redemption, the 
vices and virtues of mankind as proceeding from their scorn or accept- 
ance of that Redemption, and their final judgment 

" The first twelve pictures of the series are exclusively devoted to the 
apocryphal history of the birth and life of the Virgin (recorded in the 



S. MARIA DELL' ARENA. 355 

two apocryphal gospels known as the ' Protevangelion ' and the ' Gospel 
of S. Mary'). This the Protestant spectator will observe, perhaps, with 
little favour, more especially as only two compartments are given to the 
ministry of Christ, between his Baptism and Entry into Jerusalem. Due 
weight is, however, to be allowed to Lord Lindsay's remark, that the 
legendary history of the Virgin was of especial importance in this chapel, 
as especially dedicated to her service ; and I think also that Giotto 
desired to unite the series of compositions in one continuous action, 
feeling that to have enlarged on the separate miracles of Christ's 
ministry would have interrupted the onward course of thought. As it 
is, the mind is led from the first humiliation of Joachim to the Ascen- 
sion of Christ in one unbroken and progressive chain of scenes ; the 
ministry of Christ being completely typified by his first and last con- 
spicuous miracle : while the very unimportance of some of the subjects 
is useftil in directing the spectator rather to pursue the course of the 
narrative, than to pause in satisfied meditation upon any single incident. 
And it can hardly be doubted that Giotto had also a peculiar pleasure 
in dwelling on the circumstances of the shepherd life of the father of 
the Virgin, owing to its resemblance to that of his own early years." — 
y. Ruskin. 

The order of the frescoes is : — 

1 . The Offering of the holy Jew Joachim is rejected by the priest in 

the temple, because, having been married for twenty years to 
Anna his wife, God had not given him the blessing of children. 

2. Joachim retires to mourn amongst his shepherds, leaving Anna 

desolate and ignorant of what had become of him. 

3. An angel appears to console Anna, and tells her that God is 

about to answer her prayers, that she will give birth to a 
daughter, and that at the Golden Gate of Jerusalem she will 
find the husband she has lost. Judith, her maid, who has 
taunted her with her childlessness, is working in the passage. 

4. Joachim offers an acceptable sacrifice of a burnt-offering. 

5. The Angel appears to Joachim and forewarns him of the birth of 

the Virgin. 

6. Joachim meets Anna at the Golden Gate. 

7. Thp Birth of the Virgin. 

8. The Presentation of the Virgin. 

9. The High-Priest ordains that all men of the lineage of David 

who were not married should bring their rods to the altar ; and 
that to the man whose rod budded, and upon whom the Holy 



356 ITALIAN- CITIES. 

Spirit descended, the Virgin should be given. ( Gospel of S. 
Mary, v. l6, 17.) 

10. The Watching of the Rods at the altar. 

11. The Betrothal of the Virgin. Joseph bears his rod, upon which 

the Holy Spirit is resting ; the unsuccessfiil suitors break their 
rods. 

12. Joseph having gone to prepare his home, the Virgin returns for 

the time with seven virgins, her companions, to her father's 
house in Galilee. 

13. 14. The Annunciation. 

15. The Salutation. 

" I do not know any picture which seems to me to give so truthful an 
idea of the action with which Elizabeth and Mary must actually have 
met, — which gives so exactly the way in which Elizabeth would stretch 
her arms, and stoop and gaze into Mary's face, and the way in which 
Mary's hand would slip beneath Elizabeth's arms, and raise her up to 
kiss her. I know not any Elizabeth so full of intense love, and joy, and 
humbleness ; hardly any Madonna in which tenderness and dignity are 
so quietly blended. She is not less humble, and yet accepting the 
reverence of Elizabeth as her appointed portion, saying, in her simplicity 
and truth, ' He that is mighty hath magnified me, and holy is His 
name.' The longer that this group is looked upon, the more it will be 
felt that Giotto has done well to withdraw from it nearly all accessories 
of landscape and adornment, and to trust it to the power of its own 
deep expression. We may gaze upon the two silent figures until their 
silence seems to be broken, and the words of the question and reply 
sound in our ears, low, as if from far away : — ' Whence is this to me, 
that the Mother of my Lord should come to me ? ' — ' My soul doth 
magnify the Lord, and my spirit hath rejoiced in God my Saviour.' " — 
y. Ruskin. 

16. The Nativity. 

17. The Adoration of the Magi. 

18. The Presentation in the Temple. 

19. The Flight into Egypt. 

20. The Massacre of the Innocents. 

21. The Young Christ in the Temple. 

22. The Baptism of Christ. « 

23. The Marriage of Cana. 

24. The Raising of Lazarus. 

25. The Entry into Jerusalem. 

26. The Expulsion from the Temple. 



S, ANTONINO, 357 

27. The Bribery of Judas. 

28. The Last Supper. 

29. The Washing of the Feet. 

30. The Betrayal. 

31. The Trial before Caiaphas. 

32. The Flagellation, 

33. The Bearing of the Cross. 

34. The Crucifixion. 

35. The Entombment. 

36. The Resurrection. 

"With Giotto the leading thought is not of physical re-animation, nor 
of the momentarily exerted power of breaking the bars of the grave ; 
but the consummation of Christ's work in the first manifesting to human 
eyes, and the eyes of one who had loved Him and believed in Him, His 
power to take again the life He had laid down," — y. RusMn. 

37. The Ascension. 

"The works of Giotto speak most feelingly to the heart in his own 
peculiar language of Dramatic composition, he glances over creation with 
the eye of love, all the charities of life follow in his steps, and his 
thoughts are as the breath of the morning. A man of the world, living 
in it and loving it, yet with a heart that it could not spoil nor wean 
from its allegiance to God — ' non meno buon Christiano che eccellente 
pittore,' as Vasari emphatically describes him — his religion breathes of 
the free air of heaven rather than the cloister, neither enthusiastic nor 
superstitious, but practical, manly, and healthy." — Lindsay's Christian 
Art. 

Half a mile outside the Porta Codalunga (the gate near 
the Railway Station), on the way to Altichieri, is (right) the 
Church of S. Antonino, built over the hermitage in which S. 
Antonio resided during the last year of his life, when he 
was daily preaching in Padua, Hither, having been taken 
ill while preaching at Campo S. Pietro, 18 miles distant, he 
was brought back in a common contadino's cart drawn by 
oxen, and here he died (June 13, 1231), while reciting his 
favourite hymn to the Virgin — " O gloriosa Domina " — in the 
rude brick chamber which is still preserved, like the cell at. 



358 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Assisi, within the present church. The brotherhood wished 
to keep his death a secret that they might bury him in the 
church, feeHng sure that the people of Padua would carry 
off his remains, but moved by the Divine will, the children 
ran about the streets, crying, " II Santo e morto, II Santo b 
morto."* The scenes of his bringing back and his death, 
are represented on the church walls. 



(From Padua an excursion should be made in autumn or 
spring to the Euganean Hills — Colli Euganei — so called 
from the people who are mentioned by Livy as having occu- 
pied the whole tract from the Alps to the head of the 
Adriatic from which they were expelled by the Veneti. 
The highest point is Monte Venda, 533 met. Though pos- 
sessing no grandeur of scenery, these hills are full of luxuri- 
ant loveliness, and the views from their heights are those of a 
most Italian Italy — 

"Beneath is spread like a green sea 
The waveless plain of Lombardy, 
Bounded by the vaporous air, 
Islanded by cities fair." — Shelley. 

The easiest way of visiting the hills will be to go for 
at least one night to Este (which may be taken on the way 
to Ferrara) and seeing Arqua and Monselice from thence. 
The pleasantest time for the excursion is during the 
autumnal tints of the vintage. The long lines of mules upon 
the roads will recall the lines of R. Browning — 

"You know. 
With us in Lombardy, they bring 
Provisions packed on mules, a string 

• Hence it is that, in Padua, S. Anthony is simply called " II Santo," without 
adding his name. 



ABANO. 359 

With little bells that cheer their task, 
And casks, and boughs on every cask 
To keep the sun's heat from the wine." 

On leaving Padua the Railway skirts the navigable canal 
of Battaglia. 

Abano (stat.) — Inn. Orologio — is celebrated for its mud 

baths, the muds being impregnated with the mineral waters 

of the hot springs which rise here at the foot of a little hill. 

The baths are greatly frequented, and the buildings are well 

fitted up. This is the Fons Aponus, so often celebrated by 

classical authors : — 

"Euganeo, si vera fides memorantibus, augur 
Colle sedens, Aponus terris ubi fumifer exit." 

Lucan, viii. 193. 

" Etrusci nisi thermulis lavaris, 
lUotus morieris, Oppiane. 
Nullse sic tibi blandientur undae : 
Nee fontes Aponi rudes puellis." 

Martial, vi. Ep. 42. 

" Huic pater Eridanus, Venetseque ex ordine gentes, 
Atque Apono gaudens populus, seu bella cieret, 
Sen Musas placidus docta^que silentia vitae 
Mallet, et Aonio plectro mulcere labores, 
Non uUum dixere parem." — Sil. Ital. xii. 217. 

" Felices, proprium qui te meruere coloni, 

Fas quibus est Apono juris habere sui ; 
Non Ulis terrena lues, corrupta nee Austri 

Flamina nee saevo Sirius igne nocet. 
Quod si forte malus membris exuberat humor 

Languida vel nimio viscera felle virent ; 
Von venas reserant, nee vulnere vulnera sanant, 

Pocula nee tristi gramine mista bibunt : 
Amissum lymphis reparant impune vigorem, 

Pacaturque, aegro luxuriante, dolor." ♦ 

Claudian, Eidyl. Apon. 

* "Thrice happy are the swains, a favour'd throng. 
To wiiom thy treasures, Apunus, belong ; 



36o ITALIAN CITIES. 

From an epigram of Martial — " Censetur Apona Livio suo 
tellus " (I. Ixi. 3) — it would appear that Titus Livius was born 
here and not at Patavium, but possibly " Apona tellus " only 
designates the territory of Patavium in general. Valerius 
Flaccus was bom here, and, in later times, Pietro d'Abano, 
1250. 

Montegrotto (stat.) has a Roman bath. Near this is 
Carrara di S. Stefano, where a famous Benedictine monas- 
tery was founded in 1330; it was suppressed in 1777. 
Several of the Carrara family are buried in the church. The 
marble tomb of Marsilio (1330) is adorned with reliefs. A 
Lombard inscription recording the death of Ubertino da 
Carrara in 1365, calls the family " Papafava, Lords of Carrara 
and Padua." 

Passing through a long tunnel, on the right is Castel Catajo, 
built in 1550 by Pio degli Obizzi. A member of this old 
Venetian family claimed to have invented the howitzer : 
it is now extinct, and its last representative bequeathed the 
castle to the Duke of Modena, on condition of his keeping it 
up. It contains frescoes by Gian-Battista Zelotfi, ob. 1580, 
a pupil of Titian, and the friend and companion, though 
rival, of Paul Veronese. 

" Oiie of his grandest works is at Catajo, where he represented, in dif- 
ferent rooms, the historj' of the ancient Obizzi family, "distinguished no 
less in the council than in arms. The place is continually sought by 
foreigners, attracted thither by its splendour, by the fame of these 

No fell disease they fear, nor Anster's breath. 

Nor Sirius, charged with pestilence and death ; 

But if distemper fills the languid veins. 

Or bile, malignant in th' intestines reigns. 

No blood they draw, nor trenchant knife apply. 

Nor goblet drugg'd with nauseous med'cines try ; 

Thy waves alone their wasted strength restore ; 

The grateful draught is drunk, and pain exists no more." — Eustace. 



MONSELICE, ESTE. 361 

pictures, and by the valuable museum of antiquities, collected by the 
Marchese Tommaso Obizzi, which in point of taste, abundance, and rarity 
of specimens, is calculated to confer honour upon the state." — Lanzi. 

Battaglia (stat.) is a great Bath resort, only considered 
second to Abano. The springs belong to the Countess 
Wimpffen, who has a villa here. 

Monselice (stat.) — Inn. Grand Hotel — is the Mons Silicis. 
The Rocca, a 13th-century fortress, belonged to the House 
of Este. It is on a rock, guarded by long lines of curtain 
wall. The palace on this hill was built by Scamozzi for the 
Duoli family under the Venetian rule. In the Villa Cromer 
is the Esculapius of Canova, 1778. 

Este Stat, is 4 m. from the town of Este {Inn. La Speranza, 
tolerable), situated at the S.W. base of the Euganean Hills. 
It is a dull town, with many of the houses supported on heavy 
colonnades. In the Church of S. Maria delle Grazie is a 
beautiful Madonna by Cima da Conegliano, 1509. The 
Romanesque Church of S. Martino is modernized internally. 
The Castle has grand machicolations. It will be looked 
upon with interest as the fortress which gave a name to the 
House from which our own royal family are descended ; in- 
deed most of the royal families of Europe originate with 
Alberto Azzo, Marquis of Este, himself descended from the 
Adalbati, Margraves of Tuscany. His first wife, the Swa- 
bian Cunegunda, was mother of Welf (Guelph), Duke of 
Bavaria, from whose eldest son, Henry the Proud, the Dukes 
of Brunsmck and the Kings of Hanover and England are 
descended. From Giulio, the second son of Welf, the Dukes 
of Modena and Ferrara descended. The grandmother of 
the late Duke (Francesco V.) of Modena was Maria Beatrice 
d'Este. Este itself passed into the hands of the Carraras 
in 1294. 



362 



ITALIAN CITIES. 




Castle of Este. 

(A carriage — 6 to 8 frs. — should be taken from Este to Arqua. The 
return may be varied by a visit to Monselice, or the railway may lie re- 
joined there.) 

{Arqua is beautifully situated close under the green slopes 
of the Euganean Hills, here clothed with vineyards and 
orchards. The church and old houses group picturesquely 
where two ridges slope toward each other. This was 
the home of Petrarch, and his House stands on the hill-side, 
with a beautiful view over the wooded plains. It is marked 
by a small brick loggia, containing the chair in which he died, 
ink-stand, and his stuffed cat. " Petrarch retired to Arqua 
immediately on his return from the unsuccessful attempt to 
visit Urban V. at Rome, in 1370, and with the exception of 
his celebrated visit to Venice in company with Francesco 
Novello da Carrara, he appears to have passed the four last 
years of his life between this charming solitude and Padua. 



ARQUA. 



363 



For four months previous to his death he was in a state ot 
continual languor, and in the morning of July the 19th. 1374, 
was found dead in his library chair with his head resting 
upon a book." His memory adds a wonderful charm to the 
hills which he loved — 

" Half-way up 
He built his house, whence as by stealth he caught, 
Among the hills, a glimpse of busy life 
That soothed, not stirred. — But knock, and enter in. 
This was his chamber. 'Tis as when he went ; 
As if he now were in his orchard-grove. 
And this his closet. Here he sat and read. 
This was his chair ; and in it, unobserved, 
Reading, or thinking of his absent friends. 
He passed away as in a quiet slumber." — Rogers. 




Petrarch's House, Arqua. 

The soft repose of the scenery seems described in one of 
Petrarch's own verses — 



' ' Qui non palazzi, non teatro, non loggia 
Ma'n lor vece un abete, un faggio, un pino, 
Tra I'erba verde, e'l bel monte vicino, 
Onde se scende poetando e poggia 
Levan di terra al ciel nostro intelletto ; 
E '1 rossignuol che dolcemente all' ombra 



364 ITALIAN CITIES. 

Tutte le notti si lamenta e piagne, 

D'amorosi pensieri il cor ne 'ngombra. " — Sonn. x. 

The Tomb of the Pod, a simple and stately sarcophagus of 
red Verona marble, is raised upon low pillars in front of the 
village church. It was erected by Francesco di Brossano, 
who liad married his daughter Francesca. 

"There is a tomb in Arqua ; rear'd in air, 

Pillar'd in their sarcophagus, repose 

The bones of Laura's lover : here repair 

Many familiar with his well-sung woes, 

The pilgrims of his genius. He arose 

To raise a language, and his land reclaim 

From the dull yoke of her barbaric foes : 

Watering the tree which bears his lady's name 
With his melodious tears, he gave himself to fame. 

They keep his dust in Arqua, where he died ; 
The mountain village where his later days 
W^ent down the vale of years ; and 'tis their pride — 
An honest pride — and let it be their praise, 
To offer to the passing stranger's gaze 
His mansion and his sepulchre ; both plain 
And venerably simple, such as raise 
A feeling more accordant with his strain 
Than if a pyramid form'd his monumental fane. 

And the soft quiet hamlet where he dwelt 
Is one of that complexion which seems made 
For those who their mortality have felt, 
And sought a refuge from their hopes decay'd 
In the deep umbrage of a green hill's shade. 
Which shows a distant prospect far away 
Of busy cities, now in vain display'd, 
For they can lure no further ; and the ray 
Of a bright sun can make sufficient holiday. 

Developing the mountains, leaves, and flowers. 
And shining in the brawling brook, whereby, 
Clear as its current, glide the sauntering hours 
With a calm languor, which, though to the eye 



ROVIGO. 



365 



Idlesse it seem, hath its morality. 
If from society we learn to live, 
'Tis solitude should teach us how to die ; 
It hath no flatterers ; vanity can give 
No hollow aid ; alone, man with his God must strive. " 

Byron, Childe Harold. 




Tomb of Petrarch, Arqua. 



" The revolutions of centuries have spared these sequestered valleys, 
and the only violence which has been offered to the ashes of Petrarch 
was prompted, not by hate, but veneration. An attempt was made to 
rob the sarcophagus of its treasure, and one of the arms was stolen by a 
. Florentine through a rent which is still visible. The injury is not for- 
gotten, but has served to identify the poet with the country where he 
was born, but where he would not live. A peasant boy of Arqua being 
asked who Petrarch was, replied ' that the people of the parsonage 
knew all about him, but that he only knew that he was a Florentine.' " 
— Notes to Childe Harold. 

The Pozzo di Petrarca, enclosing a clear spring, is said to 
have been built by the Poet for the benefit of his native 
place.) 

Rovigo (stat.) — Inn. Corona Ferrea, — is a rather pictur- 
esque little town on the wide Naviglio Adigetto. The chief 
feature is a tall tower in the Ghibelline battlements. There 



366 ITALIAN CITIES. 

is a collection of pictures here, which has nothing great but 
its names. 

(Half way between Rovigo and Mantua is the town of 
Legnago, fortified by Sanmicheli, formerly one of the strongest 
fortresses of Austria in Venetia.) 

The railway continues through the rich lowlands, pro- 
tected by high embankments from the outbreaks of the Po 
and Adige, to Ferrara. See Chap, xxviii. 



CHAPTER XX. 
BASSANO AND THE FRIULIAN ALPS. 

IT is 21 miles from Vicenza to Bassano. A dili- 
gence (2 frs. 50 c.) leaves at 8 a.m. and 2 p.m., 
and performs the journey in 4 hours. The only place of 
interest we pass through is MarosHca, with arcaded streets, 
old gates, and walls and towers extending up the hill above 
the town. The piazza has the Venetian pillars and lions, in 
extreme miniature. 

Bassano {Inn. S. Antonio, tolerable, but over-run with 
black beetles) is a fine old town with a covered bridge over 
the Brenta, and is overlooked by a fortress built by EcceHno 
da Romano, and now containing the parocchia. 




Bassano. 



Just within the bridge is the House, marked by a fresco 



368 ITALIAN CITIES. 

of the Annunciation, of the famous family of Da Ponte, — 
Jacopo(Bassano), born 1510 ; his father Francesco (Vecchio); 
and his three sons, Leandro, Francesco (Giovane), and 
Girolamo. The Museo Civico (open 9 till i p.m.), joining 
the principal church in the upper of the three piazzas, is 
filled with the works of the Da Ponte family, collected from 
the different churches and convents in the town, and form- 
ing a most interesting series. They are : — 

yacopo Bassano. A Venetian Podesta making a vow to the Virgin. 

Id. The Three Children condemned by Nebuchadnezzar. 

Id. The Woman taken in Adultery. 

Id. Susanna — much retouched. 

Leandro Bassano.* The Conversion of S. Paul. 

Id. The Marriage of S. Catherine. 

Id. SS. Sebastian and Michael. 

Francesco {Vecchio). S. Peter. 

Id. S. John Baptist. 

*Id. Madonna and Child throned, with SS. Peter and Paul. 

*yacopo Bassano. The Flight into Egy].it — the first manner of the 
artist. 

*Id. S. John Baptist. 

•/</. Paradise — or All Saints — a glorious picture. 

*Id. The Baptism of Lucilla by S. Valentino — perhaps the master- 
piece of the artist. 

Id. The Nativity. 

Id. S. Martin and the Beggar. In the comer, S. Antonio is intro- 
duced reading — his pig gets under the horse's feet. 

Id. Moro, Podestci of Venice, makes a vow to the Virgin — the colour 
of his robe is quite splendid. 

Id. The Vow of a Knight to S. John the Evangelist. 

Id. The Visit of Titian to the family of Da Ponte. 

Id. Pentecost — in the third manner of Jacopo. 

Leandro Bassano, Podesta Cappello before the Virgin. 

The Presentation in the Temple by Francesco {Giovaiu), the Demons 
beneath by yacopo. This picture illustrates the legend that when 
Christ was presented, Earth, Heaven, and Hell alike worshipped. 

yacopo Bassano. The Crucifixion. 

* There are quantities of pictures by Leandro in the Ducal Palace and churches 
of Venice. 



BASS A NO. 369 

Girolamo Bassano (the youngest son of Jacopo). SS. Ermagora and 

Fortunate. 
yacopo Bassano. Madonna with SS. Agatha and Apollonia. 
Francesco ( Vecchio). The Dead Christ with the Virgin, Nicodemus, 

S. John, and the Magdalen. 

The other pictures (unnumbered) in this gallery in- 
clude : 

Guarienti. The Crucifixion. 

Dario da Trevigi (of whom only three pictures are known), SS. J. 

Baptist and Bernardino. 
Girolamo S. Croce, 15 19. The Calling of S. Matthew — signed. 
Bonifacio. The Last Supper. 
Nosocchio da Bassano. Virgin and Child, with SS. Paul and John 

Baptist. 
Once the property of Canova, and greatly prized by him, are two 

subjects from the Story of Cleopatra, attributed to Paul Veronese. 

A large collection of the first models for the works of 
Canova is preserved here, presented after his death by his 
half-brother Bishop Canova, of whom there is a fine bust by 
Tenerani. Of the two large horses here, one was never cast, 
the other is that of Charles III. of Naples, and is to be seen 
there. 

' There are many picturesque old houses in the town with 
outside frescoes, especially some in the piazzas, and that in 
which Lazzaro Buonamico was bom, near the fortress. 

At the suburban Church of the SS. Trinity is a fine 
Crucifixion, \yith the Almighty and the Dove of the Holy 
Spirit above, by J^acopo da Potite. 

There are symptoms of costume at Bassano. The women 
wear wide-awake hats, generally of black velvet, adorned 
with brilliant bunches of artificial flowers, and they have 
huge earrings and quantities of chains falling low round their 
necks. In cliurch they put on handsome veils of black or 
VOL. I. 24 



370 ITALIAN CITIES. 

white lace, which have a very pretty effect : in country-places 
the process of veiling and unveiling takes place at the 
church doors. 

(A diligence (3 frs. 50 c.) leaves Bassano for Padua at 
4 A.M. and 2 P.M. daily, and performs the journey of 25 
miles in 4 hours. The road passes through the market-town 
of Cittadella, which retains its old walls and towers. 
Giorgione was born near Castelfranco, a few miles from this, 
and one of his best pictures adorns the high altar of tlie 
parish church.) 



A diligence leaves Bassano for Feltre at 2 p.m. and 8 . 45 
P.M., and in the summer months (after June i) at 4 a.m. It 
occupies 7 hrs. on the way. Not far from Bassano some 
curious caves are passed, which may be reached by a ferry. 

Feltre {Inn. Al Vapore) is a dull, unattractive place, and the 
mountains have no grandeur of form. The first Monte de 
Pietk was estabhshed here. Feltre may be used as a halt- 
ing-place by those who proceed (the road only fit for mules 
or in part of the way for very rough carriages) across the 
Austrian frontier, to La Fiera in the district of Primiero 
ijnn. Aquila Nerd), amid very grand mountains. Near 
Primiero the curious rock-built castle, Castello della Pietra 
(on the road which may be taken by mules from thence to 
Agordo), should be visited. A drive of 3 hrs. may be 
taken to Martino de Casirozzo. From Feltre there is a dili- 
gence, or a carriage may be engaged (25 frs. with 2 horses), 
a drive of 3 hrs. to Belluno {Inns. II Cappello, Due Torre), the 
ancient Bellunum. It is a most picturesque town situated 
on a promontory at tlie junction of the Piave and the Ardo. 



BELLUNO. 



371 



The arcaded streets are full of fragments of mediaeval archi- 
tecture. The Palazzo Vecchio was built in 1400 by Giovanni 



m 






At Belluno. 

Candi, and is decorated with the arms and busts of the 
Venetian Podestks. The finest of the 14 churches is the 
Cathedral, built by Palladia. It contains : — 

Giacomo Bassano. S. Lorenzo. 
Palma Gimane. The Deposition. 

Outside the Gothic Church of S. Stefano, which has an 
altar-piece of the Adoration of the Magi by Titian, is a 
curious ancient sarcophagus. The town has been terribly 
injured by earthquakes. Gregory XVI. was born at Belluno. 
The great valley of Belluno is portrayed in a picture by 
Titian, No. 635, in our National Gallery. Most beautiful 
are the views from hence at sunset, when — 



372 ITALIAN CITIES. 

"A sea 
Of glory streams along the Alpine height 
Of blue Friuli's mountains." — Childe Harold. 




Peasants of Belluno 

(A carriage may be taken from Belluno (resting at Cer- 
cenighe), 3 hrs., by a grand gorge through the mountains to. 

Agordo {Inn. Albergo degli Miniere, large and good), sur- 
rounded with high mountains, which, though very colourless 
by day, become quite magnificent in the sunset. The grand- 
est peaks are those of the Cima di Vezzana. Hence a little 
carriage should be taken, passing the beautiful little Lake of 
Alleghe, in 4 hrs., to Caprile, on the Austrian frontier (/««. 
Alle Marmolate, Signora Pezzi, humble, but good). The 
little piazza here retains its Venetian lion. All around are 
beautiful mountains, of which La Civetta, 10,400 ft, is the 
finest It is a short walk to the very curious Sasso Ronch, 
with a fine view of the Civetta and Pelmo. Hence also, by 
mule or on foot, the Lake of Alleghe and Castle of Andras 



I 



TAI CADORE. ■ 373 

and the picturesque village of Buchenstein (a mule costs 18 
frs.) may be visited. The road, a very rough one for light 
vehicles, can be continued by this to Cortina. Travellers 
going north will proceed from hence to Botzen by Campi- 
dello iylmi. Al Mulino), which is reached by the Fidaya 
Pass, on the summit of which (6,884 ft,) the frontier between 
Italy and Tyrol is passed. Hence it is two days' ride by 
Castelruth ( Weisse Lamb) to Waidbruck Station, on the 
line from Verona to Innsbruck. In going to Castelruth from 
Campidello two ways may be taken, but the most beautiful 
is that by S. Ulrich in the Grodner Thai. 



It is a drive of about 3^ hrs. (a carriage with two horses, 
35 frs.) from Belluno to Tai Cadore. At the village of 
Termini, are a narrow gorge and magnificent peaks. At 
Perarolo, crossing the bridge over the Boita, the Antelao 
mountain comes in sight. 

Tai {Albergo Cadore) has a better inn than Pieve di 
'Cadore i m. further, though the scenery is finer at the 
latter. At Tai is the humble house in which the great 
master Tiziano Vecelli da Cadore was born in 1477, the 
son of Gregorio Vecelli and his wife Lucia, who was of 
Venetian birth. The little fountain in front is surmounted 
by a statue of his patron S. Tiziano, Bishop of Odessa, himself 
a member of the Vecelli family. On the tower of the Pre- 
fettiira is a fresco, and in the Church are two pictures, at- 
tributed to Titian (the Virgin is asserted by the natives to 
be a portrait of his young wife), and a water-colour picture 
of the Madonna surrounded by cherubs by Antonio Rosst 
Cddorino ; it is signed *' Opus Antonii Rubei." 

This Antonio is now believed to have been the first master 



374 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



of Titian, who was intended by his father for the law, but 
evinced his genius by colouring a figure of the Virgin so 




Titian's House, Tai Cadore. 

beautifully with the juice of flowers that he was sent while 
very young to reside at Venice with his uncle Antonio 
Vecelli, that he might study art, which he did, first under 
Sebastiano Zuccati the mosaicist, and then under Gentile 
Bellini. His elder brother Francesco, who for some time 
also devoted himself to art, retired to Cadore at an early 
period of his life, and enriched himself there by trading in 
timber, but he passed the winter with Tiziano in Venice. 
Their parents seem to have survived till the great master 
had attained his fiftieth year, and he constantly visited them 
at Cadore. Francesco (bom 1476) died in 1560. The 
only sister, Orsa, who lived with Titian at Venice, and took 
care of his domestic affairs, died in 1550. Titian himself 
survived, in full possession of all his powers, rich, honoured, 
and beloved, and daily practising his art, till his 99th year, 
when he was cut down by the plague, which was raging at 



I 



TAI CAD ORE. 375 

Venice. At the age of 90 he had still been able to under- 
take the troublesome journey to Cadore, where he would 
pass the hot months amongst his cousins who lived 
there, and at the time of his death he was wishing to fly 
thither, but settled his departure too late, after the authorities 
of Cadore had prohibited communication with the infected 
city. He desired by will that he might be buried in the 
church of his native village, but this also was not complied 
with from fear of infection, though in his case, the rule de- 
priving all who died from the plague of the honours of burial 
was broken through, and he was honourably though quietly 
interred in the church of the Frari. His wife, who died very 
young, had left him three children, Pomponio, a canon (15 13 
— 1580) ; Horatio, an artist (1515 — 1576); and Cornelia, 
married to Cornelio Sarcinello. The family of the Vecelli 
was continued at Cadore in the person of the painter's first- 
cousin, Tommaso Tito Vecelli, a lawyer, who married the 
daughter of Giacomo Alessandrini, of the parish of Cadore, 
and had two sons, Marco and Graziano ; Marco, himself 
an artist, was the father of the painter Tiziano, called 
Tizianello, the godson of the great Titian, who died in 
Venice c. 1650. 

It is interesting that the chemist's shop adjoining Titian's 
house should still be kept by one of the Vecelli family. 
Ariosto speaks of the connection of Titian with Cadore — 

*' E Tizian che honora 
Non men Cador, che quei Venezia, e Urbino." 

Hence it is a drive of 3 hrs. to Cortina d'Ampezzo — a 
rough carriage with one horse, 20 frs. {Inn. Aquila Nera, 
excellent and reasonable), on the beautiful Ampezzo pass. 

The road passes through Venas, where travellers will be 



375 



ITALIAN CITIES. 



amused with the sign of the Inn, in which two geese are 
drinking out of the ink-stand, and finding it delicious. 




Cortina is surrounded by grand mountains, of which the 
finest are the Pelmo, the Antelao, and the Cristallo. Excur- 
sions should be made, on mules or on foot, to the Tre Croci 
{\\ hr.), and 2 hrs. further to the Misurino Lake. The 
ascent of the Guesella scarcely repays its fatigue. Hence 
the traveller going north will probably proceed by Landro 
and Lienz to Heiligenblut, whence he may go by Ferleiten 
to Salzburg. 

On all these mountain excursions on foot, it will be well 
to bear in mind the verdict of the Alpine Club — " Do not 
dispense with a guide, except when and where you are ca- 
pable of taking his place." Travellers should remember that 
the charges of porters employed to carry luggage across the 
mountains are enormous, much higher than those for mules — 
yet these are very expensive, especially for luggage — 
generally as much as 10 Gulden (;^i) a day for each. 

END OF VOL. I. 



I 



IN DEX. 



Abano, i. 359 
Agordo, i. 372 
Alassio, i. 20 
Albaro, i. 57 
Albenga, i. 21 
Albizzola, i. 26 
Alessandria, ii. 185 
Altopasico, ii. 507 
Alzano Maggiore, i. 227 
Ambrogiana, villa of, iii. 249 
Ancona, ii. 390 — 400 

Arch of Trajan, 393 

Cathedral, 395 

Churches — 

S. Agostino, 398 

S. Ciriaco, 395 

S. Francesco dell' Ospedale, 

399 
S. Maria della Misericordia, 

398 
S. Maria Piazza, 398 
Loggia dei Mercanti, 398 
Palazzo del Coinune, 400 
Anghiari, iii. 411 
Angrogna, i. 105 
Antelao, the, i. 373 
Aosta, i. 109 
Areola, i. 68 
Arezzo, iii. 322 — 331 
Amphitheatre, 331 
Cathedral, 324 
Churches — 

S. Annunziata, 331 
Badia, La, 329 
S. Francesco, 327 
S. Maria della Pieve, 323 
Confraternity della Misericordia, 

326 
Palazzo Pubblico, 323 
X 



Arezzo — continued. 

Piazza Grande, 325 
Arona, i. 206 
Arqua, i. 362 
Asciano, iii. 314 
Assisi, iii. 370 — 401 
Cathedral, 380 
Churches — 
S. Antonio, 382 
S. Chiara, 381 
Chiesa Nuova, 380 
S. Damiano, 396 
S. Francesco, 384 
S. Francesco delle Carcere, 

394 
S. Maria degli Angeli, 373 
Rio Torto, 399 
S. Rufino, 380 
Porziuncula, La, 375 
Temple of Minerva, 379 
Avellana, ii. 439 
Avenza, i. 70 
Avigliana, i. 89 

B. 

Badia di Settimo, iii. 214 
Bagnacavallo, ii. 296 
Bagni di Lucca, ii. 505 
Barga, ii. 506 
Bassano, i. 367 
Battaglia, i. 361 
Baveno, i. 210 
Belcaro, castle of, iii. 294 
Belgirate, i. 207 
Bellaggio, i. 195 
Bellosguardo, iii. 211 
Belluno, i. 370 
Bergamo, i. 216 

Accademia, 225 

Cappella CoUeoni, 224 



25 



INDEX. 



Bergamo — continued. 
Cathedral, 224 
Churches— 
S. Agostino, 224 
S. Andrea, 227 
S. Bartolommeo, 227 
S. Bernardino, 227 
S. Chiara, 217 
S. Grata, 224 
S. Maria Maggiore, 219 
S. Spirito, 226 
S. Tommaso in Limine, 227 
Bergeggi, i. 23 
Bevagna, iii. 416 
Bibbiena, iii. 228 
Biella, i. 114 
Blevio, i. 193 
Bobbi, i. 105 
Bobbio, ii. 194 
Bologna, ii. 246 — 294 

Accademia delle Belle Arti, 268 
Antico Archiginnasio, 257 
Campo Santo, 294 
Casa Galvani, 287 

Lambertini, 265 
Rossini, 276 
Cathedral, 258 
Certosa, the, 294 
Churches — 
S. Annunziata, 285 
S. Bartolommeo di P. Rave- 

gnata, 261 
S. Bartolommeo di Reno, 288 
S. Benedetto, 289 
S. Caterina Vigri, 285 
S. Cecilia, 284 
S. Cristina, 277 
S. Domenico, 281 
S. Francesco, 287 
S. Giacomo Maggiore, 262 
S. Giorgio, 289 
S. Giovanni in Monte, 277 
S. Gregorio, 289 
S. Lucia, 280 

La Madonna di S. Luca, 293 
di Galiera, 259 
di Mezzaratta, 

290 
di Misericordia, 

280 
in Monte, 289 
S. Maria dei Servi, 276 
S. Martino, 266 
S. Michele in Bosco, 293 
S. Niccol6, 288 
S. Paolo, 286 



Bologna — con tin ued. 
S. Petronio, 
S. Pietro, 258 
S. Procolo, 284 
S. Salvatore, 287 
S. Stefano, 278 
S. Trinita, 277 
S. Vitale ed Agricola, 275 
CoUegio di Spagna, 286 
Crocetta di Trebbio, 294 
Giardini Pubblici, 289 
Liceo Rossini, 265 
Loggia dei Mercanti, 261 
Montagnola, 289 
Orto Botanico, 275 
Palazzo Albergati, 287 
Bentivoglio, 275 
Bevilacqua, 286 
Bianchi, 277 
Bolognini, 280 
Fantuzzi, 276 
Fava, 259 
Grabinski, 284 , 
Hercolani, 277 
Malvezzi Campeggi, 265 
Marescalchi, 288 
Montanari, 289 
Pedrazzi, 276 
Pepoli, 280 
Piella, 259 
del Podesta, 252 
Pubblico, 252 
Zambeccari, 286 
Zampieri, 276 
Piazza S. Domenico, 280 
Maggiore, 254 
Nettuno, 251 
Portico dei Banchi, 254 
Torre degli Asinelli, 260 
della Garisenda, 260 
Borgo S. Donino, ii. 204 
Borgo S. Sepolcro, iii. 407 
Bracco, pass of, i. 62 
Brescia, i. 241 — 254 

Biblioteca Quiriniana, 245 
Broletto, 243 
Castle, 253 
Cathedrals, 244 
Churches — 
S. Afra, 249 
S. Alessandro, 250 
S. Clemente, 246 
S. Domenico, 251 
S. Faustino Maggiore, 251 
S. Francesco, 251 
S. Giovanni Evangelista, 252 



INDEX. 



Brescia — con tin ued. 
S. Giulia, 247 
Madonna delle Grazie, 250 

delle Miracoli, 250 
S Maria Calchera, 247 
S. Nazzaro e Celso, 250 
S. Pietro in Oliveto, 253 
Museo Civico, 247 
Patrio, 245 
Palazzo del Municipio, 243 
Torre del Orologio, 243 
della Palata, 251 
Brianza, the, i. 190 
Brienno, i. 194 
Broni, ii. 186 
Buonconvento, iii. 299 
Busseto, ii. 204 

C. 

Cadenabbia, i. 195 

Cagli, ii. 433 

Caldiero, i. 321 

Camaldoli, convent of, iii. 242 

Camerino, ii. 418 

Camerlata, i. 183 

Camogli, i. 58 

Campaldino, iii. 223 

Cam pi, School of the, i. 231 

Campione, i. 258 

Campo Reggiano, iii. 403 

Campo Rosso, i. 8 

Caprese, iii. 412 

Caprile, i. 372 

Careggi, villa of, iii. 219 

Carmagnola, i. 93 

Carrara, i. 70 

Carrara di S. Stefano, i. 360 

Casale, i. 117 

Cascina, iii. 251 

Casebruciate, ii. 392 

Casentino, the, iii. 226 

Castagnolo, iii. 215 

Casteggio, ii. 186 

Castel Arquato, ii. 204 

Castel Catajo, i. 360 

Castelfidardo, ii. 401 

Castel Franco, i. 370 

Castel Guelfo, ii. 206 

Castellaro, i. 18 

Castello, iii. 219 

Castelluzzo, i. 103 

Castel Secco, iii. 331 

Castiglione, i. 210 

Castiglione Fiorentino, iii. 332 

Castiglione d'Olona, i. 204 



Cavallemnaggiore, i. 94 
Centa, river, i. 22 
Cernobbio, i. 193 
Cerreto-Guidi, iii. 250 
Certaldo, iii. 251 
Certosa, the, i. 166 

of the Val d'Emo, iii. 208 
Cervaro, i. 60 
Cervi, i. 20 
Cesena, ii. 363 
Cesenatico, ii. 350 
Chatillon, i. 109 
Chiana, Val di, iii. 321 
Chiaravalle, i. 163 
Chiavari, i. 61 
Chiavenna, i. 197 
Chioggia, ii. 141 
Chivasso, i. 117 
Chiusi, iii. 319 
Cittadella, i. 370 
Citta di Castello, iii. 403 
Citta del Pieve, iii. 321 
Civitella Raniari, iii. 403 
Cogoletto, i. 27 
Colico, i. 197 
Como, i. 184 
Como, lake of, i. 192 
Cortina d' Ampezzo, i. 375 
Cortona, iii. 333 — 338 
Cathedral, 337 
Churches — 

S. Agostino, 338 

S. Domenico, 334 

S. Margherita, 335 

S. Niccol6, 335 
Fortezza, 336 
Etruscan Museum, 336 
Cospaglia, Republic of, iii. 407 
Courmayeur, i. in 
Cremona, i. 230 — 240 
Baptistery, 237 
Campo Santo, 238 
Castle, 240 
Cathedral, 232 
Churches — 

S. Abbondio, 233 

S. Agata, 232 

S. Agostino, 232 

S. Giacomo in Breda, 232 

S. Luca, 232 

S. Margherita, 232 

S. Nazzaro, 233 

S. Pelagia, 233 

S. Pietro al Po, 233 

S. Sigismondo, 239 
Palazzo Maggi, 232 



INDEX. 


Cremona — con tin ued. 


Florence — con tin ued. 


Palazzo Pubblico, 238 


Cemeteries — 


Torrazzo, 237 


Florentine, at S. Miniato, 201 


Cuneo, i. 95 


Jewish, 188 


Custozza, i. 302 


Protestant, 142 




Churches — 




S. Ambrogio, 143 


D. 


S. Annunziata, 138 




S. Apostoli, 81 


Desenzano, i. 255 


S. ApoUonia, 114 


Diano Marina, i. 20 


La Badia, 55 


Dolceacqua, i. 9 


S. Biagio, 82 


Domo d'Ossola, i. 210 


Calze, le, 184 


Dongo, i. 197 


S. Carlo Borromeo, 87 


Donnaz, i. 108 


Carmine, the, 185 




S. Croce, 69 


E. 


S. Elisabetta, 184 


S. Firenze, 67 


Empoli, iii. 249 


S. Frediano, 188 


Erba, i. 190 


S. Gaetano, 149 


Este, i. 361 


S. Giovanni Battista, loi 


Euganean Hills, i. 358 


S. Giovannino, 117 




S. Jacopo sopr' Arno, 181 
S. Leonardo in Arcetri, 42 


F. 


S. Lorenzo, 108 


Faenza, ii. 353 


S. Lucia, 160 


Fano, ii. 387—390 


S. Maddalena dei Pazzi, 141 


Feltre, i. 370 


S. Marco, 129 


Fermo, ii. 414 


S. Maria in Campidoglio, 89 


Fiesole, iii. 193 


dei Fiore, 95 


Finale Marina, i. 23 


Maggiore, 107 


Fiorenzuola, ii. 204 


Nipaticosa, 88 


Florence, iii. i — 188. 


Novella, 149 


Accademia della Crusca, 18 


sopr' Arno, 165 


delle Belle Arti, 131 


S. Margherita dei Ricci, 50 


Filarmonica, 80 


S. Martino, 49 


del Pimento, 18 


S. Niccol6, 169 


Badia, La, 54 


Ogni Santi, 161 


Baptistery, loi 


Or S. Michele, 83 


Bargello, 57 


S. Piero Buonconsiglio, 89 


Bigallo, 91 


Scheraggio, 42 


Borgo dei Greci, 69 


S. Pietro Maggiore, 54 


S. Apostoli, 81 


S. Salvador, 161 


dei Pinti, 140 


S. Simone, 80 


S. Jacopo, 181 


S. Spirito, 1 8a 


Bridges (Ponte) — 


S. Stefano, 82 


Carraja, 161 


S. Trinity, 15 


S. Trinity, 161 


Convents — 


Vecchio, 164 


S. Apollonia, 114 


alle Grazie, 168 


Carmine, 185 


Campanile of Giotto, 94 


S. Croce, 78 


Canto delle Colonnine, 68 


Maratte, 79 


Cantonata dei Pazzi, 52 


S. Maddalena dei Pazzi, 141 


Cascine, the, 160 


S. Marco, 117 


Cathedral, 95 


S. Maria degli Angeli, 140 


Collegio Eugeniano, 105 


S. Maria Novella, 159 



INDEX. 



Florence — continued. 

S. Onofrio, 158 
Croce al Trebbio, 149 
Egyptian Museum, 159 
Fortezza di S. Giorgio, 169 
Galleries — 

Uffizi, 19 

Feroni, 34 

Pitti, 172 
Gardens — 

Boboli, 181 

Ruccellai, 160 

Torregiani, 184 
Gates (Porta)— 

S. Frediano, x88 

S. Gallo, 114 

S. Giorgio, 169 

S. Niccolo, 169 

S. Romana, 185 
Hospitals (Ospedale) — 

Innocenti, 138 

S. Maria Nuova, 144 

della Scala, 159 

S. Matteo, 151 

Misericordia, 92 
Houses (Case) of — 

Alfieri, 17 

S. Antonino, 170 

Corso Donati, 54 

Dante, 49 

Folco Portinari, 50 

Fra Bartolommeo, 184 

Ghiberti, 144 

Guidi, 170 

Mariotto Albertinelli, 49 

Michael Angelo, 80 

Niccol6 Soderini, 182 

S. Zenobio, 82 
Libraries — 

Magliabecchian, 18 

Marucelliana, 117 

Nazionale, 18 

Palatine, 18 

Riccardi, 117 
Marzocco, the, 43 
Mercato Nuovo, 82 

Vecchio, 89 
Palaces (Palazzo) — 

Alessandri, 53 

Antinori, 149 

Arte di Lana, 87 

Barbadori, 181 

Barbed ni, 69 

Borgherini, 81 

Canigiani, 168 

Capponi, 140 



Florence — continued. 

della Cavajola, 89 
Cento Finestre, 107 
Cerchi, 49 
Cocchi, 69 
Conte Bardi, 80 
Corsini, 162 
dei Galli, 53 
Gondi, 67 
Guadagni, 184 
Guicciardini, 171 
Martelli, 117 
della Mercanzia, 36 
Montalvo, 53 
del Municipio, 81 
Nonfinito, 52 
Orlandini, 107 
Pandolfini, 114 
Pitti, 171 
Quaratesi, 52 
Riccardi, 115 
Ridolfi, 171 
Rinuccini, 182 
Salviati, 50 
Seristori, 69 
Spini, 17 
Strozzi, 146 
Stufa, 69 
Torrigiani, 168 
del Turco, 81 
Uffizi, 18 
Uguccione, 36 
Valori, 54 
Vecchio, 42 
Velluti Zufi, 140 
Passage of the Ponte Vecchio, 

35 
Piazza — 
della Annunziata, 137 
d'Azeglio, 143 
del Carmine, 188 
dei Castellani, 68 
S. Croce, 69 
del Duomo, 104 
S. Felicity, 169 
S. Firenze, 67 
dei Giudici, 68 
del Grano, 68 
deir Indipendenza, 158 
Manin, 161 
S. Maria Novella, 149 
S. Miniato tra due Torre, 90 
de Renai, 169 
della Signoria, 35 
S. Spirito, 184 
S. Trinity, 15 



lADEX. 



Florence — continued. 
Streets (Via)— 

Albizzi, 52 

AUegri, 79 

S. Agostino, 184 

dei Bardi, 165 

Calimala, 91 

Calzaioli, 83 

Cerretani, 149 

Condotta, 48 

S. Egjdio, 144 

dei Fibbiai, 141 

del Fosso, 80 

S. Gallo, 114 

dei Ginori, 114 

Giraldi, 80 

Ghibellinii, 79 

Guicciardini, 169 

Maggio, 170 

dei Malcontenti, 78 

della Mandorla, 140 

Marsigli, 170 

della Morta, 104 

Nazionale, 158 

dei Oricellari, 159 

Parione, 162 

Pelliceria, 91 

della Pergola, 141 

dei Pinti, 141 

Por S. Maria, 82 

Porta Rossa, 83 

S. Sebastiano, 141 

Seragli, 184 

S. Spirito, 183 

Tornabuoni, 146 

dei Vecchietti, 89 
Theatre of the Pagliano, 80 
Towers (Torre) — 

dei Amidei, 82 

Barbadore, 112 

Bocca di Ferro, 49 

dei Donati, 50 

S. Zenobio, 82 
Foligno, iii. 415 
Forli, ii. 356 — 362 
Cathedral, 357 
Citadel, 362 
Churches — 

S. Girolamo, 358 

S. Mercuriale, 357 

The Servi, 359 
Pinacoteca, 359 
Forlimpopoli, ii. 363 
Fort Bard, i. 108 
Fratta, iii. 402 
Furlo, pass of the, ii. 432 



Galicano, ii. 506 
Gallinara, island of, i. 21 
Garda, i. 260 
Garda, lake of, i. 256 
Gargnano, i. 258 
Garlanda, i. 22 
Genoa, i. 29 — 56 

Acqua sola, promenade of, 47 
Albergo dei Poveri, 47 
Banco di S. Giorgio, 36 
Campo Santo, 57 
Cathedral, 37 
Churches — 
S. Agostino, 54 
S. Ainbrogio, 42 
S. Annunziata, 46 
S. Donato, 54 
S. Giacomo, 53 
S. Giovanni di Pr^, 51 
S. Maria di Carignano, 54 
S. Maria di Castello, 53 
S. Matteo, 39 
S. Siro, 46 
S. Stefano, 56 
House of Andrea Doria, 39 
Loggia dei Banchi, 35 
Piazza — 
Acqua Verde, 50 
Bianchi, 35 
Carlo Felice, 42 
Embriaci, 53 
Pontoria, 54 
Ponte di Carignano, 54 
Porta di S. Andrea, 56 

S. Tommaso, 51 
Porto Franco, 36 
Strada degli Orefici, 35 
Gombo, the, ii. 479 
Gravedona, i. 197 
Gravellona, i. 210 
Gressoney S. Jean, i. 215 
Gubbio, ii. 434 — 438 
Guesella, the, i. 376 



Idro, lake of, i. 260 
II Deserto, i. 27 
Imola, ii. 29*1 
Impruneta, iii. 210 
Inciso, i. 190 
Intra, i. 211 
Iseo, lake of, i. 228 



INDEX. 



Isola Bella, i. 207 

Comaccina, i. 194 
dei Frati, i. 257 
S. Giulio, i 213 
Madre, i. 209 
dei Pescatore, i. 209 

Ivrea, i. 108 



L. 

La Cattolica, ii. 385 
Civetta, i. 372 
Chiiisa, i. 91 
Falterona, iii. 241 
Penna, iii. 241 
Tour, i. 103 
Vernia, iii. 229 
Verruca, ii. 480 
Lampedusa, i. 18 
Laveno, i. 211 
Lecco, i. 195 
Leghorn, ii. 481 
Les^nago, i. 366 
Lerici, i. 66 
Levanto, i. 63 
Limone, i. 258 
Loano, i. 22 
Locarno, i. 212 
l-yonigo, i. 321 
Loreto, ii. 402 — 411 
Lucca, ii. 491 — 504 
Cathedral, 492 
Churches — 

S. Cristoforo, 504 
S. Francesco, 497 
S. Frediano, 49S 
S. Giovanni, 466 
S. Giusto, 504 
S. Maria Forisportam, 497 
S. Maria della Rosa, 497 
S. Michele, 500 
S. Pietro Somaldo, 497 
S. Romano, 504 
S. Salvatore, 504 
Galleria delle Belle Arti, 501 
Palazzo Gainigi, 497 
Pubblico, 492 
Lucignano, iii. 314 
Lugano, i. 200 

lake of, i. 199 
Lugliano, ii. 506 
Lugo, ii. 296 
Luino, i. 201, 211 
Luna, i. 69 



M. 

Macagno Inferiore, i. 211 
Macerata, ii. 413 
Macugnaga, i. 210 
Maderno, i. 258 
Madonna d'Oropa, i. 114 
Maggiore, lake of, i. 206 
Malcesine, i. 260 
Malraantile, iii. 215 
Mantua, i. 303 — 320 

Argine del Mulino, 306 
Casa di Mantegna, 313 
Castello di Corte, 310 
Cathedral, 308 
Churches — 
S. Andrea, 312 
S. Maria delle Grazie, 317 
S. Sebastiano, 312 
Museo, 311 
Palazzo— 
Bianchi, 311 
Castiglione, 311 
Ducale, 309 
Guerrieri, 311 
della Ragione, 312 
del T6, 313 
Piazza Dante, 312 

delle Erbe, 312 
S. Pietro, 317 
Virgiliana, 311 
Ponte S. Giorgio, 311 
Torre della Gabbia, 308 
del Zuccaro, 308 
Malelica, ii. 417 
Menaggio, i. 199 
Mendrisio, i. 189 
Metaurus, the, ii. 391 
Milan, i. 121 — 163 

Arco della Pace, i. 151 

Archaeological Museum, 153 

Biblioteca Ambrosiana, 148 

Brera, the, 153 

Castello, 152 

Cathedral, 124 

Cenacolo of Leonardo da Vinci, 

14s 
Churches— 

S. Ambrogio, 130 

S. Carlo Borromeo, 150 

S. Celso, 138 

S. Eustorgio, 136 

S. Fedele, 150 

S. Giorgio in Palazzo, 130 

S. Giovanni in Conca, 142 

$. Lorenzo, 135 



INDEX. 



Milan — continued. 

S. Marco, 156 
S. Maria del Carmine, 152 
S. Maria delle Grazie, 145 
S. Maria presso S. Celso, 138 
S. Maurizio, 144 
8. Nazaro Maggiore, 138 
S. Pietro Martire, 136 
S. Satiro, 142 
S. Sempliciano, 151 
S. Sepolcro, 149 
S. Stefano in Broglio, 141 
Colonne di S. Lorenzo, 131 
Galleria Vittorio Emanuele, 139 
La Scala, Theatre of, 150 
Loggia degli Ossi, 145 
Ospedale Maggiore, 140 
Palazzo della Citta, 145 
del Ragione, 145 
Litta, 145 
Trivulzi, 139 
Piazza d'Armi, 151 

del Duomo, 129 
della Scala, 150 
del Tribunale, 145 
Seminario Arcivescovile, 150 
Mincio, the, i. 303 
Mirabouc, i. 105 
Modena, ii. 232 — 245 
Cathedral, 235 
Churches — 

S. Francesco, 244 
S. Giovanni Decollato, 245 
S. Maria Pomposa, 245 
S. Pietro, 244 
S. Vincenzo, 244 
La Ghirlandaja, 237 
Palazzo Ducale, 240 
Piazza Reale, 240 

Grande, 236 
Pinacoteca, 240 
University, 244 
Moncalieri, i. 89 
Monferrat, duchy of, i. 117 
Monselice, i. 361 
Monte-Aperto, iii. 297 
Montebello, i- 321 ; ii. 186 
Monte Berico, i. 331 
Montecatini, ii. 507 
Monte Catini, mines of, ii. 489 
Montecchio, i. 333 ; ii. 226 
Monte Chiaro, ii. 194 
Monte Conero, ii. 400 
Monte Corona, iii. 403 
Montefalco, iii. 417 
Monte Generoso, i. 189 



Montegrotto, i. 360 
Montelupo, iii. 248 
Monte Murlo, ii. 522 
Monte Nero, ii. 482 
Montepulciano, iii. 315 
Monteriggione, iii. 252 
Monte S. Bartolo, ii. 387 
Monte Venda, i. 358 
Monte Zago, ii. 204 
Montjovet, i. 109 
Monza, i. 179 
Moriano, ii. 504 
Murano, ii. 149 
Musso, i. 197 
Muzzano, lake of, i. 201 



N. 



Nervi, i. 58 
Nesso, i. 194 
Noli, i. 23 
Novalesa, i. 92 
Novara, i. 168 



O. 



Olera, i. 227 
Orta, lake of, 212 
Orvieto, iii. 321 
Osimo, ii. 401 



Padua, i. 335—358 

Archivio Pubblico, 341 
Baptistery, 342 
Cathedral, 342 
Churches — 

S. Antonio, 347 

S. Antonino, 351 

S. Bovo, 344 

Carmine, 338 

Eremitani, 353 

S. Francesco, 353 

S. Giorgio, 351 

S. Giustina, 345 

S. Maria dell' Arena, 353 

S. Maria Nuova, 351 

S. Maria in Vanzo, 344 
II Bo, 341 
Loggia del Consiglio, 339 

Municip>ale, 344 
Orto Botanico, 346 
Palazzo — 

del Capitan, 339 

del Municipio, 341 



INDEX. 



Padua — confin ued. 
Papafava, 344 
della Ragione, 340 
Piazza — 
S. Antonio, 347 
delle Erbe, 339 
delle FruitP, 339 
dei Signori, 339 
Prato della Valle, 344 
Scuola del Santo, 352 
Tomb of Antenor, 352 
Torre d' Ezzelino, 339 

b. Tommaso, 344 
University, 339 
Pallanza, i. 211 
Palmaria, island of, i. 65 
Parma, ii. 207 — 225 

Archaeological Museum, 219 
Baptistery, 216 
Camera di S. Paolo, 224 
Cathedral, an 
Churches— 

S. Alessandro, 218 
Annunziata, 225 
S. Giovanni Evangelista, 212 
S. Maria della Steccata, 217 
S. Sepolcro, 211 
CoUegio Lalatta, 211 
Palazzo Farnese, 219 

del Giardino, 225 
Pilotta, 225 
Piazza di Corte, 217 

Grande, 2n 
Pinacoteca, 220 
Teatro Farnese, 219 
Parola, ii. 206 
Passerino, iii. 411 
Pavia, i. 172 — 178 
Bridge, 177 
Castello, 175 
Cathedral, 173 
Churches — 
S. Croce, 174 
S. Francesco, 176 
S. Maria delle Carmine, 174 
S. Michele, 176 
S. Pietro in Cielo d'Oro, 174 
Collegio Ghislieri, 176 
Palazzo Malaspina, 174 
Tomb of S. Augustine at, 173 
University of, 175 
Pegli, i. 27 
Pelago, iii. 223 
Pella, i. 213 
Pelmo, the, i. 376 
Perarolo, i. 373 
Peretola, iii. 216 



Perugia, iii. 343—367 
Arco d'Augusto, 356 
Biblioteca Pubblica, 347 
Casa Baldeschi, 346 

di Pietro Perugino, 363 
Cathedral, 350 
Churches — 
S. Agnese, 358 
S. Agostino, 357 
S. Angelo, 357 
S. Antonio, 355 
S. Bernardino, 362 
S. Domenico, 364 
S. Ercolano, 363 
S. Francesco degli Conven- 
tual!, 362 
S. Francesco al Monte, 358 
S. Giuliana, 367 
S. Lorenzo, 356 
S. Maria Assunta, 356 
S. Maria di Monte Luco, 363 
S. Pietro dei Casinensi, 365 
S. Severo, 355 
Etruscan Museum, 362 
La Veduta, 367 
Palazzo Antinori, 356 

ConestabiU Staffa, 355 
Monaldi, 346 
Pubblico, 349 
Piazza del Papa, 353 

Sopramuro, 346 
Pinacoteca, 358 
Porta Manzia, 345 
Sala del Cambio, 347 
Tomb of the Volumnii, 368 
Torre degli Sciri, 363 
University, 358 
Pesaro, ii. 385 
Peschiera, i. 261 
Pescia, ii. 507 
Pesia, Certosa of, i. 95 
Petraja, iii. 218 
Piacenza, ii. 187 — 194 
Cathedral, 188 
Churches — 

S. Agostino, 193 
S. Antonio, 189 
S. Giovanni in Canale, 193 
S. Francesco, 198 
S. Maria della Campagna, 191 
S. Sejx)lcro, 191 
S. Sisto, 192 
S. Vincenzo, 189 
Hospital of S. Lazzaro, 193 
Palazzo Communale, 190 
Farnese, 192 
Piano, lake of, i. 199 






INDEX. 



Piccolo Paggi, i. 60 
Pienza, iii. 317 
Pietra Santa, i. 72 
Pinerolo, i. 103 
Pisa, li. 440 — 480 

Accademia delle Belle Arti, 471 
Baptistery, 451 
Campanile, 446 
Campo-Santo, 452 
Cascine, 479 
Cathedral, 416 
Churches — 
S. Biagio, 477 
S. Caterina, 475 
Cavalieri di S. Stefano, 472 
S. Francesco, 470 
S. Maria delle Spine, 468 
S. Matteo, 477 
S. Michele in Borgo, 479 
S. Niccola, 469 
S. Paolo del Orto, 476 
S. Paolo Ripa d'Arno, 478 
S. Pietro in Grado, 480 
S. Sepolcro, 477 
S. Sisto, 475 
Giardino Botanico, 470 
Palazzo Agostino, 469 
dei Banchi, 478 
Conventuale dei Cava- 
lieri, 475 
del Govemo, 478 
Gualandi, 475 
Lanfreducci, 469 
Pieracchi, 478 
Toscanelli, 478 
Ponte alia Fortezza, 477 
al Mare, 470 
del Mezzo, 469 
University, 469 
Pisogne, i. 228 
Pistoia, ii. 510—519 
Baptistery, 516 
Cathedral, 517 
Churches — 
S. Andrea, 517 
S. Bartolommeo, 511 
S. Domenico, 511 
S. Francesco, 517 
S. Giovanni Evangelista, 511 
S. Jacopo, 514 
S. Maria dell' Umilti, 518 
S. Paolo, 512 
S. Pietro Maggiore, 512 
S. Salvatore, 517 
Palazzo del Coniune, 513 

Pretorio, 514 
Piazza Maggiore, 513 



Po, river, i. 84, 85 
Poggibonsi, iii. 252 
Poggio a Cajano, iii. 216 
Puggio Imperiale, iii. 199 
Pontassieve, iii. 222 
Pontedera, iii. 251 
Ponte Felcino, iii. 402 
Ponte Grande, i. 210 
Ponte S. Martino, i. 108 
Poppi, iii. 227 
Porlezza, i. 199 
Porto, i. 201 
Porto Fino, i. 60 

Maurizio, i. 20 

Recanati, ii. 412 

Venere, i. 62 
Pozzolengo, i. 261 
Pra del lor, i. 261 
Prato, ii. 519 
Pratolino, iii. 197 
Prato Vecchio, iii. 246 

R. 

Racconigi, 94 
Radicofani, iii. 317 
Rapallo, i. 61 
Ravenna, ii. 295 — 352 

Arcivescovado, 320 

Biblioteca Communale, 323 

Cathedral, 320 

Churches — 
S. Agata, 323 
S. Apollinare Nuovo, 327 
S. Apollinare in Classe, 337 
S. Domenico, 315 
S. Francesco, 323 
S. Giovanni Battista, 303 
S. Giovanni Evangelista, 316 
S. Maria in Affrisco, 316 
S. Maria in Cosmedin, 303 
S. Maria Maggiore, 307 
S. Maria in Porta Fuori, 332 
S. Nazaro e Celso, 304 
S. Niccolo, 323 
S. Spirito, 302 
S. Teodoro, 302 
S. Vitale, 308 

Colonna dei Francesi, 348 

House of Byron, 349 

Mausoleum of Galla Placidia, 

3H 
Palazzo Communale, 317 
Guiccioli, 349 
Theodoric, of, 330 
Piazza dell' Aquila, 317 
S. Francesco, 324 



INDEX. 



Ravenna — contin ued. 

Maggiore, 317 
Pinacoteca, 321 
Tomb of Dante, 324 

the Exarch Isaac, 315 
Theodoric, 324 
Recanati, ii. 412 
Recoaro, i. 334 
Reggie, ii. 231 
Rho, i. 206 
Rimini, ii. 365—377 
Amphitheatre, 374 
Arch of Augustus, 373 
Bridge of Augustus, 373 
Castle of the Malatesti, 376 
Churches — 
S. Chiara, 374 
S. Francesco, 367 
S. Giuhano, 376 
Palazzo del Comune, 375 

Ruffo, 375 
Piazza Cavour, 374 

Giulio Cesare, 371 
Ripafratta, ii. 490 
Riva, i. 259 

Rocca di Fontenellato, ii. 206 
Rocca Silana, ii. 489 
Rora, i. 106 
Rovigo, i. 365 
Rubicon, the, ii. 350 
Rusina, ii. 226 
Ruta, i. 59 

S. 

Sacro Monte of Orta, i. 213 

Varallo, i. 213 
Varese, i. 202 

Sagro di S. Michele, i. 84 

S. Agostino, i. 6 
Ambrogio, i. 89 
Angelo in Vado, ii. 365 
Columba, tomb of, iii. 293 
Domenico di Fiesole, iii. 189 
Flora, mountain of, iii. 317 
Fruttuoso, convent of, i. 60 
Gimignano, iii. 302 — 311 
Giovanni Ilarione, i. 333 
Giuliano, ii. 490 
Giustino, iii. 407 
Leo, ii. 382 
Lxirenzo al Mare, i. 20 
Margherita, i. 60 
Maria Pomposa, ii. 352 
Marino, republic of, ii. 377 
Martino, i. 261 



S. Michele, Sagro di, i. 89 
Miniato, iii. 199 
Miniato del Tedeschi, iii. 251 
Niccolo, ii. 186 
Pierino, iii. 251 
Quirico, iii. 318 
Remo, i. 13 
Romolo, i. 16 
Salvatore, Monte di, i. 201 
Salvi, convent of, iii. 199 
Severino, ii. 417 
Stefano al Mare, i. 20 
Vivaldo, iii. 311 
Salarco, iii, 315 
Salo, i. 358 
Saluzzo, i. 94 
Sambonifazio, i. 321 
Sandria, i. 200 

Santuario, the, of Savona, i. 24 
Sarnico, i. 228 
Sarzana, i. 68 
Sarzanello, i. 69 
Sassoferrato, ii. 417 
Savigliano, i. 94 
Savignano, ii. 365 
Savona, i. 23 
Sennione, i. 255 
Serravalle, ii. 508 
berravezza, i. 73 
Sestri, di Levante, i. 61 
Settignano, iii. T98 
Shelley, death of, i. 67 
Siena, iii. 252 — 296 - 
Badia, La, 289 
Biblioteca Conimunale, 285 
Casa di S. Caterina, 276 

deir Opera, 272 
Cathedral, 265 
Churches^ 
S. Agostino, 287 
S. Ansano, 292 
S. Bernardino, 289 
Carmine, 288 
Concessione, 286 
S. Oistoforo, 285 
S. Domenico, 278 
Fonte Giusta, 290 
S. Francesco, 288 
S. Giovanni Battista, 273 
Osservanza, La, 293 
S. Quirico, 288 
Servi di Maria, 286 
S. Spirito, 286 
Collegio Tolomei, 288 
Fonte Branda, 276 
Gaja, 256 



INDEX. 



Siena — contin ued. 

Nuova, 289 
Hospital of S. Maria della Scala, 

273 
Istituto delle Belle Arti, 281 
Lizza, La, 289 
Loggia dei Nobili, 263 
del Pajaa, 263 
Palazzo Buonsignori, 287 
del Capitano, 264 
dei Diavoli, 294 
Grottanelli, 264 
Magnifico, 274 
Piccoloniini, 263 
Piccolomini delle Pa- 

pesse, 263 
Saracini, 263 
Spanocchi, 289 
University, 286 
Signa, iii. 215 
Sinalunga, iii. 314 
Sinigaglia, ii. 391 
Soci, iii. 241 
Solferrino, i. 256 
Spello, iii. 413 
Spezia, gulf of, i. 63 
Spotorno, i. 23 
Stresa, i. 207 
Stupinigi, i. 89 
Superga, La, i. 89 
Susa, i. 92 
Sylvano, i. 60 

T. 

Taggia, i. 17 
Tai Cad ore, i. 373 
Tavernola, i. 228 
Tenda, Col di, i. 95 
Terminara, i. 373 
Thrasymene, iii. 338 
Ticino, river, i. 177, 178 
Tolentino, ii. 416 
Torcello, ii. 153 
Tortona, ii. 185 
Toscolano, i. 358 
Trascorre, i. 227 
Trebbia, the, ii. 186 
Trissino, i. 333 
Turin, i. 74 — 86 

Accademia, 80 

Armoury, 77 

Cappuchin Convent, 85 

Cattiedral, 78 

Churches — 
Consolata, La, 79 



Turin — continued. 

Corpus Domini, 79 

S. Lorenzo, 79 

Madre di Dio, 85 

Superga, 87 
Palazzo — 

Carignano, 80 

Madama, 76 

Municipio, 79 

Reale, 77 

Valentino, 86 
Piazza — 

Carignano, 80 

Cario Alberto, 84 

Carlo Felice, 76 

Castello, 76 

di Citta, 79 

Savoia, 79 
Public Gardens, 85 

U. 

Urbino, ii. 420 — 431 

Accademia delle Belle Arti, 426 
Casa Santi, 427 
Cathedral, 425 
Churches — 

S. Bernardino, 429 
Francesco, 429 
Giovanni Battista, 429 
Spirito, 429 
Ducal Palace, 421 
Urbisaglia, ii. 417 
Uso, the, ii. 350 



Vado, i. 23 

Val di Camporciero, i. 108 
Valdagno, i. 333 
Valdieri, baths of, i. 95 
Valeggio, i. 302 
Valenza, i. 117 
Varallo, i. 213 
Varcnna, i. 196 
Varese, i. 20 
Varigotti, i. 23 
Venas, i. 376 
Venice, ii. i — 156 

Ahbazia della Misericordia, 109 

Accademia, 51 

Archasological Museum, 45 

Armenian Convent, 136 

Arsenal, 97 

Bridge of Sighs, 40 



JI^DEX. 



Venice — continued. 

Campanile, i6 

Campo — 
S. Angelo, 105 
S. Angelo Raffaello, 116 
S. Benedetto, 106 
S. Giovanni in Bragora, 100 
S. Maria, 131 
S. Maria Formosa, 82, 83 
S. Margherita, 117 
S. Paternian, 106 
S. Polo, 132 
S. Stefano, 105 
S. Zaccaria, 81 

Campiello Angaran, 119 

della Strof)e, 131 

Canareggio, the, 114 

Casa Businello, 66 
Ferro, 79 
Goldoni, 130 

Churches — 
S. Andrea, 119 
S. Angelo di Murano, 149 
S. Antonino, 82 
S. Aponal, 132 
S. Apostoli, 75, 109 
S. Biagio, 96 

S. Donato di Murano, 148 
S. Fosca di Torcello, 153 
S. Francesco delle Vigne, 92 
S. Geremia, 73 
S. Giacomo del Orio, 130 
S. Giacomo del Rialto, 68 
S. Giobbe, 114 
S. Giorgio, 135 
S. Giorgio dei Greci, 82 
S. Giovanni in Bragora, 99 
S. Giovanni Crisostomo, 107 
S. Giovanni e Paolo, 84 
S. Gregorio, 50 
S. Giuliano, 107 
S. Giuseppe di Castello, 94 
S. Lazaro, 91 
S. Luca, 105 
S. Marco, 19 
S. Marcuola, 73 
S. Maria del Carmine, 117 
S. Maria Formosa, 82 
S. Maria dei Frari, 125 
S. Maria dei Gesuiti, 109 
S. Maria Mater Domini, 131 
S. Maria dei Miracoli; 107 
S. Maria del Orto, no 
S. Maria della Salute, 47 
S. Maria Zobenigo, 103 
S. Martino, 99 



Venice — con tin ued. 

S. Marziale, no 

S. Maurizio, 104 

S. Moise, 103 

S. Niccol6 al Lido, 139 

S. Niccol6 al Tolentiuo, 119 

S. Pantaleone, 118 

S. Pietro di Castello, 94 

S. Pietro di Miuano, 149 

S. Polo, 132 

S. Raffaello, 116 

II Redentore, 134 

S. Rocco, 125 

S. Salvatore, 106 

I Scalzi, 72 

S. Silvestro, 67 

S. Simeone Grande, 70 

S. Spirito, 117 

S. Stae, 70 

S. Stefano, 104 

S. Trovaso, 115 

S. Vitale, 79 

S. Zaccaria, 80 
Corte del Maltese, 106 
del Sabion, 107 
del Rener, 75 
Doges of, 6 
Fondaco dei Tedeschi, 75 

dei Turchi, 71 
Frari, the, 125 
Giardini Papadopoli, 119 

Pubblici, 94 
Giudecca, the, 134 
Gondolas, 10 
Grimani Breviary, the, 41 
Islands — 

Burano, 149 

Castello, 102 

S. Elena, 138 

S. Giorgio, 135 

Giudecca, 134 

S. Lazaro, 136 

S. Michele, 145 

Mazzorbo, 149 

Murano, 146 

S. Niccold, 102 

Pelestina, 141 

S. Pietro, 93 

Poeggia, 141 

S. Servolo, 140 

Sotto Marina, 141 

Torcello, 150 
Libreria di S. Marco, 41 

Vecchie, 15 
Lido, the, 138 
Loggia sotto il Campanile, 17 



rXDEX. 



Ven ice — con tin ued. 
Museo Corner, 71 
Orto Botanico, 114 
Palazzo — 

Badoer, 100 

Balbi, 65 

Barbarigo delle Terrazze, 66 

Bembo, 82 

Benzon, "j-j 

Bernardo, 66 

Ca d'Oro, 74 

Camerlenghi, 70 

Capello, 132 

Cavalli, 77, 79 

Contarini, 78, 106 

Contarini delle Scrigni, 63 

CapKivilla, 71 

Corner della Ca Grande, 79 
della Regina, 70 
Spinelli, 78 

Dandolo, 76 

Dario, 51 

Dona, 66 

Ducale, 30 

Duodo, 71 

Emo, 79 

Erizzo, 74 

Falier, 108 
I Farsetti. ■j-j 

Fini, 79 

Foscari, 63 

Foscarini, 117 

Grassi, 78 

Grimani, 74, 77, 82 

Grimani a S. Polo, 65 

Giustiniani, 79 

Giustiniani Lonin, 78 

Labia, 73 

Loredan, 76, 105 

Manfrin, 73 

Manin, 76 

Manzoni, 51 

Marcello, 74 

Martinengo, 77 

Michele delle Colonne, 75 

Mocenigo, 78 

Moro Lin, 78 

Morosini, 75, 105 

Municipio, 77 

Persico, 65 

Pesaro, 70 

Pisani, 65, 105 

Polo, 107 

Rezzonico, 63 

Sagredo, 75 

Sanudo, 108 



Venice — continued. 
Tiepolo, 65 
Trevisan, 8 
Tron, 71 

Vendramin Calenghi, 73 
Zenobio, 117 
Papadopoli Gardens, 119 
Piazza S. Marco, 17 
Piazzetta, 15 
Pietra del Bardo, 16 
Piombi, the, 39 
Ponte del Corner, 131 
del Paradiso, 80 
S. Polo, 132 
del Rialto, 68 
del Sospiri, 40 
S. Tomi, 130 
Pozzi, the, 41 
Procuratie Nuove, 15 

Vecchie, 15 
Railway Station, 7 
Rialto, '67 

Scala del Giganti, 33 
Scuola degli Albanese, 104 

S. Giovanni Evangelista, 

132 
S. Marco, 91 
S.- Rocco, 119 
Statue of Bartolommeo Colle- 

one, 84 
Teatro Rossini, 106 
Torre del Orologio, 15 
Verona, i. 262 — 302 

Accademia Filarmonica, 280 
Amphitheatre, 299 
Arco dei Borsaii, 285 
del Leone, 299 
Baptistery, 288 
Castel S. Felice, 290 
S. Pietro, 289 
Vecchio, 280 
Cathedral. 286 
Churches — 

S. Anastasia, 268 
Bernardino, 281 
Elena, 288 
Eufemia, 285 
Fermo Maggiore, 297 
Giorgio in Braida, 291 
Giovanni in Fonte, 288 
in Valle, 291 
Maria Antica, 272 

della Campagna. 300 
Matricolare, 286 
in Organo, 292 
Nazzaro e Celso, 293 



INDEX. 



Verona — continued. 

S. Pietro Martire, 269 
Siro, 291 
Stefano, 290 
Tornmaso Cantuariense, 

292 
Zeno, 281 
Gardens — 
Giusti, 293 

of the Orfanotrofio, 299 
House of Giolfino, 285 
Museo Civico, 295 

Lapidario, 280 
Oratorio di S. Zenone, 284 
Palaces — 

Bevilacqua, 285 
Canossa, 285 
Cappelletti, 299 
del Consiglio, 271 
Giusti, 293 
della Guardia, 280 
Maffei, 278 
Ponipei, 295 
Portalupi, 285 
Piazza Bra, 279 

della Erbe, 278 
Navona, 271 
dei Signori, 270 
Pinacoteca, 295 
Ponte Acqua Morta, 298 
Castello, 280 
delle Navi. 297 
Nuovo, 292 
Pietra, 289 
Porta Stuppa, 280 
Tombs- 
Count of Castelbarco, 268 
The Scaligers, 272 
Vescovado, 288 
Walls, 300 
Viareggio, i. 73 
Vicenza, i. 321 — 333 
Basilica, 325 
Casa di Palladio, 327 
Pigafetta, 325 
di Ricoveio, 330 
Cathedral, 324 
Churches — 
S. Corona, 326 
S. Lorenzo, 330 
S. Maria al Monte, 331 



Vicen za — con tin ued. 
S. Pietro, 330 
S. Stefano, 326 
Museo Civico, 328 
Palazzo — 

Barbarano, 331 
Chiericati, 328 
Conte Porto al Castello, 324 
Loschi, 325 
Porto, 331 
della Ragione, 325 
Annibale Tiene, 325 
Marc Antonio Tiene, 331 
Valmarana, 331 
Rotonda Capra, 332 
Teatro Olimpico, 330 
Torre del Orologio, 325 
Villa Valmarana, 332 
Villa Carlotta, i. 194 
d'Este, i. 193 
Melzi, i. 196 
Pizzo, i. 193 
Pliniana, i. 193 
Villafranca, i. 302 
Villanuova, i. 321 
Villar, i. 104 
Vinchiana, ii. 504 
Vogliera, ii. 185 
Vogogna, i. 210 
Volterra, ii. 483 — 489 
Baize, le, 488 
Baptistery, 487 
Buche dei Saracini, 489 
Cathedral, 486 
Churches — 

S. Agostino, 488 
S. Francesco, 488 
S. Michele, 488 
S. Salvatore, 488 
Etruscan Museum, 485 
I Marmini, 489 
Palazzo Commijnale, 485 
Porta del Arco, 484 
di Diana, 489 
Villa Inghirami, 489 
Voltri, i. 27 
Vorazze, i. 27 

W. 

Waldenses, the, i. 96—107 



JOHN CHILDS AND SON, PRINTERS. 



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